Wastes photonic radiolysis
SUBSTANCE: invention discloses product from wastes obtaining method, including: a) providing wastes; b) effect of low-frequency macro wave radiation with wavelength in range from 700 nm to 1 mm on wastes, with achievement of temperature from 205 °C to 900 °C and pressure from 1.0 bar to 19.0 bar, to form coal therefore; wherein said wastes are subjected to radiation in reaction vessel with double metal wall, providing said reaction vessel outer metal wall heating by means of primary radiation source, heated to at least of 700 °C, as a result of which, said outer wall prevents heat energy transfer by conductivity and convection and as a result of which, external metal wall is secondary radiation source for said material contained within said internal metal wall; and wherein said wastes contain carbon in amount from 9 to 85 %, hydrogen in amount from 1 to 15 % and oxygen in amount from 0 to 65 % expressed as material dry mass. Invention also discloses version of product from wastes obtaining method and products obtained using said methods.
EFFECT: technical result consists in obtaining useful products from solid organic and inorganic wastes, which are produced by highly effective and energy-saving method, in which power, transmitted by radiation, exponentially increases with temperature of radiating heat source.
32 cl, 2 dwg, 3 ex, 9 tbl
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method for processing dewatered sludge of waste water treatment plants to fuel briquettes shaped as cylinders includes dosing and mixing of solid components and sludge produced by waste water treatment plants in mixer, formation of mixture and subsequent drying of briquette-shaped fuel; it is distinguished by delivery of prepared and mixed in mixer mass to special-purpose rotary-pulsing apparatus where mixture under pressure of 15-20 MPa is subjected to mechanical activation, homogenisation and restructuring; then it is hold within 2-3 hours, thereafter it is enriched by oil sludge and fed to moulding extruder; at that sludge of waste water treatment plants with water content of 55-25 % by weight is used; briquettes are dried at 70÷80°C during 30÷50 minutes or at room temperature during 2÷3 days till it reaches humidity of 17÷22%; at that shaped fuel contains the following components, by wt %: - fine solid components containing wooden and raw plant material, peat, coal slack - 40-70%, oil sludge - 5-6%, sludge of waste water treatment plants - remaining part.
EFFECT: produced fuel has high mechanical strength that allows reducing costs for its storage, loading, unloading and transportation.
1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermal depolymerisation of natural and secondary organic stock, for example, solid domestic wastes. Proposed method comprises stock loading with preliminary separation and grinding with drying. In differs from know processes in that drying is carried out jointly with catalyst low-cal natural fuel. Then, paste is prepared from ground material and solvent, i.e. distillate obtained in liquid products distillation. Note here that further step depolymerisation of reaction mass is performed at 200-400°C and normal barometric pressure at the cascade of to pairs of series reactors. Whereat depolymerisation temperature reaches 200°C in said first pair and 200-300°C in said second pair combined by circulating flows: gaseous flow forming in said reaction medium a reducing medium in the form of synthesis gas (CO and H2) formed by vapor catalytic conversion of hydrocarbon gases escaping from depolymerisation reactors and displaced by gas pump via heater of reducing gases from reaction system. Synthesis gas is discharged to produce motor fuels, i.e. methanol, dimethyl ether or gasoline. Liquid hydrocarbon phase is separated from solid unreacted components to allow their yield of 40% of total initial mass of solid wastes to be discharged from the system by circulation pumps and directed for production of oil briquettes and/or combustible capsules. Note here that said liquid reaction hydrocarbon mix is directed, after solid residue separation therefrom to hot separation, cooling and distillation. Besides, smaller portion of distillate is retuned to mixer for making paste at appropriate stage. While smaller portion is separated into target fractions: one with boiling point of up to 200°C and second with boiling point above 200°C but not over 310°C.
EFFECT: wasteless, non-polluting and efficient process.
1 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of recycling solid domestic wastes (SDW) into fuel for furnaces of high-temperature synthesis of a cement clinker, including sorting of initial SDW so that at first such incombustible fractions such as batteries, stones, fragments of glass and faience, then secondary materials are extracted, including ferrous and non-ferrous metals. The remaining mass is previously ground to the fraction of 50-100 mm, dried to humidity of 5-10%, and then ground to the fraction of 8-10 mm. The ground raw materials are heated to 160-200°C and exposed to thermoplastic extrusion to produce fuel pellets.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase physical and mechanical strength of RDF fuel, to eliminate water absorption due to capsulation of granules in process of their manufacturing, to prevent possibility of rotting and self-ignition, to reduce costs during storage and transportation, to reduce energy intensity of its production, to improve environment, also to reduce volume of SDW removed to SDW landfills, to eliminate capital costs for construction of plants for wastes management in connection with usage of equipment of existing cement production facilities.
1 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: composition for obtaining solid composite high-carbon fuel includes organic binding agent, coal and coke fillers. As organic binding agent there used is fermented residue formed as a result of anaerobic fermentation of organic animal residues, vegetation residues, domestic waste and sewage sludges. The following component ratio, wt %, is used: coal filler 10-80, coke filler 10-80, fermented residue is the rest.
EFFECT: use of the composition allows simplifying the technology and increasing the efficiency of preparation process of the composition for obtaining solid composite high-carbon fuel, reducing ash content of the obtained composite fuel, increasing ecological properties of the process and reducing financial costs.
12 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: manufacturing method of solid fuel made from industrial and domestic waste consists in the fact that industrial and domestic wastes are divided into three groups at the first step. The first group includes large-sized metal objects, cords and hazardous substances which are removed from total weight of basic objects for manufacturing of solid fuel and then they are disposed. The second group includes large-sized industrial and domestic wastes. The third group contains the wastes which are less than 150 mm as per overall dimensions. At the second step the wastes of the second group are placed in screw crusher for decreasing their overall dimensions to less than 150 mm. At the third step the wastes of the second and the third group are supplied to horizontal crushing plant to decrease their volume. At the fourth step, lime is added to wastes obtained in horizontal crushing plant. Moulding of round briquettes is performed at high pressure and temperature and their drying so that final product is obtained with diametre of 15-30 mm, 30-150 mm long, calorific value of more than 6000 kcal/kg and combustion temperature of more than 1100 deg/C.
EFFECT: simplifying manufacturing procedure of solid fuel from industrial and domestic wastes.
FIELD: production processes.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation of solid bio-waste products containing cells and water related to cells and their delivery to the following stages: arrangement of sufficient pressure in solid bio-waste products for maintaining of fluidity; heating of solid bio-waste products under pressure up to first temperature sufficient for cells breakage and release of water related to cells and extraction of carbon dioxide from solid bio-waste products with formation of suspension of carbonised material containing carbonised broken cells of solid bio-waste products; cooling of suspension; release of pressure in suspension by means of carbon dioxide separation; removal of at least some part of water related to cells released from suspension, this results in production of at least partially dehydrated product form carbonised cells of solid bio-waste products. In the other version method includes preparation of biomass containing at least 10% of water; suspending of biomass for getting of run through suspension using method chosen among grinding, adding of fresh or recirculated water, water vapour and their combination; use of biomass of sufficient pressure in suspension for maintaining of fluidity and biomass formation under pressure; heating of biomass under pressure up to first temperature sufficient for formation of water suspension of carbonised material, carbon dioxide and free water; cooling of suspension of carbonised material; release of pressure in suspension of carbonated material from biomass; separation of carbon dioxide from suspension of carbonated mass; and removal of at least some part of free water from suspension of carbonated biomass, this results in production of dehydrated carbonised biomass with reduced oxygen content.
EFFECT: invention allows removing silt in economic and environment-friendly way with production of renewable fuel with positive calorific capacity.
40 cl, 2 ex, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method and system for solid fuel recycled generation, including the first component representing dry fraction of crushed consume recycle solids, and at least one second crushed component selected from of elastomeric and thermoplastic polymer material, or their mixtures. At that consume recycle solids, elastomeric polymer material and/or thermoplastic polymer material are held in separate containers and as and when necessary are ladled and supplied as overlapped layers to continuous running carrier that provides unloading to temporary storage unit, e.g. car body, for direct delivery to combustion plant. Thus, there is no necessity for premixing of various fractions of recycled solid fuel in production stage and in constant agitation of produced mixture for prevention of consolidation and/or division of fractions. Actually, agitation of various fractions occurs only in the end of production method when recycled solid fuel is unloaded to temporary storage unit where it is delivered to combustion plant.
EFFECT: development of effective method of recycled solid fuel production.
29 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns obtaining of moulded fuel, particularly of carbonaceous mouldings in the briquette or pellet form made of organic carbonaceous waste. Additionally, carbonaceous mouldings can be used in agriculture as fertiliser and/or soil structure-forming agent. The process involves proportioning, activation mixing of the components, activated component moulding under the pressure of 120 MPa to obtain carbonaceous mouldings. Organic carbonaceous waste includes lignine and/or sewage treatment sediments, and/or animal manure, and/or bird droppings. The components or their mix are dried to 40% dampness before moulding, either by direct contact with drying medium containing up to 14 mass % of oxygen with the components or their mix; or without direct contact with the drying medium heated up to 500°C.
EFFECT: fast adhesion of organic carbonaceous component particles in mouldings and higher moulding solidity due to the optimal component dampness and moulding pressure.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: reworking 0f domestic and industrial wastes town dumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in profiling the dump territory in the course of accumulation, excavation and sorting-out of garbage at simultaneous separation of scrap metal, stones and incombustible building wastes. After profiling the territory, dump is divided into technological sites which are covered with peat (and sawdust if available). Sorting-out of garbage is performed by means of layer-by-layer cyclic surface reworking of technological sited by detents of rotary stump pullers and then by working members of stone-picking road-building machines at simultaneous mixing of peat (and sawdust if available) with garbage in depth of sites and shaking of coarse and then fine scrap metal, stones and incombustible building wastes in separators. Then garbage is loaded in bins of machines for removal from dump. Cleaned garbage is subjected to surface grinding by means of layer-by-layer milling with the aid of peat milling machines. Milled garbage crumb is subjected to drying together with peat and sawdust under action of solar radiation in summer or freezing-out in winter, after which it is stacked for storage and making briquettes used as domestic fuel. Device proposed for reworking garbage includes complex of profiling and hoisting machines, sorting-out site and briquetting presses. Sorting-out site is made in form of technological sites covered with peat and sawdust (if available). Technological base consists of peat machine complex cyclically working on technological site covered with peat (and sawdust if available); technological base is made from complex which includes rotary stump puller with separator and collecting bin for coarse scrap metal, stones and incombustible building wastes, stone picking machine with separator and collecting bin for fine scrap metal, stone and incombustible building materials, peat agitators, swath collectors and milled peat picking machines for regular gathering of dried crumb which is subjected to briquetting in peat presses.
EFFECT: possibility of removal of garbage accumulated in dumps during 10-15 years; enhanced ecological safety; low cost of method.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for manufacture of multiple products from aquatic plant species biomass. Biomass is obtained, destroyed and separated to produce juice and solid phase; the juice is filtered and clarified. Protein is coagulated from the clarified juice to produce broth including a wet protein concentrate. The said concentrate is separated from broth. The wet protein concentrate is dried to obtain dry protein concentrate. The solid phase is used for wet biological raw materials production. The said biological raw materials are dried to produce at least one product selected from among dry biological raw materials and meal rich in carbohydrates. At least 50% of protein in the multiple products is present in dry protein concentration.
EFFECT: method is environmentally friendly and allows production of multiple products selected from among dry biological raw materials and meal rich in carbohydrates.
35 cl, 39 dwg, 7 tbl, 25 ex
FIELD: wood working industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of deep processing of wood sawdust and leaves without chemical cementing components, characterized by that they are sieved for removal of large-size elements, loaded into a dryer for decrease of humidity down to 10%, crushed until obtaining of a mix of particles with the size less than 15 mm and the volume no more than 0.5-1.0 cm3, formed, pressed at the pressure 120-140 kg/cm2 and the temperature 250-350°C without air access. The invention describes also the briquette obtained by the named method.
EFFECT: obtaining robust briquettes from wood sawdust and leaves, without using the chemical cementing components.
5 cl, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to solid fuel from wood and paper, composition of which includes wood chips with size from 1 to 50 mm (component A), paper cuttings with size from 1 to 50 mm (component B), binding substance in form of starch, obtained from sea algae (component C-1), shape-forming substance in form of natural caoutchouc (component C-2) and increasing calorific ability additive in form of substance, which contains vegetable oil (component D); said mixture of components is subjected to press moulding, with the total quantity of components A and B constituting from 15 to 45 weight parts counted per 100 weight parts of mixture, the total quantity of components C-1, C-2 and D constitutes from 55 to 85 weight parts counted per 100 weight parts of mixture, and weight ratio of component A to component B constitutes from 20:80 to 80:20.
EFFECT: reduction of formation of harmful gases and harmful residual products in the process of burning, as well as in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions.
10 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: inventions can be used for the lignocellulosic material processing. The lignocellulosic material roasting method involves drying of the lignocellulosic material in a dryer (2). The dried lignocellulosic material is supplied to a roasting reactor (5), where a reaction is performed at the pressure of 1 to 50 bars and at a temperature of 100 to 1000°C with the formation of the roasted biomass and roasting gas. The roasting gas is returned to the roasting reactor (5) via pipelines (7). The roasted biomass is cooled in a cooler (29) operating at the absence of oxygen and containing an inert gas supply line (17). Additional inert gas is supplied to the cooler (29) as well. The inert gas is supplied from the cooler (29) in a flow (31) to a cyclone (32), where it is separated from solid particles, and then, it is returned to the cooler in a flow (36) and to the roasting reactor (5) in a flow (18).
EFFECT: inventions allow increasing the operating safety of a unit, its efficiency and environmental friendliness of the process.
20 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of fuel briquettes including grinding of wood wastes, their mixing, drying and pelletizing. Note here that briquette comprises an extra element composed of core of compacted asp saw dust with hole for drawbar.
EFFECT: higher calorific capacity, higher ecological and fire safety at application, transportation and storage.
FIELD: physics; control.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to systems for controlling pressure and temperature of a reactor and can be used in reactors containing an aqueous solution at temperature close to the boiling point of the solution. The system for controlling pressure and temperature of chemical reactor, in which a hydrothermal biomass carbonisation reaction takes place, includes: a) a reservoir 21 with at least one pressure control device, b) a connecting pipe between the reservoir 21 and the reactor 18 and c) a device for injecting condensates into the reactor.
EFFECT: invention enables to use process water to reduce reactor temperature, reduces the cost of cleaning and maintaining the system and provides pressure and temperature stability.
24 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of manufacturing briquettes of straw of grain crops, which is shredded and then compacted, at that the shredded straw is preliminary dried to a moisture content of 15-20%, and then is fed to a screw extruder and is gradually compressed up until it is heated to a temperature above the 290°C and its density is no more than 1.3 g/cm3, then the resulting mass is extruded in the form of a cylinder having a uniform structure, and during the extrusion a constant temperature not exceeding 340° is maintained in the forming die of the extruder. Also the device for manufacturing briquettes from shredded straw is disclosed.
EFFECT: resulting briquettes have a uniform stable form, which does not change during long-term storage.
3 cl, 2 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an agent for ignition, comprising a plurality of spiral twisted fibres of combustible material coated with agent improving combustion, applied by spraying method, at that the means for ignition comprises an inner part and an outer part, and the outer part density ranges from 0.03 to 0.13 kg/m3, and the inner part density is from about 0.15 to 0.5 g/cm3, at that the fuel material is wood, a the agent improving combustion is wax. The invention also relates to a method of manufacturing the agent for ignition, according to which the initial twisting of fibres of combustible material is carried out to obtain a rope, the agent improving combustion is applied to the rope by spraying method, the final twisting of the rope is carried out to the desired density, and the rope is divided into pieces of suitable length.
EFFECT: present invention can be used to facilitate ignition of wood, coal and other combustible materials in furnaces, fireplaces, fires, etc.
10 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to making the granules or briquettes from lignine-bearing material. Proposed process includes the steps that follow. Said lignine-bearing material with moisture content under 30 wt % is fed into reactor. Said material is heated to 180-235°C by steam injection into reactor for 1-12 minutes. Pressure is dropped to form processed material to granules or briquettes. Invention relates also to lignine-bearing granule or briquette used as fuel source and produced as indicated above. Besides, it relates to production of granules or briquettes from biomass. This process includes the steps that follow. Material with moisture content under 30 wt % is fed into reactor, said material is heated to 180-235°C by steam injection into reactor for at least 1 minute, pressure is dropped to form processed material to granules or briquettes.
EFFECT: better physical properties, ease of transportation and storage, higher output power of fuel combustors.
24 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device for briquetting of biowaste of animals and birds, comprising a loading hopper, a conical auger installed in the hollow body, a scraper conveyor arranged in the lower part of the body, a spring-loaded plate in the form of a ski is installed at the side of the conical auger top at the outlet from the body. It additionally comprises a mixer made of a body, nozzles for input of a filler and an aggregate, besides, along the vertical axis of the mixer body there is a rotor with blades arranged at the angle to each other, the lower part of the mixer via the gate and the pipeline is connected to the lower part of the device for mixing of the material with the binder made of a body and a nozzle of binder injection, inside the body on its opposite sides there are two augers in the form of a spiral with the opposite winding rotating with the help of electric motors, at the outer side of the device body for mixing along its perimeter there is a coil with a coolant. Blades installed on the rotor of the mixer have the shape of a rectangular triangle. Application of the proposed device makes it possible to use biowaste of animals (manure, dung), and also to use local resource in the form of easily available and environment-safe materials.
EFFECT: produced briquettes are used for heat production.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of processing organic raw material into fuel includes thermochemical processing of raw material in fast pyrolysis reactor with further condensation of steam-gas mixture in condenser-refrigerator, separation of fractions of liquid hydrocarbons and fuel gas from it, with their further purification, characterised by the fact that temperature of steam-gas mixture is supported at the level 450-700°C on the way of its transportation from reactor to input into condenser-refrigerator, with steam-gas mixture being first condensed with hot water with temperature 0-65°C with ratio water:steam-gas mixture = 2÷1 - 3÷1; formed fuel gas is removed from condenser-refrigerator, re-cooled with separating water from it by water steam condensation, and supplied to fast pyrolysis; after filling reservoir of condenser-refrigerator with water and reduction of temperature to 65°C water with liquid fuel from light hydrocarbons is discharged from it, with resinous precipitate being dissolved by bioethanol with mixing by mixer for 30-40 min.
EFFECT: obtaining pyro-liquid with combustion heat 28-32, with obtaining pyrogas and realisation of dissolution of resinous substances.
5 cl, 4 ex