Cooling method and device
FIELD: refrigerating equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to same object (1) cooling device and method. Object is subjected to cooling by means of several arranged in parallel cooling and/or liquefaction (L/R) devices. In cooling and/or liquefaction (L/R) devices same working gas with low molecular weight is used, that is, having average total molecular weight of less than 10 g/mol, such as gaseous helium. Each cooling and/or liquefaction (L/R) device comprises working gas compression station (2) and refrigerating chamber (3). Refrigerating chamber (3) is intended for cooling of working gas at compression station (2) outlet to cryogenic temperature close to working gas liquefaction temperature. Working gas is cooled by means of each of corresponding refrigerating chambers (3), is input into heat exchange with object (1). One compression station (2) provides compression of working gas for each of corresponding individual refrigerating chambers (3). Compression station (2) comprises only compression machines (EC1, EC2, EC3) of screw machines type with forced lubrication and oil separation system (4, 14).
EFFECT: technical result is higher compactness and efficiency.
11 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: personal use articles.
SUBSTANCE: refrigerating device comprises three zones (1, 2, 3) of storage, isolated from each other and cooled with evaporators through which the coolant flows, and the first circuit (9, 7) of the coolant passes through the first zone (1) of storage and the second zone (2) of storage of the three zones of storage, and the second circuit (10, 8) of the coolant, parallel to the first circuit (9, 7) of the coolant, passes through the first and the third zones (1, 3) of storage. The first zone (1) of storage in both circuits of the coolant is a zone of storage located upstream.
EFFECT: easy distribution of refrigerating capacity to various zones of storage.
8 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: refrigerating unit is arranged with a refrigerating contour (15) comprises two parallel arranged evaporators (16, 17), and also with a compressor (22). Evaporators (16, 17) cool refrigerating chambers (12, 13), which are thermally separated from each other. The compressor (22) is arranged as capable of supplying a coolant into both evaporators (16, 17) separately from each other. In case of demand for cold in the first of the chambers (12, 13), with a higher temperature, at the preparation stage at first the coolant is supplied, at least, into the evaporator (17, 16) of the second chamber (13, 12) having lower temperature. Then the refrigerating contour to this evaporator (17, 16) is closed, and the coolant is supplied to the evaporator (16, 17) of the first chamber (12, 13), having higher temperature. The preparation stage is in process until work done by the compressor (22) exceeds the limit value, or the compressor (22) efficiency exceeds the limit value.
EFFECT: invention provides for simple and efficient operation of a refrigerating unit.
13 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: refrigerating unit is provided with cooling circuit containing several evaporation sections and distributor (5). The latter distributes cooling agent in evaporation sections. Distributor (5) has controlled valve (12) for each evaporation section. Valves (12) are provided with possibility of their being controlled with control device, with possibility of controlling various valves (12) in a different way. Control device controls only one valve (12) so that it has the feedthrough hole which is bigger than that of other valves.
EFFECT: improving the operation of refrigerating unit.
13 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: refrigerating device with inner cavity enclosed in heat-insulating casing includes evaporator with a number of plate heat exchange elements (1). The latter (1) divide inner cavity into compartments. Feeding and suction lines include risers (6, 7) located perpendicular to plate heat exchange elements. Each plate heat exchange element (1) is connected on the side of the inlet to common feeding line, and on the side of the outlet - to common suction line. Cooling agent flows parallel through plate heat exchange elements. Riser (6) of feeding line is continued downwards after attachment point (4) of the lowest plate heat exchange element (1). Riser (7) of suction line is continued after attachment point (5) of the lowest plate heat exchange element (1), or after the attachment point of discharge line (9) located in lower part of riser (7).
EFFECT: decreasing temperature gradient in inner cavity of cooling device.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: heat engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to furnaces' structure and can be used for equipping of bathhouse, for heating of house, for food preparation. Furnace contains case, fire chamber with ashpit, chamber with heat-accumulating loading, fume-collecting chimney, connected to fire chamber and outfitted by damper. Lower fire chamber of furnace it is implemented cavity. Furnace is outfitted by additional chimney, installed in fire chamber vertically in space between furnace case and side wall of chamber with heat-accumulating loading and communicated with specified cavity, herewith axis of additional chimney is shifted relative to axis of fume-collecting chimney. Between furnace case and chamber with heat-accumulating loading it is implemented gas flue, connected to specified cavity, where it is located eddy generator- volute, connected to additional chimney, herewith top opening of additional chimney is connected to fume-collecting chimney with the ability of smoke fumes movement at closed damper by gas flue, cavity, volute and additional chimney. Furnace is outfitted by air duct in the form of pipeline, located in volute and additional chimney lengthwise its axis and outfitted by valve at the end of pipeline, located out of furnace's case.
EFFECT: providing of more complete burning of fuel, increasing of thermal return of furnace, reduction of fuel consumption.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: method of cold generation, as per which a cooling agent is evaporated subsequently in an evaporator, its pressure is increased in a compressor, cooled and condensed in a condenser. After that, its pressure is decreased and it is returned to the evaporator. Cooling agent pressure is decreased during a periodic process. It involves the following: accumulation of a cooling agent leaving the condenser in a tank before its filling, pumping-out with a compressor of cooling agent vapours from the tank till the pressure is achieved in it, which is equal to pressure in the evaporator, and supply of the rest cooling agent in the tank to the evaporator.
EFFECT: increasing refrigerating factor of refrigerating machines and a conversion factor of heat pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the cooling consumer device with the automatic defrosting, in particular, for home use. This cooling device contains internal compartment for food storage, made by thermoformed section, refrigerating chamber with evaporator and fan for air circulation inside the specified internal compartment. This device contains passage for the cooling air supply by fan to the specified cooling consumer device. Specified passage is provided during thermal forming of the specified thermoformed section. Plate is connected with the thermoformed section to close passage and contains pair of parallel branches passing insides the passage. The sealing elements are made out of sponge material, and are located in the passage, they are installed between the thermoformed section and plate branches to prevent the cooling air leaks. Also, manufacturing method of the cooling consumer device is described.
EFFECT: group of inventions increases efficiency and economic feasibility of the cooling consumer device.
11 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat-exchange compositions, used in cooling systems and heat-transmitting devices. Heat-exchange composition includes, at least, approximately 45 wt % of trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (R-1234ze(E)), to approximately 10 wt % of carbon dioxide (R-744) and from approximately 2 to approximately 50 wt % of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R-134a).
EFFECT: combination of required properties of good cold productivity; low combustibility, low greenhouse potential value WGP with improved miscibility with lubricating materials (lubricants) in comparison with existing refrigerants, such as R-134a and R-1234yf.
59 cl, 1 dwg, 30 tbl
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to compressors to be used in cooling systems. A piston compressor to be used in a cooling vapour compression system comprises the first and the second inlet manifolds, the first and the second piston compression units, an outlet manifold and the first pulse valve. The inlet manifolds divide the flow entering the compressor. The first and the second piston compression units receive the flow from the first and second inlet manifolds respectively. The outlet manifold collects and distributes the compressed cooling agent from the compression units. The first pulse valve is installed outside the first inlet manifold to control the cooling agent flow in the first inlet manifold. Another implementation version implies that the second valve is installed outside the second inlet manifold to control the flow in the second inlet manifold, and the first and the second valves are controlled by a controller. The controller actuates the first valve with variable width of pulses with their interval being less than the operating inertia of the cooling vapour compression system.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplified design of a compressor.
15 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to refrigerating equipment. cooling method of a sealed unit of a compression refrigerator involves moistening of a condenser surface. The condenser surface and the compressor housing surface is sprinkled with an air-and-water mixture with further blowing; activation/deactivation of the condenser and/or compressor surface blowing is performed by a controller based on measured temperature values of the unit components.
EFFECT: increasing cooling intensity of compressor and condenser surfaces.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing of solid domestic wastes. Proposed method comprises collection of wastes in metallic container, loading containers with wastes into the kiln, heating and kilning the wastes by steam-gas heat carrier consisting of hydrocarbon gas combustion products mixed with steam and air at the pressure of steam-gas heat cattier exceeding barometric pressure, discharging container with kilned wastes and emptying them. Amount of steam in heat carrier in kilning is kept within 15%-45%, steam-gas heat carrier temperature makes 500-600°C. Pressure of steam-gas heat cattier exceeds barometric pressure by 20-100 Pa.
EFFECT: fast decontamination in emergent situations.
6 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: control method of one or more compressors (12) used for compression of one or more gas flows (10) at normal operating temperature. At least one cooling agent compressor (12) is equipped with steam recirculation pipeline (30). Initial flow (10a) for the compressor is obtained as a result of combination of recirculation steam flow (30) from steam recirculation pipeline (30) and at least partially evaporated cooling agent flow (8). Initial flow (10a) for the compressor is passed through inlet separator (11) to obtain gas flow (10) for the compressor, which is passed through cooling agent compressor(s) (12). Inlet temperature T1 of gas flow (10) is determined for the compressor, and cooling agent flow cooling is controlled depending on temperature T1 to obtain gas flow (10) for the compressor at normal operating temperature at least of one cooling agent compressor (12).
EFFECT: use of the invention will allow independent control of temperature of the initial flow entering the compressor.
21 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: refrigerating system includes a compressor acting at the speed of a compressor between the first speed and the second speed for supply of flow of compressed fluid medium to a header under the compressor pressure, and a condenser interconnected as to fluid medium with the header to receive compressed fluid medium. A fan of the condenser operates at speed of the fan between minimum speed of the fan and maximum speed of the fan to direct the cooling flow to the condenser to cool down compressed fluid medium, and an evaporator installed to receive compressed fluid medium flow and acting to cool down the second fluid medium. Controller operates at least partially based on the measured temperature of the second fluid medium and measured temperature of cooling flow to determine desired pressure and change the speed of the compressor and speed of the fan so that the compressor pressure is equal to desired pressure.
EFFECT: use of the invention will allow improving the efficiency under variable conditions.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: conditioner (1) comprising a coolant circuit (10), including a compression mechanism (21), a heat exchanger (23) on the side of a heat source, an expansion mechanism (24) and a heat exchanger (41) on the usage side, and also an electromagnet induction heating device (6), which heats a tube (10f) for coolant and/or an element in thermal contact with coolant, passing via the tube, a control unit (11) and a fan on the side of the heat source. The control unit sets the heating device (6) into the condition of forced shutdown, if any of the conditions specified below is met: the condition, when the difference between the temperature set inside the room and temperature inside the room is less than the specified temperature or the compression mechanism is stopped; and the condition, when low pressure reduction is controlled, high pressure reduction is controlled, inverter outlet tube temperature reduction is controlled, inverter electric current reduction is controlled, pressure difference to compression ratio protection is controlled, inverter electric current/temperature reduction is controlled, or total electric current reduction is controlled, or when status of alarm on gas shortage is active.
EFFECT: using the invention will save energy by prevention of operation efficiency drop.
3 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: conditioner (1) uses a refrigerating cycle comprising a compressor (21) which provides circulation of the coolant, and a tube (F) for the coolant, covered with a magnetic tube (F2) around the periphery, and comprises a coil (68), an electromagnetic induction thermoresistor (14) and a controller (11). The coil (68) generates a magnetic field for induction heating of the magnetic tube (F2). The electromagnetic induction thermoresistor (14) detects the temperature of the coolant which passes through the accumulating unit (F), which is at least one part of the refrigerating cycle. The controller (11) allows the generation of a magnetic field by means of the electromagnetic field generator when the condition of permit of generation of electromagnetic field is met. The condition of permit of generation of electromagnetic field is a condition where the temperature detected by the electromagnetic induction thermoresistor varies between two states of the output signal of the compressor (21).
EFFECT: conditioner can prevent excessive temperature increase of the coolant even when the coolant is heated by electromagnetic induction heating method.
11 cl, 28 dwg
FIELD: refrigeration industry; cooling installations components.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the field of cooling installations equipment and may be used for production of air conditioning systems. The gas compressor contains a body and located in it two driving and two driven pistons. The body is made out of two hemispheres and contains two gaskets made out of an antifriction heat-insulating elastic-flexible material. Each piston is made in the form of ball-type sectors, on a spherical surface of each of which there is an elastic member. An aperture angle of lateral surfaces of the sectors of the driving pistons makes 86° - 90°, and an aperture angle of the lateral surfaces of the sectors of the driven pistons makes 42°-83°. A groove is made radial with trapezoidal cross-section and oriented perpendicularly to axes of the shaft of the compressor. The bases of the cross-section are in ratio of 1:2 - 1:5, and a lateral side is equal to the length of the smaller base. The elastic member is located on the bottom of each groove and its cross-section is an ellipse. The bigger diameter of the ellipse by 3-7 % is more than the length of the centerline of the trapezoidal cross-section of such a groove. On the elastic member there is the second elastic member of a rectangular cross section, the width of which by 2-5 % exceeds the length of the smaller base of the groove, and its length ensures formation of a ledge on the ball-type surface of the piston, the height of which makes 1-3 % of the smaller base of the groove. The invention allows to increase efficiency of the gas compressor.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increased efficiency of the gas compressor.
FIELD: refrigeration equipment, particularly using carbon-dioxide.
SUBSTANCE: compression refrigeration machine preferably using carbon-dioxide as refrigerant comprises compressor, heat exchanger, cooler (condenser), expander, liquid coolant separator linked to inlet compressor pipe by pipeline. Pipeline is provided with automatic butterfly valve maintaining constant pressure upstream butterfly valve. Machine also includes pump, connected to electric motor and linked to expander by its shaft, and evaporator. Separator has opened vapor cavity and is installed in air-tight case together with expander and liquid coolant pump. Liquid coolant pump is connected to electric motor and to expander shaft by microprocessor-operated electromagnetic clutches. Microprocessor is linked to compressor.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; refrigerating units of transport facilities proper and cargo carried in them.
SUBSTANCE: proposed refrigerating plant has compressor, condenser, throttling unit and one or several evaporators. Used as working medium is liquid whose boiling point exceeds ambient temperature, for example water, mixture of water and ethyl alcohol or low-boiling organic fluids. Proposed plant is equipped with turbo-compressor. Working pressure inside system is maintained below atmospheric pressure. Rarefaction is maintained by periodic discharge of working medium vapor from condenser by means of additional compressor or vacuum pump. Working medium vapor discharged from condenser is fed to suction air branch pipe of engine. Entrainment separator is mounted between evaporators and compressor. Check valve is fitted between compressor and condenser. Vacuum hoses are used as parts of piping.
EFFECT: avoidance of penetration of ecologically toxic refrigerants into surrounding atmosphere; possibility of connecting many evaporators.
FIELD: refrigeration equipment, particularly used to utilize secondary energy and natural source energy having low potential, namely for combined heat and cold production.
SUBSTANCE: refrigeration plant comprises body, turbine, compressor, supply pump, evaporative and condensation chambers and capillary system for working liquid throttling. The body is separated into power and cooling sections by solid partition. Evaporative, working and condensation chambers are created in the power section. Inside surfaces of side evaporative chamber walls and partition are covered with wick. Inner surface of end wall is provided with grooves and covered with thin porous material layer. Shaft extends through body walls, power and cooling sections, solid partition and wick layers. Feed pump rotor is put on shaft end so that the pump is communicated with working liquid reservoir. Arranged in cooling sections are low-temperature evaporative chamber and compressive condensation chamber communicated by compressor to which vapor flow is fed. Compressor rotor is put on shaft.
EFFECT: increased performance.