Method of producing plastic scintillators based on polystyrene granules
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to detecting ionizing radiations and can be used for making cheap scintillation detectors in the widest range of dimensions and thickness. Manufacturing method of plastic scintillators based on polystyrene granules involves drying and powdering the granules with scintillation additives with subsequent melting of the powdered granules, herewith melting of the granules is performed in placed in a vacuum furnace open forms determining the shape of scintillation articles at evacuation and filling the working volume of the furnace with an inert gas. All surfaces of the scintillators made as per the claimed method, except the open surface, are cast copies of surfaces of the melting formes material – polished stainless steel, i.e. mirror ones. Open surface when performing the technical regulations is also a mirror and in most cases does not require additional machining.
EFFECT: possibility of production of scintillation strips of significant thickness, which do not require additional machining.
1 cl, 2 ex
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to image forming systems based on emitted energy. An electromagnetic radiation detection system comprises a double-screen detector housing, having three adjacent side walls which form a front side region, a second side region and a third side region; the walls of the three sides are joined to each other at an angle, such that they enclose a volume having the shape of a triangular prism, and each side wall has an inner surface; a substrate placed on each of said inner surfaces of the first and second side walls, wherein each substrate further includes an active region for receiving and converting electromagnetic radiation into light, thereby forming the detector screens; and a photodetector placed in the immediate vicinity of the third side wall, wherein said photodetector has a light-sensitive active region.
EFFECT: high efficiency of detecting radiation.
26 cl, 13 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be applied in the production of sensitive elements of a gamma- and roentgen radiation detector. Scintillation monocrystals La(1-m-n)HfnCemBr(3+n), where m is the molar part of La substitution with cerium (0.0005≤m≤0.3), n is the molar part of La substitution with hafnium (0≤n≤0.015), are obtained from a mixture of metal bromides. The charge is loaded in a quartz ampoule with inoculum, the ampoule is vacuumised, soldered, placed in a growth installation, heated to the charge melting, exposed until an equilibrium condition is set in the liquor, a monocrystal is grown by the creation of a gradient temperature section in the ampoule and cooled, with the application of a multi-zone growth installation with the electrodynamic movement of a temperature gradient in the longitudinal-axial direction. To melt the charge the temperature of the installation heater in the zone of the inoculum t1 is selected from the interval of 685°C<t1<720°C, the temperature of the following heater t2 - from the interval of 770°C≤t2≤790°C. After the charge melting the ampoule is exposed for not less than 10 hours, the monocrystal growing is realised by the movement of the temperature gradient along the longitudinal axis of the installation at a rate of 0.3 mm/h≤vtg≤0.5 mm/h. Boundary values of temperatures of so-called cold tcz and hot thz zones of the gradient section are selected from the intervals of 720°C<tcz≤740°C and 790°C≤thz≤820°C, with the ampoule cooling being realised at a rate of not higher than 15°C/h.
EFFECT: accuracy of supporting temperature fields, stability of their movement at all stages of the crystal growth, strict control of temperature and time parameters of the growth process, obtaining monocrystals with specified optical characteristics and sizes with high output.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 9 ex
FIELD: instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: spectrometer-radiometer for the simultaneous analysis of the characteristics of mixed fields of alpha-, beta- and gamma-radiation on the basis of the combined detector consisting of a semiconductor "transmission" detector for the registration of alpha-radiation (which acts as a silicon detector having the thickness of 200-300 mcm), an organic scintillator (which acts as paraterphenyl having the thickness of 7 mm), and the crystal scintillator NaI(Tl). For registration of beta radiation the signals of the silicon detector and the paraterphenyl are used, the registration of gamma-radiation is carried out using the scintillator NaI(Tl). The semiconductor silicon detector is located at the side of the inlet window of the combined detector close to the paraterphenyl. The scintillator NaI(Tl) is located behind the paraterphenyl and is mounted close to the photoelectron multiplier. Between the scintillators NaI(Tl) and the paraterphenyl the quartz glass is placed. The assembly of paraterphenyl, NaI(Tl), quartz glass and the photoelectron multiplier is a phoswich detector of the two scintillators.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of the separation of beta- and gamma-radiation.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of registration of extended air showers (EAS) on the Earth surface and may be used to investigate primary cosmic rays. The substance of the invention consists in the fact that the device to detect direction of arrival of extended air showers (EAS) comprises multiple space diversity detectors of cosmic rays. Detectors are included into clusters (1), outlets of clusters are connected via a common bus with inlets of a unit of data collection from clusters (2), the outlet of the unit of data collection from clusters is connected with the inlet of the unit of EAS direction vector detection (4), which is equipped with a unit of storage of local vectors (3), connected with it with a common bus, the outlets of the unit of EAS direction vector detection (4) are connected with inlets of the memory unit (5) and unit of data visualisation (6), connected by a common bus; the cluster includes at least three detectors (7), the outlets of which are connected with inlets of the unit of time analysis (8), outlets of the time analysis unit (8) are connected to the inlets of the event selection unit (9), outlets of the unit of event selection (9) are connected with inlets of the local direction detection unit (10), outlets of the unit of local direction detection (10) are connected with inlets of the data storage and transmission unit (11).
EFFECT: application of a device to detect direction of arrival of extended air showers regardless of relief and other features of the area.
7 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to counting the number of gamma quanta from different radiation sources in the energy range from hundreds of keV to units of MeV with a load of up to 109 pulses per minute and can be used and can be used for precision detection of intense gamma-ray flux. The scintillation ionising radiation counter comprises a scintillator based on bismuth orthogermanate Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) which is connected through an optical sealant to a silicon photomultiplier, which is connected to a power supply, which is connected to a discriminating amplifier, which is connected to a microcontroller and a frequency divider, which is connected to a microcontroller, which is connected to a personal computer.
EFFECT: designing a miniature device capable of counting gamma quanta of high intensity.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a data measurement system suitable for CT (computer tomography) and other methods of image generation. The image generation system comprises a source of radiation, which rotates around the central z-axis of the image generation system for performance of image-generating scanning; and a matrix of inorganic photodetectors including several discrete inorganic photodetectors located on a bent substrate so that each row of inorganic photodetectors is oriented along the curve of bend of the bent substrate, and each column of inorganic photodetectors is oriented in parallel to the central z-axis of the image generation system, besides, the bent substrate comprises a flexible sheet and current-conducting paths, which efficiently connect each of inorganic photodetectors, at least with one active electronic component arranged on the bent substrate, besides, current-conducting paths are located on the distal surface of the bend substrate, which substantially is opposite to the surface of the substrate, where inorganic photodetectors are located, at the same time the system additionally comprises holes in the substrate filled by the conducting material for electric connection of current-conducting paths with inorganic photodetectors.
EFFECT: increased image quality.
14 cl, 23 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: downhole gamma detector comprises scintillation crystal, photoelectric multiplier (PEM), voltage divider, attaching elements and elements compensating thermal deformation installed in a body, at that the body is made of material, which expansion factor ensures excess of the body elongation value in comparison with total crystal elongation and PEM at heating, thermal deformation compensator is made as a bushing of material with expansion factor less than the same of the body material, crystal and PEM are installed together in the body and the remaining free space is filled with polymer material poured under vacuum and polymerised afterwards.
EFFECT: improved sensitivity and mechanical stability of the detector in wide range of temperature values.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to data acquisition and can be particularly used in computed tomography (CT). An imaging detector comprises a scintillator array (202); a photodetector array (204) optically interfaced with the scintillator array (202); a current-to-frequency converter (I/F) (314), which comprises an integrator (302) and a comparator (310) which converts, during the current integration period, charge which is output by the photodetector array (204) into a digital signal having a frequency which indicates the charge; a logic circuit (312) which establishes integrator (302) gain for the next integration period based on the digital signal for the current integration period, a reset switch (308) which resets the integrator (302) based on the gain established by the logic circuit (312), wherein the reset switch (308) comprises at least a first reset capacitor (402) with a first capacitance and a second reset capacitor (406) with a second different capacitance.
EFFECT: high spatial resolution.
13 cl, 10 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to visualisation technologies, and namely to a data measuring system applicable for tools of CT (computer-aided tomographic) and other visualisation. Essence of the invention consists in the fact that a visualisation system contains an emission source that turns about central z-axis of the visualisation system to perform visual scanning; an array of organic photodiodes, which comprises several discrete organic photodiodes located in rows and columns on a bent substrate so that each row of organic photodiodes is levelled along the bending curve of the bent substrate, and each column of organic photodiodes is levelled parallel to central z-axis of the visualisation system; and current-carrying paths functionally attaching each of the organic photodiodes to one or more active electronic components located on the bent substrate; besides, the bent substrate consists of more than one layer containing the upper layer and one or more lower layers; besides, organic photodiodes are located on the upper layer, and each lower layer includes upper surface that is the closest to the upper layer, and on which at least one of the current-carrying paths is located.
EFFECT: improvement of accurate formation of a detector array.
29 cl, 1 tbl, 20 dwg
FIELD: physics, computer engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to information gathering and can be particularly used in computer tomography (CT). An image forming detector comprises a photodetector array (204) having a light-sensitive side and an opposite reading side; a scintillator array (202) optically connected to the light-sensitive side of the photodetector array (204); and processing electronic circuits (208) electrically connected to the reading side of the photodetector array (204), wherein the photodetector array (204), the scintillator array (202) and the processing electronic circuits (208) are in thermal contact, and the value of the thermal coefficient of the processing electronic circuits (208) is approximately equal to the negative value of the sum of the thermal coefficient of the photodetector array (204) and the thermal coefficient of the scintillator array (202).
EFFECT: high efficiency of forming images.
14 cl, 13 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: radiation monitoring of environment.
SUBSTANCE: proposed scintillator that can be used for radiation monitoring of lands and water areas and in engineering systems for inspecting primary nuclear fuel and items made of fissionable materials includes calcium fluoride activated by europium and 3He helium isotope, proportion of ingredients being as follows, atom percent: calcium fluoride, 99.25 - 99.59; europium fluoride, 0.4 - 0.7; 3He helium isotope, 0.01 - 0.05.
EFFECT: enhanced thermal neutron recording efficiency.
FIELD: radiation monitoring.
SUBSTANCE: detector has X-ray registration unit made in form of set of fiber-optic scintillators and fiber-optics communication transmitting unit (both made in form of single fiber-optic module, photoreceiver provided with signals electronic processing unit made in form of pixels optical system. Integral fiber-optic module is made in form of one-piece fibers on the base of argentums halogenides AgCl-AgBr-AgI. Registering part has active admixture and transmitting part has no active admixtures.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of registration.
FIELD: radar monitoring of localities, customs inspection of nuclear materials, etc.
SUBSTANCE: in addition to a scintillator, the detector has a spectrum mixer and a PIN-photodiode, it also has a light-collecting light-emitting diode and a body-collimator, the spectrum mixer and the light-collecting light-emitting diode are made as a single unit on the basis of alloyed or pure crystals of lithium or sodium fluorides.
EFFECT: enhanced sensitivity.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: identification of electron and beta-radiation for dosimeters and customs appliances.
SUBSTANCE: scintillator of the device is made in form of one-dimensional scintillation screen. It has wedge-shaped radiation transformer made of low effective atomic weight material. Radiation transformer has concaved shape. Scintillator glow is perceived by photoreceiver which is made in form of one-dimensional linear array of photoreceivers. Signal processing section has circuit for finding location of the last glowing cell of one-dimensional scintillation screen.
EFFECT: ability of working at real time-scale mode; simplification of signal processing; ability of registering positron radiation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: high energy engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to scintillation technics designed for registration of α-, β-, γ- and X-emissions for use in radiotechnology, dosimetry, in nuclear research, etc. Transparent ceramics is manufactured by adding lithium carbonate in amount 0.7-1.0% to starting yttrium oxide powder followed by hot pressing at 34.0-35.9 MPa and 1200-1300°C. Inorganic scintillator comprises working medium containing forward surface with port to receive ionizing α-, β-, γ- and X-emissions, oppositely located back surface, and two side surfaces. Working medium is made from yttrium oxide-based transparent ceramics obtained as above.
EFFECT: considerably lowered temperature and pressure during hot pressing, reduced pressing time, and improved optical characteristics of inorganic scintillator.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: dosimetry of fast and thermal neutrons and gamma radiation.
SUBSTANCE: proposed scintillation detector is intended for using in the radiation monitoring systems for fissile material detection (uranium, plutonium, californium and articles from them). The scintillation detector consists of transducer and unit for electron processing of signals. The transducer consists of two scintillators, fulfilled in the form of plates with plane-parallel and touched faces, being in the optical contact. The scintillators are located in the single case. The first (plastic) scintillator is fabricated in the form of a wedge from organic hydrogen-containing material, selectively sensitive to fast neutrons, which causes the light scintillations owing to recoil protons. This scintillators is intended for fast neutron detection. The second (glass) scintillator is fabricated from the 6Li silicate glass and is intended for thermal neutron detection. Both scintillators are equipped with light-resetting film and forms a single sensory scintiunit. The scintiunit is equipped with a lead collimator and is located together with the last in a polyethylene box-storage. The transducer has also a photoelectric multiplier, installed at the end face of the plastic scintillator. The photoelectric multiplier signals are applied at the unit of electron signal processing. This unit ensures counting of the number of pulses, induced by scintillations in both scintillators.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of detection of both fast neutrons, and thermal ones.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device has crystals of lithium fluoride or sodium fluoride, which have sub-surface scintillating layer, made in form of discontinuous scintillating cells with sizes from 6 mm and above, optically separated between each other by metallic mesh with mesh sizes matching cell sizes and poisoned at depth of single microns in crystal.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: detector has body provided with inlet and outlet apertures, positioned inside the body are photo-electron multiplier, connected to covered reflector by combined scintillator, made of organic scintillator consisting of two plates separated by slit opening, connected to non-organic scintillator made of two semi-cylinders.
EFFECT: higher reliability, higher efficiency.
FIELD: registration of x-rays and soft gamma radiation.
SUBSTANCE: detector is made in form of layer of polycrystalline spherical granules of non-organic scintillator in immersion environment optically connected thereto in form of organic scintillator. Organic scintillator registers Compton electrons. Additionally, detector has selection circuit in form of combination of pulse form discriminator and anti-match circuit. Selection circuit performs selection of pulses, appropriate for flash in inorganic scintillator, while from hardware spectrum pulses are excluded, which match concurrent flashes in both scintillators.
EFFECT: higher speed of operation, higher trustworthiness, broader functional capabilities.
FIELD: aero-gamma spectrometric technologies, possible use under conditions of man-caused emergency accompanied by dispersion of plutonium, and also during actions connected to liquidation of consequences of these emergencies.
SUBSTANCE: method includes gamma-radiation registration from man-caused sources by detecting gamma-quanta of americium-241.
EFFECT: higher information quality and trustworthiness of filming, increased speed of reaction to man-caused emergencies.