Electrolyte mixture for thermal chemical current source
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrical engineering and can be used in production of thermal chemical current sources. Electrolyte mixture contains, wt%: eutectic mixture LiCl-KCl – 10–40, lithium orthosilicate-orthophosphate – 60–90.
EFFECT: high ion conductivity of electrolyte mixture for thermal chemical current source, reduced deformation of electrolyte pellet and its corrosion activity, which improves longevity of current source, is technical result of invention.
1 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: composite heat insulation made from composite material based on a silicate composition and mica is located outside the unit. In order to equalise thermal conditions of edge electrochemical elements (ECE) between the inner surface of the electrical insulation layer and the side surface of ECE there are plates made from material the specific heat capacity of which is at least 0.11 cal/g·deg installed, and between the insulation and the surface of igniting pyrotechnical belts there are air gaps.
EFFECT: improving operating reliability, excluding the risk of occurrence of short-circuit failures between elements of active masses of electrochemical elements that form a unit of the device.
1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to electrical engineering industry, in particular to development of melting electrolyte for chemical current sources that includes lithium metavanadate and lithium and potassium salts, at that among lithium salts the electrolyte contains fluoride and bromide and among potassium salts it contains potassium bromide with the following mass ratio of the components (wt %): lithium fluoride 2.18-2.52, lithium bromide 50.86-52.83, lithium metavanadate 3.60-4.81, potassium bromide 41.38-43.35. The invention is also referred to melting electrolyte for a chemical current source that includes lithium metavanadate and lithium and potassium salts, at that among lithium salts the electrolyte contains chloride, bromide and metavanadate with the following mass ratio of the components (wt %): lithium metavanadate 42.59-44.40, potassium chloride 2.15-2.79, potassium bromide 2.42-2.99, potassium metavanadate 50.30-52.73.
EFFECT: reduction of melting temperature for the salt compound.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: method implies hot pressing of electrolyte mixture powder based on eutectic of lithium and potassium chlorides, aluminium oxide powder thickener γ-Al2O3 in a mould under pressure ((200±20) MPa and the temperature of (100±20)°C and maturing under the said pressure for (20-30) s. Pellets moulded in such a way are dried under the temperature of (135-220)°C and vacuum gage pressure of at least 95 kPa for at least 150 minutes.
EFFECT: reduced process cycle of electrolyte pellet production and improved mechanical strength of the pellets at keeping low internal ohmic resistance.
FIELD: blasting operations.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preliminary fluffing of asbestos fibres to fragments with a length of 1.2-6 mm with a weight ratio with water in the range of 0.0015-0.0030 by circulating the slurry through a turbine disperser for 70000-90000 revolutions of its rotor. The prepared slurry is poured into dimensional moulds with the diameter of the electrodes, the water is removed by evacuation, and drying of composite plates on the screens is carried out at the temperature of 150±10°C to a moisture content of not more than 0.7%.
EFFECT: formation of electrode pyrotechnic plates of identical geometric shape with increased strength is provided, which enables to improve the reliability of operation of the electrodes of the pyrotechnic power sources for self-contained power of actuators.
1 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrical engineering industry and can be used in production of thermal chemical sources. According to the invention in the thermal lithium current source between a capsular-type ignition device and Z-shaped pyrotechnical strip there is a metal disc with diameter equal to the diameter of the unit of electrochemical cells and with a central opening equal to 0.25-0.50 of width of the Z-shaped pyrotechnical strip.
EFFECT: installation between the capsule and unit of electrochemical cells of the above metal disc with diameter equal to the diameter of the unit and the central opening allows to exclude influence of kinetic energy of incandescent particles from the ignition device to the unit of electrochemical cells and to stabilise optimal delivery of incandescent gas to the pyrotechnical strip.
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a heat-accumulating composition which contains lithium fluoride, lithium bromide and potassium bromide, wherein to expand the range of concentrations with a low melting point, the heat-accumulating composition further contains lithium molybdate, with the following ratio of components, wt %: lithium bromide 52.75; potassium bromide 45.03; lithium molybdate 0.87; lithium fluoride - the balance.
EFFECT: enabling use of the heat-accumulating composition at temperature of 318°C.
5 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: thermal chemical current source includes unit of electrochemical cells in housing with a cover, inner thermal and electrical insulation, pyrotechnical heating elements and electrochemical cells, each of them contains in alternating sequence hard layers of anode, electrolyte, cathode in estimated amount, pressed by elastic member and provided with thermal and electrical insulation, alternating pressure seals for connection to external consumer, activation system. Each layer of electrochemical cells and pyrotechnical heating elements is designed with central through hole, all the electrochemical cells are accumulated in sequence on the central insulated rod, which is rigidly fixed by its one end on housing bottom by sleeve and by the other end on housing cover by basement which is a solid figure in the form of a flat sphere from stainless steel with support feet.
EFFECT: improving safety, simplifying assembly together with improving discharge characteristics providing required strength under mechanical loading of presented device.
1 ex, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: body of a thermal chemical source of current comprises two diametrically arranged compartments with blocks of electrochemical elements placed into them, which are electrically not connected to each other and receive initiating pulses from an ignition device, enclosed into a cylindrical shell directed with an open end towards a flame force splitter, made in the form of a triangular prism, installed in the centre on a metal partition that separates compartments, at the same time the sharp angle between the faces of the prism facing towards the ignition device makes (70-80)°. Positive effect may be increased by making several compartments at one level relative to the base of the body. In this case the flame force splitter shall have the form of a pyramid with the number of faces corresponding to the number of compartments. At the same time the angle of the pyramid top facing the ignition device corresponds to the above.
EFFECT: increased reliability of operation and reduced time of process stabilisation.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to power engineering, in particular to development of compositions of lithium salts which can be used as melted electrolytes for chemical current sources. In order to expand range of concentrations with low melting temperature the suggested composition includes lithium wolframate as lithium salt with the following ratio of components by wt %: lithium bromide 68.97-71.83; potassium bromide 24.84-25.42; lithium molybdate 0.47-5.06; lithium wolframate 0.3-3.10.
EFFECT: suggested composition provides efficiency increasing of electrolyte for chemical current source within the range of temperatures above 323-327°C at comparatively wide range of concentrations for the used components.
3 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to electrical engineering, in particular, to development of melted electrolytes based on lithium and potassium salts for chemical current sources. Melted electrolyte for chemical current source that includes lithium metavanadate and potassium salts is distinguished by the fact that among potassium salts it contains bromide and metavanadate with the following ratio of components, by wt %: lithium metavanadate 33.26-35.20, potassium bromide 4.79-7.72, potassium metavanadate 57.08-61.11.
EFFECT: reduction of temperature and specific enthalpy for melting of the above electrolyte allows increasing scope of its use within the range of temperatures 329-347° C, thus reducing power expenditures for preparing electrolyte to operating condition.
1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: conversion of chemical energy of exothermic compositions into electrical energy.
SUBSTANCE: proposed stand-by expendable high-temperature pyrotechnical current supply has electrodes made of pyrotechnical compositions with separator also made of pyrotechnical composition in-between. In addition, pyrotechnical current supply has electrolyte which is, essentially, mixture of asbestos and inorganic salt, their proportion being as follows, mass percent: asbestos, 3 - 10; inorganic salt, 90 - 97. Butt-end surface area of electrolyte makes up 5 to 50% of that of separator and ratio of butt-end surface area of separator to that of each electrode is 1.03 to 1.4.
EFFECT: enhanced operating time and effectiveness of pyrotechnical current supply.
1 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: conversion of exothermal composition chemical energy into electricity; stand-by high-temperature expendable current supplies.
SUBSTANCE: proposed pyrotechnical electric current supply has electrodes in the form of pyrotechnical composition plates with separator in-between made in the form of asbestos and lithium fluoride or asbestos and alkali-earth metal, or metal fluoride mixture. Thickness ratio of anode, cathode, and separator is (0.9 - 1.2) : (0.4- 0.9) : (0.4 : ).9); anode fuel is zirconium or its mixture with titanium and that of cathode is zirconium; anode oxidant is barium chromate or cupric oxide and that of cathode is cupric oxide. Cathode and separator incorporate in addition silicon dioxide and zirconium dioxide (zirconia), or mixture thereof, proportion of ingredients in electrodes and in separator being as follows, mass percent: anode: zirconium or zirconium and titanium mixture, 35 - 83; barium chromate or cupric oxide, 15 - 53; asbestos, 2 - 12; cathode: zirconium, 2 - 28; cupric oxide, 50 - 86; silicon dioxide and zirconium (zirconia) or mixture thereof, 2 - 20; asbestos, 2 - 10; separator: asbestos, 2 - 6; lithium fluoride or alkali-earth metal fluoride, or fluoride mixture thereof, 34 - 78; silicon dioxide and zirconium (zirconia) or silicon dioxide and zirconium dioxide mixture, 20 - 60.
EFFECT: enhanced stability of performance characteristics.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: devices converting chemical energy of exothermic compositions into electricity; expendable stand-by high-temperature primary current supplies.
SUBSTANCE: proposed pyrotechnical electric current supply has laminated electrodes tightly fixed together and provided with current leads; electrodes are composed of zirconium (fuel), copper or barium chromate (oxidant), electrolyte in the form of lithium fluoride, and binder (asbestos); anode incorporates fuel excess and cathode, oxidant excess. Novelty is that proportion of mentioned components is as follows, mass percent: pyrotechnical anode - zirconium, 40-50; barium chromate, 35-45; lithium fluoride, 15-20; asbestos, 3-5; pyrotechnical cathode - zirconium, 25-30; copper oxide, 60-75; lithium fluoride, 6-10; asbestos, 3-5; thickness ratio of laminated anode and cathode is 1.1-1.4.
EFFECT: enhanced functional reliability of pyrotechnical electric current supply.
1 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to thermal reserve sources of current (thermo-chemical batteries), which are actuated by inflammation of pyrotechnical elements, from the thermal impulse of adjacent tape igniters. In the invention the suspension is prepared in saturated water solution of potassium perchlorate, which is additionally contains lignosulphonate and as dispersed phase the dosed quality of potassium perchlorate, which is later connected with prepared latex dispersion in saturated solution of potassium perchlorate, at that lignosulphonate amounts to 8-12% from the mass of latex in recount to dry substance, removal of liquid phase is done with pressure differential on filter pad in the range of 0.08-0.10 MPa, and the prepared pyrotechnical composition is dried at the temperature of 16-80 °C up to humidity of not more than 0.4%, besides, the crushed asbestos fibres are preliminarily annealed and soaked in water for 30 minutes, and latex in introduced in suspension in the amount of 1 part from the mass of dispersed components. Suggested technical solution provides improvement of operation characteristics of reserve current sources, with provision of new indices of application to quick-burning, low gas tape piroheaters, which are flexibly adjacent to electrodes, in particular, faster speed of their burning with stable heat emission.
EFFECT: improvement of technical characteristics of reserve current sources.
3 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: electric engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to reserve chemical sources of current on solid body. According to invention thermal battery (TB) comprises unit of electrochemical elements (ECE), every of which consists of design number of solid layers of anode, cathode, electrolyte, heating elements, limited from external side by common body with heat and electric insulation. Unit of electrochemical elements (ECEU) is installed along vertical axis of body, is pressed in axial direction with specified force of design number of elastic elements with the possibility of this force value control by means of threaded element, additionally at ECEU ends there are passive ECE installed by one, body of TB is arranged as cylindrical of stainless steel with thickness of walls from 0.5 to 1 mm, anode of each ECE is made of single alloy LiB, cathode - out of mixture NiCl2 and electroconductive additive, electrolyte from mixture of thickener and eutectic, comprising salts of alkaline metals, from internal and end sides of cylindrical body there are layers of heat and electric insulation, between layers of active masses there are solid layers of heating elements, in cylindrical body there are through vertical slots in the form of windows, total area of which does not exceed 80% of its total side surface.
EFFECT: higher resource of operation, energy intensity, reliability of battery operation, service life, mechanical strength of assembly, integrity.
1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: thermal chemical current source is activated by primer device in the unit end side. Z-shaped pyrotechnical strip is positioned in direct vicinity of the primer device in heat insulation pad slots along the diametre and transmits fire impulse from primer device to initiation strip mounted on opposite side surfaces of the unit and igniting pyrotechnical heaters of cell unit. Free state of pyrotechnical strip, required for fast and reliable fire impulse transfer from primer device to lateral initiation strips, is achieved by strip placement in heat insulation pad slots positioned at 180° to each other, with slot length of 0.54÷0.65 of the pad diametre. The effect can be amplified by installation of several Z-shaped pyrotechnical strips tilted against each other and contacting respective number of lateral initiation strips, in unit end sides. Maximum reduction of time of current source deployment to operation mode can be achieved by replacement of lateral initiation strips with thin pyrotechnical strip encircling at least 70% of the unit perimetre length.
EFFECT: reduced time of current source deployment in operation mode, improved efficiency of current source operation.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: thermal current source (TCS) comprises unit of electrochemical elements (ECE) in vessel in heat insulation, every of which comprises serially alternating solid layers of anode, cathode, electrolyte, heating elements in rated quantity, bordered at outer side by a common vessel with heat insulation, elastic element rigidly fixed on cover of TCS and arranged along vertical axis of vessel and pressed with specified force in axial direction with the possibility of adjustment of value of this force, indicator of initial condition control, facility of TCS initiation with system of electric igniters. Unit of ECE, system of electric igniters, initial condition control indicator (ICCI) of TCS are rigidly fixed on common base, rigidly fixed on cover of TCS in the form of printed circuit board. Electric circuit of ICCI is arranged in the form of printed conductor and is arranged between output contacts of ICCI. TCS comprises two elements - isolators arranged of copper wire with cross section area that is much less than area of section of printed conductor, at the same time in the centre of each element - isolator there are additionally installed pyrotechnical heaters arranged in the form of ribbon of material on the basis of pressed mixture of powdery titanium and oxidant, sensitive to heat pulse of electric igniters.
EFFECT: increased reliability of control of initial condition of thermal current source.
2 ex, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: initiating pyrotechnical strips are tightly pressed to a unit of elements with a glass-woven tape with thickness of (0.12-0.15) mm, impregnated with a organosilicic varnish and forming a tight shell by coverage of layers by at least 1/2 of the tape width.
EFFECT: less time spent for a current source to reach to a working mode, improved reliability of current source operation.
SUBSTANCE: heating tablets are pressed at pressure of 200-300 MPa with hold pressure of within 20-30 s until density of 4.6-4.9 g/cm3 is obtained at average degree of powdered iron dispersion of 1.0-2.5 mcm and 4.9-5.2 g/cm3 at average degree of powdered iron dispersion of 2.5-5.0 mcm respectively.
EFFECT: maximum combustion efficiency of pyrotechnical heaters containing fine powdered iron as combustible substance.
1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: electrolyte for chemical current source includes lithium salts at the following ratios of components (wt %): lithium chloride: 4.2…4.3; lithium bromide: 30.6…31.5; lithium metavanadate: 29.9…30.3; lithium molybdate: 34.4…34.8.
EFFECT: invention allows decreasing fusion temperature, which reduces power consumptions for bringing the electrolyte into working condition, and enlarging temperature range for electrolyte application.