Method for preventive protection of water body from pollution with liquid hydrocarbons

FIELD: ecology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection and can be used for advanced-preventive protection of a water body from liquid hydrocarbon pollution, as well as during seasonal protective measures. Method involves treating the water body with liquid hydrocarbon adsorbents, which have been packed, using a certain method, into shell-bags, permeable for water and liquid hydrocarbons; bags with hydrophobic adsorbent inside – graphene pumice – are dumped onto the water surface in or near the source of water discharge at a hydraulic engineering installation to provide advanced preventive protection of water body while the bags are floating in the water using the current; or the bags that have been attached to each other or placed in a net together with a load and, possibly, anchor, are placed at the bottom of the protected water body for cleaning the bottom deposits from heavy hydrocarbons -once on the water surface, freely floating bags clean the protected water body and even collect the contaminant, which is not known to have been dropped into the water yet, wherein the neutralization of the contaminant is performed by hydrocarbon-oxidizing natural bacteria present in any aquatic ecosystem or under other natural factors - in the pores of the adsorbent, which do not shrink under the action of capillary forces, and the bags, cleaned from the contaminant and able to move further, float to another contaminated section of the water surface and the cycle is repeated multiple times.

EFFECT: invention provides protection of a water body from pollution by liquid hydrocarbons.

6 cl



Same patents:

Oil skimmer vessel // 2557094

FIELD: ecology.

SUBSTANCE: oil skimmer vessel is proposed, comprising a hull with propulsive machinery and having a tank inside the hull, a system of garbage collection, oil separation and pumping, as well as an inlet threshold arranged upstream the tank. Besides, the vessel comprises the second tank with the second threshold, arranged in series downstream the first tank, as well as two water channels, by means of which the lower part of appropriate tanks is connected to a propulsor located on the vessel deck, besides, the first threshold is lower than the second one.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of oil and garbage collection.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: device includes a rope and an enclosure in the form of floating sections of a guard boom, which are connected to each other Ends of extreme sections and the rope are fixed on opposite river banks. The rope is fixed above river surface and sliding rings are freely put on it. Ends of the enclosure and connection points of the sections are connected to the corresponding rings by means of carriers of the corresponding length. An installation method of the device consists in installation of the enclosure at an angle to river flow direction. First, the rope with rings put on it is drawn above the river surface. The enclosure is towed along the rope to the opposite bank and sections are connected in series to the corresponding rings by means of the carriers.

EFFECT: reliability, durability and efficiency of installation of an enclosure to prevent oil spreading.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: this invention relates to protective device intended for prevention of fluid leaks into ambient water. Proposed device comprises dome-like fluid impermeable membrane. Besides, it incorporates individual-control floating devices attached to membrane for its positioning and stabilisation. To extract fluid, membrane is provide with discharge hose. The latter comprises also said individual-control floating means for positioning and stabilisation of discharge hose. Note here that said individual-control floating means are underwater apparatuses.

EFFECT: higher accuracy and ease of positioning.

7 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: device is mounted on a floating craft provided with a winch, a boom and a system of ropes. Longitudinal tie-rods are fixed by means of hinges on one side on the frame of the device, and a rectangle-shaped framework is installed on their other side. The framework with a large-cell mesh with a concave surface is installed with a possibility of changing the position relative to the water body surface. In the upper part of the framework there fixed is a mesh with cells of smaller dimensions, and in the lower part there fixed is a knife throughout the framework width. The boom with a roller on the end is fixed in the middle part of the frame with a possibility of changing an inclination angle. A rope attaching the mesh framework to the two-drum winch is hitched over the roller. The drums are connected to each other with a safety clutch. The direction of synchronous rotation of the drums is provided with a reverser. On one drum the rope is located in an upward direction, and on the other - vice versa.

EFFECT: improving the cleaning efficiency of water bodies from blue-green algae.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: surface of a film of oil or oil products is treated with a reagent which contains a natural polymer and the reaction product is collected. The reagent used is polysaccharide microgel with mass of 20000-200000 Da and particle size of 50-600 nm in an aqueous solution with concentration of not less than 0.2 g/l. According to the first version of the method, before and after spraying the reagent, the periphery of the film of oil or oil products is treated with a biodegradable surfactant in the form of an aqueous solution with concentration of not less than 0.1 g/l. According to the second version of the method, the reagent is first mixed with a biodegradable surfactant in the form of an aqueous solution with concentration of not less than 0.1 g/l. Mixing is carried out until the ratio of the polysaccharide microgel to the biodegradable surfactant is 12:1-2:1.

EFFECT: high efficiency of the process of collecting oil or oil products from a water surface, low specific consumption of reagents and low residual content of said reagents in water.

2 cl, 6 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: self-propelled oil-skimmer represents a marine installation - a catamaran with restricted area of sailing. It comprises bodies with hydrojet engines, a vacuum reservoir for collection of a thin layer of film oil product with water, and also an accessory for collection of wastes. Each body of the catamaran is equipped with a structurally coupled settling tank, polypropylene filters, a receiver with vacuum pumps, and tanks for reception of oil products and water. A reservoir for collection of a thin layer of film oil product with water is made in the form of a floating structure placed between the bodies, the collecting chute of which is connected to a collecting pipe arranged along the floating structure. The latter via at least one device of automatic regulation of liquid flow rate, equipped with a throttling gate valve, is connected to settling tanks. Each of settling tanks is equipped with at least one thin synthetic net, which may cover horizontal motion of the liquid along the entire section of the settling tank.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of water treatment with simultaneous increase of operational reliability.

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: contaminated surface is treated with a sorbent. The sorbent saturated with oil is collected and transported to be utilised. Finished products from ash and foam concrete of autoclave hardening are used as a sorbent.

EFFECT: reducing sorbent consumption, increasing its retaining ability and a possibility of its being used at negative ambient temperatures.

1 tbl

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention suggests an oil and oil sludge sweeper, which is comprised of a metal body shaped as a deck, hollow boards and a container formed between them, a bottom with openings inside it, a bevelled bow, a tray with protecting lateral walls and a marine engine. A waste heat boiler (WHB) for the collected oil sludge is installed on the sweeper; WHB consists of a body being a combustion and oil sludge mixing chamber, which is mounted at the base frame installed on the deck and an afterburner chamber with a water-heating coil mounted in it; in the rear part of the afterburner chamber there is an air duct feeding air to the afterburner chamber in order to ensure the preliminary heating of air before its delivery to the afterburner and ejector chamber; besides in the afterburner chamber there is a preheating coil with water used as a heat carrier for oil sludge heating.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of oil and oil sludge collection from the water surface with simultaneous disposal of oil and oil sludge.

1 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to environment protection and may be used for localisation and collection of film of oil and oil products at water surface. Stationary floating booms and oil-collecting devices are installed downstream the river flow with connection of tanks for collection and temporary storage of oil products. Oil film is bypassed by a loop of floating booms by means of at least two vessels thus creating a pocket for its catchment. Oil layer at water surface is thickened when horizontal plane in the oil film shape is changed and the total length of floating boom outline is maintained permanent. Oil film is tugged by vessels downstream the river flow up to the place close to the stationary floating booms.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of water surface treatment at rivers with high flow speed and localisation of large volumes of oil products without use of additional special-purpose devices.

6 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the environment protection and is designed to collect and remove spilled oil and petroleum products from the surface of open water reservoirs, as well as in waste treatment facilities. The device comprises a housing mounted on an oil recovery vessel of the "catamaran" type, a container with a magnetic adsorbent and an oil collection drum with a magnetic system. The housing is opened for input and output of treated water. The bottom of the housing is made in the form of a tape moving in the direction to the oil collection drum. The container with the magnetic adsorbent is mounted in the front part of the open housing above the water surface and is provided with a drum feeder with an adjustable flow rate of the adsorbent into the petroleum product layer. The oil collection drum is made with the rotation direction counter the direction of the tape and mounted with the ability of linear contact with its lower part of its surface. The device for removal of adhered petroleum products from the surface of the oil collection drum is designed as a scraper transforming into a chute with a rotating screw mounted inside the chute.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of accumulation of oil and petroleum products from the surface of water environments is provided.

2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: claimed is method and deammonifying installation for purification of ammonium-containing sewage waters. Deammonifying installation for purification of ammonium-containing sewage waters contains aeration tank and hydrocyclone for separation of sludge from aeration tank into relatively heavy fraction, which includes bacteria, performing anaerobic ammonium oxidation, and relatively light fraction. Hydrocyclone contain input, connected with aeration tank, for return of separated relatively heavy fraction into aeration tank and upper output, connected with aeration tank, for discharge of separated relatively light fraction from hydrocyclone. Hydrocyclone contains cylindrical segment and conic segment. Surface of internal walls of conic segment is rough on certain parts. Rough surface of internal walls of conic segment has higher degree of roughness than surface of internal walls of cylindrical segment. Method of purification of ammonium-containing sewage waters is realised in deammonifying installation.

EFFECT: simplification of ammonium and nitrite conversion into elementary nitrogen.

33 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ecology and environmental protection. For cleaning filtering system is erected and used on soil slope surfaces. Filtering system is composed of the slope soil top layer processed with aqueous solution of polyelectrolyte complex. The latter comprises the mix of hydrolysed polyarcylonitrile and polyethylene polyamine at the ratio of 1:3.5-1:4.5, wt %. Processed soil sorption capacity saturated, said soil is removed and disposed or recovered.

EFFECT: simplified cleaning, higher erosion resistance of run-off surfaces.

2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical industry. Mixed coagulant from mineral raw material is obtained by dissolution of boehmite-kaolinite bauxide in autoclave with hydrochloric acid with concentration 220 g/l with ratio S:L=1:6 for 1-3 hours in interval of temperatures 150-180°C.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase coagulation ability of mixed coagulant - hydrooxichloride of aluminium and iron with concentration by Al2O3 2,32-6,87 and by Fe2O3 0,94-1,02 wt %, in water purification: by turbidity and colour.

2 dwg, 6 tbl

Vacuum deaerator // 2558109

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: vacuum deaerator contains a branch pipe for supply of chemically purified deaerated water to the distributing header, the first jet plate fitted with a finned overflow edge and a punched steam discharge sheet, the second jet plate having a finned overflow edge and a punched steam discharge sheet. Fins of overflow edges of the first and second jet plates are made rectangular at an angle 30-60° to vertical line with inclination towards drain from overflow edges of flows of the deaerated water, the cross-flow plate with cross-flow and overflow edges, three punched pipelines for supply of heating water to the cross-flow plate, the bubbling sheet with overflow edge, the punched pipeline for supply of heating water under the bubbling sheet, at least, two pipelines for discharge of non-evaporated heating water to the inlet of the bubbling sheet, the partition blocking discharge of non-evaporated heating water into the flow of deaerated water drained from the bubbling sheet, passing through the bubbling sheet at least two L-shaped boxes of heating vapour cross-flow, installed evenly along the deaerator housing in the space between the overflow edge of the bubbling sheet and the punched pipeline for supply of heating water under the bubbling sheet, at least one branch pipe for discharge of vented steam and one branch pipe for discharge of deaerated water.

EFFECT: increase of overall performance of the vacuum deaerator.

3 dwg

FIELD: testing equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of pressure test of electro-hydraulic-mechanical systems and can be used for degassing the working fluid in technical devices using in their constructive solutions the flowing hydraulic tanks of open type. The method comprises degassing the working fluid on the grid in the flowing hydraulic tanks, imparting the grid of low-frequency transverse vibration, and at the inlet of the grid by bubbling the gas liquid layer is created with a high-frequency pulsating low-intensity pressure. The flowing hydraulic tank of open type (1) comprises a lid (2), partitions (3, 4), a grid (5), the pipes of discharge (6) and intake (15) of the working fluid, a drain (7), intermediate (18), intake (14) cavities and involves the installation of a grid (5) on the elastic supports (8). Below the grid (5) on the side of the flow outlet into the cavity (18) a pneumatic dynamic vibrator (9) is mounted with the modulated phase of gas oscillation, the outlet nozzle (10) of which is mounted on the grid (5).

EFFECT: invention provides increased efficiency of degassing fluid, the degassing process intensification, which enables to improve and expand the indices of quality of electro-hydraulic-mechanical systems and their components.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a polymer obtained via condensation polymerisation. The polymer is obtained from at least two monomers: acrylic monomer and alkylamine. Said polymer is modified such that it contains a dithiocarbamate salt group capable of cleaning one or more compositions containing one or more metals. The polymer has molecular weight of 500-200000.

EFFECT: obtaining polymers for various media as means of purification from metals, including waste water systems.

13 cl, 5 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to production of desalinated water and can be used for obtaining drinking water from sea and salt waters. Extraction of water from saline solution is carried out with application of selective solvent, containing carboxylic acid, which has carbon chain from 6 to 13 carbon atoms long. In order to realise the method saline solution emulsion in selective solvent is prepared, selective solvent is heated before and after contact with saline solution to obtain first phase, which includes selective solvent and water from saline solution, dissolved in selective solvent, and second phase, including highly-concentrated remaining part of saline solution. After that, first phase is separated from second phase, first phase, including selective solvent and dissolved water, is extracted from highly-concentrated remaining part of saline solution or highly-concentrated remaining part is extracted from saline solution from first phase. First phase is cooled after extraction to precipitate water from selective solvent and precipitated water is removed from selective solvent.

EFFECT: invention provides obtaining almost pure fresh water.

19 cl, 15 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for desalting of sea, hard and/or contaminated water by direct osmosis desalting. To this end, contaminated feed solution with water at first osmosis pressure is forced through semi-permeable diaphragm to discharge side that has the flow of carrier solution with second osmosis pressure on discharge side of semi-permeable diaphragm. Diluted discharge solution is heated to agglomerate discharged diluted substance to two-phase flow containing liquid phase of agglomerated dissolved substance and liquid water phase. Then, agglomerated dissolved substance is separated to get enriched flow to be cooled to obtain cooled single-phase water-rich flow to be subjected to removal of residual dissolved substance to produce purified water.

EFFECT: higher quality and desalting and purification.

23 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of purification of phenol-containing sewage waters of alkali-hydrolysis processing of rice husk includes preliminary desiliconisation of phenol-containing sewage waters by their processing with hydrochloric acid with precipitation of solid and separation from solution of silicon-containing product and electrochemical oxidation in presence of chloride ions in electrolytic cell with application of direct current. Process of electrochemical oxidation is carried out with concentration of chloride ions 0.10-0.11 mol/l in non-diaphragm electrolytic cell with application of ruthenium-titanium oxide anode and titanium cathode for 70-90 min with current density 100-150 mA/cm2 with constant mixing. Required concentration of chloride ions is provided by dilution with water of phenol-containing sewage waters after their desiliconisation.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase degree of purification of polydisperse concentrated phenol-containing sewage waters of alkali-hydrolysis processing of rice husk from phenol and other organic pollutants.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a flotation device, a frame, a hydraulic drive. On the frame the longitudinal rods are pivotally mounted, and on their cantilever portion the linkage for attachment of the drum is mounted with the ability of movement in a vertical plane. The drum is mounted with the ability of replacement of the drum holder, at that the drum is rotated by the hydraulic motor through the belt drive in the direction opposite of the flotation device movement.

EFFECT: improvement of quality of the implementation of the technological process of cleaning the water reservoirs from blue-green algae and reduction of energy intensity.

2 dwg

FIELD: devices for purification of household and industrial sewage.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with devices for purification of household and industrial sewage and intended for electrical and cavitational treatment of sewage containing a large quantity of organic compounds. The device for purification of sewage consists of a body made out of a dielectric material partitioned by diaphragms for two electrode chambers and one working chamber, that contains a filtering material. The electrode chambers have cavitational field sources installed and the working chamber is supplied with a the bubbler installed in it. The technical result consists in an increase of recuperation of the filtering material at the expense of application of a cavitational field to it, decrease of the microbiological semination, and an increase of cavitational effect on particles.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of the filtering material recuperation, decreased microbiological semination and increased the cavitational effect on particles.

1 dwg