Diamond detector of ionising radiation

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to semiconductor detectors of ionising radiation, in particular, to diamond detectors, capable of operating at higher temperatures, low pressures, in aggressive media. Diamond detector of ionising radiation consists of a diamond substrate, active diamond layer, two contact electrodes, arranged on top and below active diamond layer, and leads to supply bias voltage and pickup output signal, wherein lower contact electrode is completely inside active diamond layer, wherein leads to supply bias voltage and pickup output signal are made in form of graphite columns within diamond substrate and active diamond layer with output of contact surfaces on lower side of substrate.

EFFECT: invention prevents leakage and breakdown of crystal surface, which improves resistance of detector to external factors.

1 cl, 2 dwg

 



 

Same patents:

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention proposes a multijunction silicone monocrystalline photoelectric converter of optic and radiation emissions, which contains diode cells with vertical single n+-p--p+(p+-n--n+) junctions located in them perpendicular to horizontal light receiving surface and horizontal n+-p-(p+-n-) junctions located in diode cells parallel to the light receiving surface. All the junctions are connected to a single structure with metal cathode and anode electrodes located on the surface of regions of n+(p+) type of vertical single n+-p--p+(p+-n--n+) junctions. Its diode cells include additional vertical n+-p-(p+-n-) junctions; at that, their regions of n+(p+) type are connected to regions of n+(p+) type of n+-p-(p+-n-) horizontal transitions to regions of - n+(p+) type of vertical single n+-p--p+(p+-n--n+) junctions. On its lower and side surfaces there located is a dielectric layer with thickness of less than length of path of radiation particles in the dielectric, on the surface of which a layer of radioactive metal is arranged, which has thickness that is equal to length of path of electrons in metal. Distance between electrodes of the diode cells does not exceed 2 lengths of the path of radiation particles. Besides, the invention proposes a manufacturing method of the above described silicone monocrystalline multijunction photoelectric converter of optic and radiation emissions.

EFFECT: improving efficiency of converters of radiation energy to electric energy; reducing their weight per unit of a surface area and enlarging their field of application.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics, optics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to semiconductor optoelectronic devices, particularly photodetectors with high efficiency of detecting light. A cell for the silicon-based photomultiplier according to the invention comprises a first layer (2) of a first conductivity type, a second layer (3) of a second conductivity type formed on the first layer (2), wherein the first layer (2) and the second layer (3) form a first p-n junction. The device is characterised by that the cell is further treated via ion implantation, wherein ion implantation parameters are selected such that owing to the damage of the crystal lattice caused by implantation, the absorption length of infrared light with wavelength in the range from about 800 nm to 1000 nm is reduced, specifically at least three-fold, and more specifically at least five-fold.

EFFECT: invention enables to produce a cell for a silicon-based photomultiplier and a silicon-based photomultiplier having a plurality of cells in which optical interference between cells is considerably reduced without considerably reducing efficiency of optical detection, wherein the cells of the silicon-based photomultiplier are formed with a higher efficiency of optical detection for wavelength greater than 800 nm.

17 cl, 10 dwg

X-ray detector // 2498460

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: working volume of the detector is made from a plate of semi-insulating monocrystalline semiconductor material, e.g., gallium arsenide, on which capacitors are formed, the first plate of the capacitors lying directly on the working volume. The top of the capacitors is coated with a layer of a separating dielectric, and electronic switches based on field-effect transistors are formed on the layer of the separating dielectric on which is also formed the whole layout of circuits, including buses which connect transistor gates (located on the separating dielectric) along the rows of a matrix, as well as buses which connect transistor drains along columns, wherein windows are formed in the dielectric layer, the windows being filled with metal and the first capacitor plates are connected to transistor sources and second capacitor plates are connected to ground buses in each matrix element through said windows.

EFFECT: widening the range of semiconductor materials suitable for use as the working volume of the detector.

1 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to semiconductor coordinate detectors of radiation particles. A MOS-diode cell of a solid radiation detector comprises a MOS-transistor, a bus of high positive (negative) power supply voltage and an output bus. The MOS-transistor is a depleted transistor of n (p) conductivity type (i.e. has an inbuilt channel), at the same time its gate area is connected to the common power supply bus, a drain - to the output bus, and the gate is connected to an anode (cathode) of the diode and to the first output of the resistor, the diode cathode (anode) is connected to the bus of high positive (negative) power supply voltage, the second output of the resistor is connected to the bus of negative (positive) shift voltage. Also a structure (a functionally integrated structure) of the MOS-diode cell of the solid radiation detector is proposed.

EFFECT: increased quality of detection.

8 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method of detecting ionising radiation is based on the ionisation effect, which involves use of at least one ionisation cell to the electrodes of which an electric potential difference is applied; ionising radiation is detected through continuous measurement of electric current flowing through the ionisation cell, wherein the volume V of the ionisation cell is selected according to defined relationships which link the average free path before ionisation of current carriers knocked out by a quantum of penetrating radiation; the average number of current carriers knocked out by a quantum of penetrating radiation; the equilibrium concentration of current carriers in the semiconductor at given measurement temperature; a coefficient equal to the ratio of the amplitude of the detected, depending on the equipment used and mathematical signal processing techniques, to noise level, wherein for subsequent processing, independent amplification of a signal from each ionisation cell is performed using field effect.

EFFECT: high detector sensitivity.

2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: according to the invention, the pixel bipolar structure with a cellular base has a semiconductor substrate in which there is a first-type conductivity collector on which there is a collector electrode, in the region of the collector there is a second-type conductivity base, in the region of the base there is a first-type conductivity emitter on which there is an emitter electrode. The region of the second-type conductivity base is in form of a mesh, where the value of the space-charge regions formed by the collector-base p-n junctions is greater than the distance between neighbouring lines of the cellular base. The structure with the cellular base improves charge collection while ensuring high coefficient of amplification of ionisation current caused by radiation particles.

EFFECT: high sensitivity of coordinate detectors and high signal-to-noise ratio.

2 dwg

FIELD: physics; semiconductors.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to semiconductor coordinate detectors of particle radiations. The invention proposes a coordinate detector which uses active pixels with functionally integrated bipolar and MOS structures. This enables retention of high coefficient of amplification of ionisation current induced by particles with different noise reduction caused by surface states at the oxide-semiconductor boundary surface owing to optimum control of the surface potential using an insulated gate.

EFFECT: invention increases sensitivity of coordinate detectors and increases the signal to noise ratio.

3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to instrument making and can be used in measuring basic parametres of neutron current. To achieve the given outcome, neutrons are not directly detected, but through nuclear reactions. Gamma-radiation or charged particles are formed in the nuclear reactions. The neutron current is measured based on ionisation of a semiconductor by gamma-radiation. The sensing element of the detector is a TlInSe2 semiconductor doped with a 6Li isotope.

EFFECT: wider functional capabilities.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: electronics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to micro electronics, and particularly, to production of array detector of relativistic particles. The most sensible detectors of relativistic particles are pixel structures made up from bipolar transistor. The technical result of the invention provides for increasing density of pixel structures composition in relativistic particles detectors due to functional integration of amplifying transistor structure and sensing element i.e. voltage-radiation type transmitter and simplifying relativistic particles detectors manufacturing technology. The above-mentioned result is achieved by the fact that pixel functional and integrated structure of relativistic particles detector contains bipolar n-p-n\p-n-p\- type transistor structure in its substrate. The basis of this structure is connected to the common bus via resistor. Collector zone is coupled with power supply line, while emitter zone - with output electrode. The pixel functional and integrated structure of relativistic particles detector is specific by p-i-n diode with p\n\-type conductivity zone being combined with\ connected with \ transistor basic zone. The i - type conductivity zone is combined with substrate having ohmic contact of n+ - \p\ type conductivity coupled with additional source of voltage.

EFFECT: high density of pixel structures composition in relativistic particles detectors.

3 dwg

FIELD: electronic devices.

SUBSTANCE: proposed GaAs ionizing radiation detector has substrate that carries contacts, substrate boundary semi-insulating GsAs layer, and barrier contact. Detector also incorporates Ga1-xAlxAs insulating layer having common boundary with semi-insulating GaAs layer, non-doped GaAs layer having common boundary with Ga1-xAlxAs insulating layer, p region in non-doped GaAs and insulating GaAlAs layers up to semi-insulating GaAs layer, and high-resistance region around barrier contact periphery.

EFFECT: enhanced threshold sensitivity and resolving power of detector enabling detection of weak ionizing flows.

1 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention proposes a multijunction silicone monocrystalline photoelectric converter of optic and radiation emissions, which contains diode cells with vertical single n+-p--p+(p+-n--n+) junctions located in them perpendicular to horizontal light receiving surface and horizontal n+-p-(p+-n-) junctions located in diode cells parallel to the light receiving surface. All the junctions are connected to a single structure with metal cathode and anode electrodes located on the surface of regions of n+(p+) type of vertical single n+-p--p+(p+-n--n+) junctions. Its diode cells include additional vertical n+-p-(p+-n-) junctions; at that, their regions of n+(p+) type are connected to regions of n+(p+) type of n+-p-(p+-n-) horizontal transitions to regions of - n+(p+) type of vertical single n+-p--p+(p+-n--n+) junctions. On its lower and side surfaces there located is a dielectric layer with thickness of less than length of path of radiation particles in the dielectric, on the surface of which a layer of radioactive metal is arranged, which has thickness that is equal to length of path of electrons in metal. Distance between electrodes of the diode cells does not exceed 2 lengths of the path of radiation particles. Besides, the invention proposes a manufacturing method of the above described silicone monocrystalline multijunction photoelectric converter of optic and radiation emissions.

EFFECT: improving efficiency of converters of radiation energy to electric energy; reducing their weight per unit of a surface area and enlarging their field of application.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to radiological imaging, computed tomography (CT), emission tomography, radiation detectors and prior art thereof. A radiation detector unit (20) comprises a detector array module (40) configured to convert radiation particles into electrical detection pulses, and an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) (42), operably connected to the detector array. The ASIC comprises a signal processing circuit (60) configured to digitise an electrical detection pulse received from the detector array, and a test circuit (80) configured to input an electrical test pulse into the signal processing circuit. The test circuit comprises a current meter (84) configured to measure an electrical pulse input into the signal processing circuit, and a charge pulse generator (82) configured to generate an electrical test pulse which is input into the signal processing circuit. The radiation detector unit (20) is assembled by operably connecting the ASIC (42) and the detector array module (40), and the signal processing circuit (60) of the ASIC of the assembled radiation detector unit is tested without using radiation.

EFFECT: high quality of testing a detector.

15 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: offered invention "Monolithic rapid coordinate detector of ionising particles" relates to semiconductor coordinate detectors of ionizing particles. The goals are achieved at the expense of the use of original circuit of the detector, where bipolar transistors, connected in a circuit with common collector, also due to functionally integrated monolithic design of the detector where the semiconductor substrate, generating the charge carriers, simultaneously appears to be a common collector area of bipolar structures of transistors.

EFFECT: purpose of invention is increase of speed and manufacturability of coordinate detector, that is especially important for creation of new generation of "detectors of trace neutrons" for detection of explosive substances, X-ray scanners for medical, customs and other applications characterised by higher quality of object images, compared with known analogues.

3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: semiconductor detector for detecting neutron-accompanying charged particles in a neutron generator with a static vacuum comprises a semiconductor detecting element placed in a dielectric housing, closed on both the side of the charged particle stream and the opposite side by metal layers electrically connected to current terminals, wherein the dielectric housing is made of vacuum-tight material with gas desorption capacity of no more than 510-8 mbarcm-2s-1, the detecting element is in form of a heterostructure which includes a substrate made of silicon carbide of the type n+6H-SiC, on which an expitaxial layer of silicon carbide of the type n-6H-SiC is grown, provided on the side opposite the substrate with a rectifying layer in the form of a Schottky barrier.

EFFECT: high radiation resistance of the semiconductor detector and efficiency of detecting neutron-accompanying charged particles.

2 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device for measurement of intensity of a dose of gamma-radiation of a nuclear power plant under conditions of a background noise from high-energy charged particles comprises a metal body-collimator, inside of which there are two parallel silicon plates, the outlets of which are connected to a circuit of anticoincidence, at the same time with the purpose to expand the energy range of recorded gamma-quanta to 10 MeV between plates of the silicon there is a filter from tungsten alloy for absorption of secondary electrons arising during interaction of gamma-quanta with the metal body-collimator.

EFFECT: expanded energy range of recorded gamma-quanta to energies specified for radiation of a nuclear power plant.

1 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: method to sort diamonds by electrophysical properties includes preliminary polarisation of diamonds, subsequent heating with permanent speed and registration of currents of thermally stimulated depolarisation, preliminary polarisation of the diamond is carried out by radiation with X-ray at temperature of 70-90C in the electric field, after radiation the diamond is cooled in the electric field to room temperature, afterwards they start heating and measurement of currents of thermally stimulated depolarisation, those diamonds are recognised good, in which values of current peaks in maxima at 130-170C and 190-230C is below the threshold value.

EFFECT: increased yield of good instruments.

3 cl

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: x-ray detector and its pixel circuit allow to cover a wide dynamic range using automatic selection of the sensitivity setting in each pixel, thus providing improved signal to noise ratio at all exposure levels. This invention describes several approaches to provide automatic sensitivity selection in the pixels. This ensures that weak signals are stored in a small capacitor or read out with a high sensitivity with corresponding good signal to noise ratio, while stronger signals are stored in larger capacitors or are read out with lower sensitivity so that no information is lost.

EFFECT: higher flexibility of the dynamic range.

9 cl, 20 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to semiconductor coordinate detectors of radiation particles. A MOS-diode cell of a solid radiation detector comprises a MOS-transistor, a bus of high positive (negative) power supply voltage and an output bus. The MOS-transistor is a depleted transistor of n (p) conductivity type (i.e. has an inbuilt channel), at the same time its gate area is connected to the common power supply bus, a drain - to the output bus, and the gate is connected to an anode (cathode) of the diode and to the first output of the resistor, the diode cathode (anode) is connected to the bus of high positive (negative) power supply voltage, the second output of the resistor is connected to the bus of negative (positive) shift voltage. Also a structure (a functionally integrated structure) of the MOS-diode cell of the solid radiation detector is proposed.

EFFECT: increased quality of detection.

8 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: multi-element semiconductor detector for detecting alpha-particles in a static vacuum neutron generator, having a detector housing, a semiconductor crystal wafer placed perpendicular to the stream of alpha-particles and detecting elements with electric contacts and current leads placed on both sides of the semiconductor crystal wafer. The semiconductor crystal wafer is configured to accommodate on both its sides all detecting elements with electric contacts and current leads, and is mounted around the periphery of a ceramic wafer, at whose centre there is an opening through which alpha-particles fall on the detecting elements; the ceramic wafer is mounted on a chassis, also having an opening through which alpha-particles fall on the detecting elements; the detecting elements are in form of strips made on the semiconductor crystal wafer by ion implantation, and electric contacts are made by sputtering metal onto the detecting elements. The strips of detecting elements on the same side of the semiconductor crystal wafer are parallel to each other and perpendicular to strips of detecting elements on the other side of the semiconductor crystal wafer.

EFFECT: high reliability and sensitivity of the detector.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: detector module (301) for detecting electromagnetic radiation (106) contains material (332) meant for converting incident electromagnetic radiation (106) into electric charge carriers, a charge-accumulating electrode (331) meant for accumulating the converted electric charge carriers, a screening electrode (334, 335) meant for creating a capacitor with the charge-accumulating electrode (331), and an evaluation circuit (312-315) which is electrically connected to the charge-accumulating electrode (331) and meant to evaluate electromagnetic radiation (106) based on the accumulated electric charge carriers.

EFFECT: high detector sensitivity.

19 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: nuclear physics; recording charged-particle associated neutrons in static-vacuum neutron generator.

SUBSTANCE: proposed semiconductor detector that can provide for recording charged-particle associated neutrons in static-vacuum neutron generator at recording speed of up to 107 particles per second has semiconductor recording element disposed in insulating case closed both on charged-particle flow end and on opposite end with metal layers electrically connected to current leads; current lead on charged-particle flow end is made in the form of stiff metal hold-down plate with holes opposite sensing zone of semiconductor recording element attached to insulating case; current lead connected at opposite end is made in the form of stiff metal plate pressed by means of spring-loaded member to semiconductor recording element; insulating case is made of vacuum-tight material of gas desorption capacity not over 5 x 10-8 millibar per cm-2 per sec-1; case may be made of ceramics.

EFFECT: enhanced recording speed.

2 cl, 3 dwg

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