Thick flat dipping ore deposits at big depths development method

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry and can be used during underground development of thick, more than 10–15 meters, flat dipping to 20–25 degrees ore deposits at deep depths, of more than 500 m. Method involves conducting of preliminary preparatory driving, ore withdrawal by chambers at ore body full capacity with leaving ore pillars, induced overlying rocks caving into chambers space at height of not less than ore body thickness, breaking of pillars and ore output from pillars under caved rocks. Prior to pillar mining forming protective layer along ore body soil by penetration and backfilling of mines with hardening mixtures. For protective layer openings filling ventilation and filling level is created, which also serves for overlying rocks caving into chambers space and outgoing air stream outlet. Above protective layer protected area is formed, where rock pressure is considerably lower, than in array outside of this zone, and pillar mining is performed by chamber-pillar development system with overlying rocks caving within this zone. At large depths with use of chamber-pillar development system with overlying rocks caving this condition enables to increase chamber robbing volume, chambers width, reduce pillars dimensions, achieve optimum losses parameters and ore dilution with considerable increase in safety of works.

EFFECT: more output from chambers is performed by loading and transportation machines, both with manual and remote control, rock from vent-filling horizon workings tunnelling is delivered into exhausted chambers.

1 cl, 3 dwg

 



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method of setting of allowable minimum power of ore body includes determination of the actual thickness of an ore body in the massif of rocks and useful component content. The geometrical parameters are determined: sublevel drift width and height, the distance between the roof and the soil of the next subfloor drifts, the width of unstable zone of roof breaks. The allowable minimum power of the ore body is determined mathematically, by substituting of numerical values of parameters in the mathematical formula. Comparing the actual and calculated value of thickness of the ore body, the expediency of production of a useful component from this ore body is determined.

EFFECT: invention allows to extract ore with the balance content of the useful component that provides efficiency of mining operations and subsequent treatment processes.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method involves driving of underground workings from open developed open-pit spaces, stowing of the developed space at extraction of pillars by means of underground work equipment. First, mine rock mass is strengthened under facilities by means of piles arranged along the surface area of surface facilities in inclined wells and shaped by filling of the wells with a hardening solution with installation of reinforcement elements in the centre of piles. Then, pillars are extracted at simultaneous stowing of the developed underground space with hollow rocks with laying on their surface of a strengthening coating.

EFFECT: improving reinforcement efficiency of mine rock massif in a zone of possible movement at extraction of ores, which provides their steady state and reliability of arrangement of surface facilities.

1 ex, 1 tbl, 4 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and, in particular, to underground mining represented by pitching and underlay lodes. Mining of stopes during excavation of lodes is carried out in two stages. At the first stage the mined space is filled in moving the front of stoping by removing after ore breaking in each stope cycle from each ore embankment only part of a broken rock mass in the form of a strip adjacent directly to the stoping, the width of which is determined by the formula. Since when breaking of each layer in the mined space of stope a part of the ore embankment is left, after breaking the whole block the mined space is completely filled with the broken ore mass. At the second stage of mining the block the waterproofing of all mine roadway layout is carried out at its outer contour and using the methods of physicochemical geotechnology the useful components are removed from the ore, filling the mined space, and the ore recycled in such a manner is left as a backfilling.

EFFECT: invention enables to improve the efficiency of underground mining of pitching and underlay lodes, to reduce the amount of unproductive works on maintaining mined space, increasing with the increase in the depth of exploitation.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the mining industry and can be used when mining comminuted ore deposits, including heavy and rich, overlain with soft mantle rocks. The chamber method of mining the heavy, valuable, comminuted ore deposits comprises sectoral mining of ore, followed by the formation of a hollow chamber in the form of a hexagonal prism. A dome preventing overhead caving is formed preliminary in over-ore rock mass of overlying rocks over cellular chamber. Under the dome in each section the chamber walls are formed. The timbering is created for the walls of hollow chambers followed by backfilling of concrete in it, successively from top to bottom to the entire depth of the ore body in each sector. The adjacent chambers are made in a similar manner to the formed chamber adjacent to it to form a unitary chamber cell structure. The chambers are connected by passages for easy operation.

EFFECT: invention enables to provide formation of vertical cell chambers with their subsequent use as an underground storage facility or premises for metallurgical production processes, reduction of costs for mining ore deposits.

2 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and can be used in underground mining of heavy steeply dipping deposits of unstable ores. The method of mining heavy steeply dipping deposits of unstable ore comprises separating the ore body to floors, and floors - to horizontal or low-inclined layers mined in descending order. The ore excavation within the second and subsequent layers under the filling array is carried out in stopes using combines of selective action. Transporting ore in stopes is carried out by load-haul-dumpers. The stopes after their passing are filled with hardening materials. The stopes of first order pass through the ore array, coal-cutting with stone stopes pass between the filling arrays created in adjacent stopes of the first order. When passing of the stopes of first order, their lateral surfaces in the lower parts adjacent to the base of stope, are shaped as planes perpendicular to the horizontal plane, in the upper parts adjacent to the roof, the lateral surfaces of the stopes of first order are shaped as planes inclined toward the adjacent coal-cutting with stone stopes. And the height of the lower parts of the lateral surfaces of stopes adjacent to the base of stope are raised to the height of load-haul-dumper, and the angle between the upper inclined parts of the side surfaces of the stope and the horizontal plane is determined from the expression.

EFFECT: invention enables to increase the rate of passing of the coal-cutting with stone stopes, to improve safety of mining operations.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and can be used in the development of steeply dipping ore deposits. The ore deposit is separated into tiers in height. The field is opened to the full depth or to the depth of known reserves and mined in ascending order. The lower and all overlying odd, regarding from below, tiers are mined with chambers with filling the chambers with dry rock fill, all the overlying even tiers - with the system with ore caving and host rocks. Even tier is mined after excavation of the chambers of underlying and overlying tiers and filling the least with the fill. The interchamber stopes within the tier between the chambers filled with dry rock and also mined with the system with caving.

EFFECT: invention enables to ensure the sustainability of the superincumbent bed during mining chambers and to reduce the area of damage of the earth surface.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: diamond mining plant comprises a separating factory, plants for metal smelting from minerals associated with diamonds, and a power unit with electric energy battery. At that at the plant the diamond mining harvester is used with the drilling device and the chamber of enrichment of diamonds, providing the ability to search a kimberlite pipe within the diamond field. The wells remaining after drilling are used as elements of a heat pump in heated objects. Metals melted in plants are used at the production site for the construction of buildings and power lines. The bases of the heated objects, including smelting plants over the blown-off underground are equipped with pylon foundations with reactors around the perimeter of the building, filled with water and oil. Under heavy equipment inside the building the pylons with reactors are placed, mounted annularly, combined with oil and water tori. The reactors from the side of heated part of the building are covered with insulation, and inside contain the heater and made with the ability to fill with water of their lower part and oil in the upper part of the reactor. When water freezes and high pressure is created in the reactor the oil is capable to enter to the upper oil torus with low pressure where from it can be pumped by the pump to the lower oil torus with the constant high pressure where from the oil is capable to enter along the pipe to the water jet to generate electricity. The opportunity of defrosting water in reactors is provided, alternately along the ring within the pylon, ensuring its stability. Under the pylon the under-pylon pad is located, that rests on the foundation cup, standing on a compacted layer of gravel. The over-pylon pad rests on the pylon, in which the rack is inserted, and the plates of lower floor rest on the under-pylon pad, under which a cold ventilated space is generated. On the over-pylon pad the upper floor rests, on which the equipment is installed, and including the melting furnace. The perimeter foundations are similarly equipped, which are made of reactors placed abutting to each other along the contours of the building.

EFFECT: increased productivity of diamond mining and related minerals, while ensuring ecological safety for the environment.

12 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method of development of powerful steeply dipping deposits of unstable ores consists of separating the ore body to the floors, and the floors - to the horizontal or gently sloping layers developed in descending order, removal of the ore within the layers with splits, stowing with the hardening materials, drifting of the splits of the second and subsequent layers under the stowing array. When drifting of the splits of the second and subsequent layers under the stowing array with keeping ahead the bottomhole of the split in its sides, represented by unstable ore array, at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the split the holes are drilled. Through the holes while they are ahead of the bottomhole of the split the bonding composition is injected in the rock mass. At that the distance between the holes is taken equal to twice the depth of penetration into the ore array in the vicinity of the hole of the bonding composition, and the length of the holes is determined using the expression.

EFFECT: improving the safety of mining operations, increase in the rate of penetration of the split and improving the quality of stowing operations.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises laying of perforated pipes to be advanced as ore is broken, filling said pipes with substance generating the power for broken ore cleanup and broken ore cleanup. Explosive is used as power generating substance. Explosive is fitted in said pipe and initiated while ore cleanup is performed by blast shock wave. Pipe perforations are located so that hole axes are parallel with laying side plane which allows pipe breaking in line of said holes and directing major part of blast air wave to lying side.

EFFECT: higher quality of laying side cleanup of broken ore.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry and may be used in development of thick edge ore bodies with unstable ores, for instance, kimberlite pipes, by the underground method. The method includes division of a deposit into panels and layers with their extraction in stopes in descending order and subsequent filling with hardening mixtures, parameters of layer stoping are increased along height and width to chamber dimensions, and along the length they are divided into sections, besides, chamber stopes and sections in the vertical-longitudinal section are given the shape of the isosceles trapezoid. Then their mining is carried out in stages so that during mining of each subsequent section the level of the haulage horizon is reduced by the height of the sectional haulage mine, for this purpose, initially, in the chamber-stop roof for all of its sections they arrange a common drilling-filling mine, and the sectional haulage mine, for each subsequent section, is mined under the filling massif of the earlier mined section, besides, after complete mining of the previous section its haulage mine in the reverse order is expanded to the width of the previously filled section, at the same time the direction of mining of chambers-stopes on each subsequent underlying layer is changed for the opposite one.

EFFECT: increased intensity of deposit mining in case of unstable ores, due to provision of stability of ore walls of stope entries during the whole period of performance of stoping works and exclusion of breaks in a filling massif, and also improved conditions for ventilation of mines.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes conditional separation of levels on chambers, which are made in form of stretched upwards hexahedron and placed in staggered order, at each lower level with displacement for half of chamber width in comparison to upper one. Preparation of each lower level is performed by driving field drift of main level, from which entries to ore deposit and orts to hanging side of deposit are driven, from orts ascending drifts are made and cut with cutting slits. For extraction of field resources a field sub-level drift is driven, entries and ore sub-level drift near lying side, from where orts are driven, from drift well fans are drilled and main resources of level are exploded through cutting slit. Outlet of ore from each chamber is performed through ends of outlet mines in main and intermediate levels. After removing main resources inter-level block is destroyed and ore from it is removed through entries of main level.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation and well extraction of resources of chambers with partial backfill of extraction space. Blocks of upper level relatively to blocks of lower level are placed in staggered order, while blocks are made in form of a stretched upwards hexahedron. Resources of block within one hexahedron are separated on two chambers, one of which, placed along periphery of hexahedron, after extraction and removal of ore from it is filled by hardening backfill. Second order chamber is made of hexahedron-like shape, extracted and removed under protection from artificial block on all six sides of this chamber. Removal of ore from first order chambers is performed through one removal mine - end of level ort and cross-cut in lower portion of block and intermediate sub-level cross-cuts.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes driving ventilation-backfill and drilling-loading gains, extraction of mineral resource by cross-directed chambers of rhombic or ellipsoidal shape, with displacement of adjacent levels chambers for half their width, with extraction of ore by wells explosion and backfill of extracted space. Directly above upper level protective ceiling is constructed with slant 5-6° towards hanging side of deposit. Width, height of chambers an height of upper level chambers, slanting angle of side walls of chambers is determined from mathematical expressions, on basis of stable calculated span of protective ceiling, width of drilling-loading gain and angle of inner friction of ore massif. After construction of protective ceiling ore in chamber is extracted by mines by exploding wells in compressed environment, while next mine is extracted after backfill of previous one. In unstable rocks, prone to cave-in, face of cleaning chambers is slanted at angle, appropriate to angle of natural slant of ore massif. In ores with rock layers cleaning chambers face is slanted at angle, appropriate for angle of falling of ore deposit.

EFFECT: higher safety, higher efficiency.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: preparation of resources of ore body is performed by driving in main level and on other levels of field backup drifts, from which drifts are driven and along lying side ore trench drifts are driven. Resources of levels are separated on sections, in each of which ascending lines are driven, from which sub-level ore drifts are driven and then ascending lines are cut on cut slits. Extraction of block deposits is realized via deep wells from trench drift and sub-level ore drifts. Outlet of ore mass is performed through ends of drifts into field drifts of levels and main level.

EFFECT: lower dilution and ore losses.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation of bottoms of blocks by driving drifts at main level from field backup drift, from which along lying side ore trench drift is driven, following extraction of block resources is performed from trench drift and sub-level mines. Outlet of ore mass is performed through drifts ends.

EFFECT: lower dilution and ore losses.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of deposits by panels, wherein drilling ascending lines are driven, drilling of wells fans from ascending lines and following extraction of mineral resource. Extraction of resources is performed in upward direction, while ascending lines are driven with deepening in rocks of lying block, concurrently on its soil metallic sheets are placed, on which firstly rocks are extracted, which are ten sent to previously extracted chambers. Extracted ore mass is let out of chamber and loaded at main level.

EFFECT: higher intensiveness of extraction, higher ore yield, decreased dilution.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, particularly for underground ore deposit mining.

SUBSTANCE: method involves mining the deposit by rooms in which raise drills are bored; drilling wells arranged in fan-like array and cutting mineral. Raise drill is deepened in lower wall rock and bottom thereof is covered with metal sheets. Ore is cut in parts simultaneously with rock excavation in the range from raise drill ground to room ground at original ore mass slope angle.

EFFECT: increased cutting intensity, reduced ore losses in lower wall rock at room fender due to impoverishment thereof.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly ore deposit development.

SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling sublevel drifts or crossdrifts, haulage roadways and drives along with cut rock unloading through drive ends, wherein drives extend for the full height and over full cross-section from haulage roadways; closing upper parts of drive ends with shields or crossbars before rock unloading so that shields or crossbars reach end part of unloading entries; discharging cut ore through lower parts of drive ends; increasing drive end widths and reducing lengths thereof for value determined from mathematical expressions taking into consideration height of main and end parts of unloading entry, depth of loading device bucket and natural inclination angles of ore mass to be discharged and generating line of ore bed.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of ore field development.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly underground mining.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises support member pivotally connected to enclosing member. The enclosing member is secured to posts by jack and is installed at an angle enough for ore mass sliding down. Lower part of enclosing member is located at height enough for loader bucket operation. Enclosing member length defined between mine roof and above enclosing member location height is determined from mathematical expression. Enclosing member width is equal to mine width.

EFFECT: increased effective cross-section of ore mass to be drawn and, as a result, increased ore piece dimensions, reduced mine driving volume, decreased losses and ore dilution, increased output.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly underground ore deposit development.

SUBSTANCE: method involves dividing ore deposit into mining levels, cutting the mining levels in descending order and filling excavated space with hardening filling material, wherein filling material is supplied from day surface via main filling holes drilled in ledge wall rock outside shifting zone, which is formed in ledge wall rock during full ore deposit development. The first layer is cut from one mining level boundary along ore deposit strike in direction to another mining level boundary. Additional filling holes are drilled in zone defined by two lines before the first mining level cutting. The first line is extension of resulting excavated space boundary from ledge wall side. The second line is extension of the first mining level boundary along ore deposit strike, from which mining level is cut. Main filling holes are drilled before putting additional filling hole out of operation. If additional filling holes are arranged within the shifting zone forming in ledge wall rock during full ore deposit cutting additional holes are operated up to cleaning work development stage. At cleaning work development stage additional well deformation is equal to threshold deformation values. Safe additional hole operation is impossible if deformations exceed above threshold values. In particular case additional filling holes are made along bisector of angle defined by two lines, namely by the first line, which is extension of resulting excavated space boundary from ledge wall side, and by the second line, which is extension of the first mining level boundary along ore deposit strike, from which mining level is cut.

EFFECT: reduced mine construction time.

2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex

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