Catalyst (versions), preparation method thereof and method of producing acetaldehyde
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalysts (versions) for producing acetaldehyde in isomerisation of ethylene oxide, as well as to a method of preparing said catalysts. Active component of catalyst comprises zeolite of structure: MTT, TON, having composition: x Al2O3 - y El2O - SiO2, where x=0.1-5·10-2; y=2·10-3, El is at least one of elements of group 1 of periodic table, a compound which is used for hydrothermal synthesis of zeolite, or zeolite of same composition and structure subjected to thermo-steam treatment, selected from following: MFI, MEL, BEA, FER, MOR, FAU. Invention also relates to a method of producing acetaldehyde in isomerisation of ethylene oxide by passing steam-gas mixture of ethylene oxide with gas diluent, which can be nitrogen and/or any inert gas, and/or carbon dioxide, and/or air, and/or water vapour, through a layer of catalyst in presence of disclosed catalysts (versions).
EFFECT: technical result is increasing conversion of ethylene oxide and selectivity on acetaldehyde, which provides high output of acetaldehyde.
9 cl, 1 tbl, 36 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of removing acetaldehyde from a mixture of methyl acetate, methanol and acetaldehyde, one of which involves: (a) feeding the mixture of methyl acetate, methanol and acetaldehyde into a rectification column; (b) rectification of the mixture of methyl acetate, methanol and acetaldehyde at pressure of 68.95 kPa (10 pounds/square inch) or higher to form a vapour stream output from the top of the column which is rich in acetaldehyde compared to the mixture, and a bottom residue poor in acetaldehyde compared to the mixture; (c) returning as reflux a portion of the vapour stream which is output from the top of the column into the rectification column; and (d) removing a stream of the bottom residue poor in acetaldehyde from the rectification column, where temperature of the vapour stream from the top of the column ranges from 85°C to 115°C. The invention also relates to a method of producing acetic acid, involving: (a) cleaning the mixture of methyl acetate, methanol and acetaldehyde with removal of acetaldehyde by: (i) feeding the mixture of methyl acetate, methanol and acetaldehyde into a rectification column; (ii) rectification of the mixture of methyl acetate, methanol and acetaldehyde at pressure of 68.95 kPa (10 pounds/square inch) or higher to form a vapour stream which is output from the top of the column which is rich in acetaldehyde compared to the mixture, and a bottom residue poor in acetaldehyde compared to the mixture; (iii) returning as reflux a portion of the vapour stream output from the top of the column into the rectification column; and (iv) removing a stream of the bottom residue poor in acetaldehyde from the rectification column; (b) feeding the cleaned stream of bottom residue into the reaction mixture for carbonylation together with carbon oxide, where the reaction mixture for carbonylation contains water, a catalyst selected from rhodium catalysts, iridium catalysts or mixtures thereof, a promoter from methyl iodide and acetic acid; and (c) extracting acetic acid from the carbonylation mixture, where temperature of the stream which is output from the top of the column ranges from 85°C to 115°C.
EFFECT: improved methods.
15 cl, 8 dwg, 6 tbl, 16 ex
SUBSTANCE: catalyst contains carrier from porous zeolite KL and binding agent and catalytically active substance - platinum. Carrier additionally contains tin tetrachloride pentahydrate nanopowder, and as binding agent - mixture of gibbsite and rutile powders in equal proportions, with particle size of each not exceeding 40 mcm. Ratio of ingredients is in the following range, wt %: platinum - 0.3-0.8, mixture of gibbsite and rutile powders - 25-70, zeolite KL - 29.12-74.69, tin tetrachloride pentahydrate - 0.01-0.08. Claimed catalyst is characterised by high activity in reactions of aromatisation of synthetic hydrocarbons.
EFFECT: invention also relates to method of obtaining such catalyst.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for producing a catalyst comprises a reservoir designed for preparing an aqueous mixed solution containing Mo compound, V compound and Nb compound, a dryer designed to spray-dry the aqueous mixed solution and a pipe for connecting the reservoir with the dryer such that the aqueous mixed solution can be fed from the reservoir into the dryer. In the apparatus, a heater designed to heat the aqueous mixed solution is mounted in the reservoir and/or the pipe, and a filter designed to filter the aqueous mixed solution is installed in the pipe. The apparatus and methods of producing a catalyst provide uniform supply of the prepared aqueous mixed solution into the dryer.
EFFECT: catalyst is then used in a method of producing an unsaturated acid or unsaturated nitrile.
20 cl, 6 dwg, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a catalyst composition for selective catalytic reduction of exhaust gas. The catalyst composition contains a vanadate of formula XVO4/S, where XVO4 denotes a vanadate of Bi, Sb, Ga and/or Al, optionally in a mixture with one or more vanadates of rare-earth metals, or in a mixture with one or more vanadates of transition metals, or in a mixture with one or more vanadates of transition metals and one or more vanadates of rare-earth metals, and S is a support which includes TiO2. A method of producing the catalyst composition is also disclosed.
EFFECT: improved heat resistance and improved NOx conversion activity of the supported catalyst composition.
13 cl, 1 dwg, 8 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a copper-zinc catalyst, which includes copper, zinc and aluminium oxides and an additional silicon compound. The catalyst contains 0.5-5.0 wt % of a silicon compound, with respect to the oxide, which is mixed with copper and zinc oxides. The catalyst is formed via heat treatment of aluminium hydroxide together with compounds of said components and has a porous structure with total specific pore volume of not less than 0.25 cm3/g and content of mesopores with a diameter of 10-40 nm higher than 60%, and the catalyst has the following composition, with respect to oxides, wt %: CuO - 40.0-55.0; ZnO - 24.0-35.0; SiO2 - 0.5-5.0; AlO3 - the balance.
EFFECT: forming a copper-zinc catalyst having high strength and thermal stability.
5 cl, 3 tbl, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of preparing a catalyst for cracking vacuum gas oil with controlled output of C3 and C4 olefins includes mixing an ultrastable zeolite Y in cation-decationated form and zeolite HZSM-5 with matrix components in the form of amorphous aluminosilicate, aluminium hydroxide and bentonite clay, spray drying the obtained composition, followed by calcination and obtaining a catalyst. Before mixing with catalyst components, aluminium hydroxide is treated with orthophosphoric acid to achieve phosphorus content with respect to aluminium oxide of 1 to 10 wt %. Content of the catalyst components is as follows, wt %: zeolite NRZEU 10-20, zeolite HZSM-5 2-20, aluminium hydroxide treated with orthophosphoric acid 10-20, amorphous aluminosilicate 28-38, bentonite clay 15-25.
EFFECT: obtaining a highly active catalyst, which provides controlled output of light C3-C4 olefins.
2 tbl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides, namely to a material of a carrier for the catalyst, used in the said process. The claimed carrier material represents particles of anatase titanium dioxide, including ≥85% by dry weight of TiO2 and ≤10% by dry weight of SiO2, with (i) SiO2 being mainly in the form, selected from the group, consisting of forms with the low molecular weight, nanoparticles and their combinations; and (ii) at least 50% of silicon atoms being in states Q3, Q2, Q1 and Q0 of the coordination environment. The invention also relates to a catalytic device for the neutralisation of Diesel exhaust, including such particles, a system for Diesel exhaust regulation, including the said catalytic device, a method in which the conversion of nitrogen oxides is catalysed in the presence of the claimed particles of anatase titanium dioxide, as well as to methods of obtaining the said particles.
EFFECT: claimed particles make it possible to increase the thermal stability of the final catalyst with the preservation or increase of the catalytic activity for the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides from mobile devices, operating on lean mixtures.
44 cl, 18 dwg, 15 tbl, 18 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an ammonia synthesis catalyst. Said catalyst is a supported metal catalyst which is deposited on a mayenite-type compound, containing conduction electrons in concentration of 1015 cm-3 or higher and serving as a support for the ammonia synthesis catalyst. The invention also relates to a method of producing said catalyst and an ammonia synthesis method using said catalyst.
EFFECT: disclosed catalyst enables synthesis of ammonia with high efficiency in mild conditions.
7 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl, 11 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of preparing a catalyst for producing a component of environmentally safe hydrocarbon-based drilling mud, having a boiling range of 188-304°C according to ASTM D 86, which includes preparing a paste from gel obtained by mixing boehmite Pural SB with a mixture of nitric acid and distilled water, triethylene glycol and zeolite HY with molar ratio SiO2/AlO3 equal to 30 or 60, the porous structure of which is a system of interconnected straight channels formed by 12-member rings with diameter of the entrance window of 7E, extrusion, holding at room temperature for 9-10 hours, drying, grinding to particle size of 2-4×2 mm and calcining. The invention also relates to a catalyst for producing a component of environmentally safe hydrocarbon-based drilling mud and a method of producing said component.
EFFECT: simple technique, low cost of production while maintaining physical and chemical properties and improved performance in a wide temperature range, cetane number of not more than 45, and complete absence of aromatic, amine- and sulphur-containing compounds.
7 cl, 6 tbl, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: described is a method of producing an aluminium-chromium catalyst by mixing an aluminium support with a suspension having clay mineral concentration of 28-37 wt % and with aqueous solutions of chromic acid and potassium alkali. The aluminium-chromium support has specific surface area of not less than 80 m2/g, contains not more than 30 wt % particles with size of less than 45 mcm, not more than 10 wt % particles with size of less than 20 mcm and not more than 1.0 wt % particles with size of more than 140 mcm. The obtained catalyst suspension is then spray dried. Also described is an aluminium-chromium catalyst which includes 12.0-16.0 wt % Cr2O3, 8.0-13.0 wt % SiO2, 2.0-3.6 wt % K2O and Na2O or only K2O, Al2O3 - the balance, where content of hexavalent chromium is 1.7-2.2 wt %.
EFFECT: obtaining a catalyst with a uniform composition, high mechanical strength, catalytic activity, selectivity and stability in processes of hydrogenating paraffin hydrocarbons into corresponding olefin hydrocarbons.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 13 ex
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to catalytic materials for chemical reactors. Said catalytic materials contain hybrid inorganic/polymer carriers and preliminarily obtained molecular catalysts immobilised on them. Hybrid inorganic/polymer carrier consists of hybrid inorganic/polymer compound, in which organic polymers are chemically bound with at least one inorganic compound, selected from the group, consisting of silicic acid compound, tungstic acid compound, molybdic acid compound and stannic acid, and immobilised preliminarily obtained molecular catalyst contains at least one atom or ion of transition metal, selected from groups IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB, VIII of periodic system of elements, which one or several ligand(s) is(are) bound with.
EFFECT: claimed catalytic material acts as heterogenic catalyst with selectivity, comparable with selectivity, observed in homogenous phase, with said catalyst being insoluble in reaction solvent and easily removable from reaction mixture.
27 cl, 3 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of producing a catalyst for catalytic cracking, a method of catalytic cracking and the obtained catalyst application. The method contains the supply of the fresh catalyst into a fluidised bed, where it contacts with water vapour or a regenerated flue gas, and its ageing under hydrothermal conditions, including the temperature of ageing of 400-850°C, the surface linear rate of the fluidised bed of 0.1-0.6 m/s and the ageing time of 1-720 hours with the further supply of the produced catalyst into an industrial installation of catalytic cracking. The fresh catalyst contains, with respect to the total catalyst weight, 1-50% by weight of zeolite, 5-99% by weight of inorganic oxide, selected from SiO2 and/or Al2O3, and 0-70% by weight of additional clay. Clay is selected from kaolin and/or halloysite. Zeolite is selected from medium-pore zeolite ZSM or ZRP and/or large-pore zeolites, selected from a rare-earth element Y(REY), rare-earth hydrogen Y(REHYK) of ultrastable zeolite Y and high-silica zeolite Y. Another method of obtaining the catalyst contains: (1) supply of the fresh catalyst into the fluidised bed, introduction of a hot regenerated catalyst into the regenerator, with the realisation of heat exchange between the fresh catalyst and the hot regenerated catalyst in the fluidised bed; (2) realisation of contact of the product, obtained at stage (1) with vapour or with the regenerated flue gas under hydrothermal conditions, including the temperature of ageing of 400-850°C, the surface linear rate of the fluidised bed of 0.1-0.6 m/s and the time of ageing of 1-720 hours to obtain an aged catalyst, and (3) supply of the catalyst, produced at stage (2), into an industrial installation of catalytic cracking.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to regulate the catalyst activity and selectivity in an installation of catalytic cracking more evenly and considerably improves the selectivity of the catalytic cracking catalyst to considerably reduce the output of dry gas and coke, effectively use vapour and reduce energy consumption in FCC cracking.
15 cl, 4 dwg, 4 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to filter for processing solid particles of exhaust gases of whatever combustion process. Filter comprises porous bed with intake and discharge surfaces. Note here that said surfaces are separated by porous structure with pores of the first average size. Note also that said porous structure is coated with coating including multiple solid particles. Note that porous substrate porous structure comprises pores of second average size smaller than that of the first average size. Mind that said coating is a catalytic coating selected from the group consisting of hydrocarbon trap, three-component catalyst, NOx absorber, oxidising catalyst, catalyst of selective catalytic reduction and catalyst for lean NOx. Note also that three-component catalyst comprises platinum and rhodium, palladium and rhodium or platinum, palladium and rhodium on substrate of oxide with high surface area, and component for oxygen store.
EFFECT: efficient cleaning.
35 cl, 6 dwg, 7 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: at the first step, the catalyst is heated in a hydrogen stream to temperature of 675…725°C and held at said temperature for 1…4 hours; at the second step, the catalyst is cooled to temperature not higher than 50°C and held at said temperature in a medium of an inert gas for 0.5…3 hours; at the third step, the catalyst is reheated in a hydrogen stream to temperature of the first step and held at said temperature for 0.5…2 hours.
EFFECT: catalyst activation enables to carry out the process of converting methane to aromatic hydrocarbons with high efficiency and achieve high output of aromatic hydrocarbons.
2 dwg, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a catalyst for producing isoparaffin-rich synthetic oil from CO and H2, and a method of producing said catalyst. The catalyst is a granular porous composite material containing a spatial heat-conducting mesh if aluminium metal and Raney cobalt and a linking component containing zeolite in H form. In the composite material, the fraction of macropores in the open porosity of the catalyst granules is 55-79% and the fraction of mesopores with size of 70-500 Е in the open porosity of the catalyst granules is 7-20%. The method of producing the catalyst includes mixing powder of the linking component, peptising the obtained mixture with a solution of nitric acid to obtain a linking component in form of a homogeneous gel, mixing the homogeneous gel with fine Raney cobalt powder, aluminium metal powder and a liquid phase to obtain a homogeneous paste, extruding the obtained paste to obtain granules and calcining the obtained granules. One of the powders of the linking component used is zeolite in H form.
EFFECT: improved mass transfer of reactants into the catalyst granules and high content of isoparaffins in the obtained oil.
13 cl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to transalkylation catalysts. Described is a catalyst for transalkylation of benzene with diethylbenzenes in form of cylindrical granules with a regular shape, which contains zeolite Y in an acidic H+ form, which contains 100 wt % zeolite with degree of substitution of Na+ ions with H+ ions of not less than 0.95 and more than 80% of volume of the transported pores of the granules is made up of pores with diameter larger than 100 nm. Described is a method of producing said catalyst, which involves preparation of cylindrical granules with a regular shape, involving drying and calcination of the granules, wherein to obtain the catalyst, zeolite NaY, which is granulated with binding material and has high phase purity, wherein more than 80% of the volume of the transported pores is made up of pores with a diameter larger than 100 nm, is successively treated with aqueous solutions of ammonium salts with concentration of 20-25 g/dm3 (with respect to NH4 +) with the ratio of mass of granules to volume of the solution of (1:6)-(1:7) and temperature of 80-90°C for 1.0-1.5 hours, alternating three or four steps of said treatment with two or three intermediate calcinations, respectively, at temperature of 540-600°C for 3-4 hours, drying at temperature of 120-150°C for 3-4 hours and calcining for 3-4 hours at temperature of 540-600°C. Described is a method for transalkylation of benzene with diethylbenzenes, involving reaction of benzene with diethylbenzenes in liquid phase at high temperature and pressure using said catalyst, wherein content of water in the material is less than 200 ppm.
EFFECT: high conversion of diethylbenzenes.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: subject of present invention is a novel method of producing olefins which is characterised as a cheap industrial process of producing olefins by direct reaction of a ketone and hydrogen in a single step. In particular, described is a novel method of producing olefins, wherein propylene is obtained with high selectivity by direct reaction of acetone with hydrogen. The method of producing olefins provided by the present invention involves reaction of a ketone and hydrogen in the presence of at least one dehydration catalyst and a silver-containing catalyst. The dehydration catalyst is selected from metal oxide catalysts which contain at least one group 6 (VIB) element, zeolites, aluminium oxides and salts of heteropoly acids wherein some or all protons in the heteropoly acids are replaced with metal cations.
EFFECT: providing a method of producing olefins.
9 cl, 3 tbl, 9 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to processing of various oil raw materials, and namely gas condensates and oil distillates with end boiling point of not more than 400°C to high-octane gasolines, diesel fuel of A grade or fuel for jet engines. The description of processing method of hydrocarbon raw material to gasoline with end boiling point of not more than 195°C and octane number of not less than 83 points as per motor method, as well as motors is provided, which consists in conversion of hydrocarbon raw material in presence of porous catalyst at temperature of 250-500°C, pressure of not more than 2.5 MPa, mass flows of raw material of not more than 10 p-1. As initial raw material there used are hydrocarbon distillates of various origin with end boiling point of not more than 400°C and separated into three fractions: nk-180, 180-280 and 280-kk°C; then, mixture of two fractions nk-180°C and 280-kk°C is subject to catalytic processing, and fraction separated from products of catalytic processing in the reactor at the outlet of which the products are cooled and separated in separator into gas phase and mixture of motor fuels, dispersed into gasoline and diesel fraction; at that, diesel faction is compounded with the third 180-280°C fraction.
EFFECT: increasing the output of diesel fuel or fuel for jet engines.
8 cl, 12 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemistry. Disclosed is a dispersion which contains pyrogenic powder of mixed silicon and titanium oxide containing 75-99.99 wt % silicon dioxide and 0.01-25 wt % titanium dioxide, water and a basic quaternary ammonium compound, wherein the average combined particle diameter of the powdered mixed silicon and titanium oxide in the dispersion is not greater than 100 nm. A method of preparing the dispersion is also disclosed.
EFFECT: invention shortens the time for synthesis of titanium-containing zeolite.
8 cl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to isomerisation catalysts. Described is a catalyst for isomerisation of C8-aromatic compounds, containing: a) 1-90 wt % MTW-zeolite; b) 10-99 wt % binding material which is gamma aluminium oxide, where the gamma aluminium oxide is obtained from aluminium oxide in form of boehmite;where a) and b) form an initial base, c) 0.1-2 wt % noble metal in terms of the initial base; and d) at least one alkali metal, where total content of the alkali metal in the catalyst is at least 100 pts. wt in terms of the initial base; e) where the catalyst has pore volume distribution and at least 70% of the pore volume of the catalyst is defined by pores having diametre of greater than 100 Å.
EFFECT: isomerisation catalyst enables to carry out isomerisation with minimisation of loss of C8-rings.
10 cl, 5 tbl, 1 dwg, 13 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention also relates to synthesis of mesostructured zeolites. The invention discloses materials which have a long-range order and contain multiple mesopores, where the cross-sectional area of all mesopores is virtually equal. The materials are characterised by controlled mean diametre of mesopores or thickness of the wall between mesopores equal to 1-5 nm. The invention describes versions of methods of producing and using zeolite materials, e.g. as catalyst for cracking organic compounds, polymer degradation catalysts and sorbents for purifying water.
EFFECT: invention enables production of zeolite material with ordered mesoporosity.
29 cl, 22 dwg, 7 ex