Catalyst for ethanol processing and method of obtaining acetaldehyde and hydrogen from ethanol with application thereof
SUBSTANCE: catalyst represents mesoporous silica gel (Ssp.=100-300 m2/g) with applied on its surface silver in a quantity of 1-8% of the catalyst weight, which is in a highly disperse (nanosize) condition with the average size of particles of 2.8 nm. The claimed catalyst contains one or several oxides from CeO2, MnOx, ZrO2, FeOx with their summary content of 0.5-8% of the catalyst weight. The claimed invention also relates to methods of obtaining acetaldehyde and acetaldehyde together with hydrogen.
EFFECT: catalyst has high activity in the transformation of ethanol into acetaldehyde.
3 cl, 3 dwg, 3 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of removing acetaldehyde from a mixture of methyl acetate, methanol and acetaldehyde, one of which involves: (a) feeding the mixture of methyl acetate, methanol and acetaldehyde into a rectification column; (b) rectification of the mixture of methyl acetate, methanol and acetaldehyde at pressure of 68.95 kPa (10 pounds/square inch) or higher to form a vapour stream output from the top of the column which is rich in acetaldehyde compared to the mixture, and a bottom residue poor in acetaldehyde compared to the mixture; (c) returning as reflux a portion of the vapour stream which is output from the top of the column into the rectification column; and (d) removing a stream of the bottom residue poor in acetaldehyde from the rectification column, where temperature of the vapour stream from the top of the column ranges from 85°C to 115°C. The invention also relates to a method of producing acetic acid, involving: (a) cleaning the mixture of methyl acetate, methanol and acetaldehyde with removal of acetaldehyde by: (i) feeding the mixture of methyl acetate, methanol and acetaldehyde into a rectification column; (ii) rectification of the mixture of methyl acetate, methanol and acetaldehyde at pressure of 68.95 kPa (10 pounds/square inch) or higher to form a vapour stream which is output from the top of the column which is rich in acetaldehyde compared to the mixture, and a bottom residue poor in acetaldehyde compared to the mixture; (iii) returning as reflux a portion of the vapour stream output from the top of the column into the rectification column; and (iv) removing a stream of the bottom residue poor in acetaldehyde from the rectification column; (b) feeding the cleaned stream of bottom residue into the reaction mixture for carbonylation together with carbon oxide, where the reaction mixture for carbonylation contains water, a catalyst selected from rhodium catalysts, iridium catalysts or mixtures thereof, a promoter from methyl iodide and acetic acid; and (c) extracting acetic acid from the carbonylation mixture, where temperature of the stream which is output from the top of the column ranges from 85°C to 115°C.
EFFECT: improved methods.
15 cl, 8 dwg, 6 tbl, 16 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of continuous or semi-continuous obtaining phenol from cumene via cumenehydroperoxide (CHP), as well as to the installation for its realisation. The claimed method includes: a) obtaining CHP by oxidation of cumene with an oxygen-containing gas in an airlift reactor, including: a1) cylindrical construction, equipped with lower and upper locking elements, with the said elements being respectively provided with means for the supply of reagents and means for the discharge of reaction products (mainly CHP), vapours and the gas which did not react; a2) second in fact cylindrical construction (vertical channel), open at ends (bases), located inside and coaxially to the first construction; and a3) toroidal gas-distributor, located in the reactor base around the second in fact cylindrical construction; b) increase of the concentration of a CHP-containing solution, discharged from the airlift reactor to, at least, 70 wt %; c) obtaining phenol by means of the reaction of acidic CHP cleavage in the presence of acetone, in a circulation reactor, in which the reaction heat is discharged into two heat-exchangers, located successively in the cycle. In the airlift reactor for CHP obtaining the vertical channel is provided with an upper and/or lower cone-like extension in such a way that the ratio A1/A2 of the larger transverse section A1 to the smaller transverse section A2 of the said cone-like extension constitutes from 1.1 to 2, and in the circulation reactor for obtaining phenol points of CHP and acetone supply are located in pairs and each pair is located upward in the flow relative to each heat-exchanger.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve selectivity with respect to CHP at the stage of cumene oxidation and obtain phenol with high selectivity at the stage of CHP cleavage.
12 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method to produce isopropanol is carried out in process of at least two reaction stages of hydrogenation, at the same time each reaction stage includes a reaction zone of hydrogenation, where the hydrogenation product released from the reaction zone of the first reaction stage contains a non-reacted acetone, and a flow of products containing acetone and isopropanol is supplied into the reaction zone of the next reaction stage, at the same time the specified flow of products at the inlet to the reaction zone of the specified next stage has temperature from 60 to 100°C. At the same time the temperature of the flow of products released from the reaction zone of the specified next reaction stage, at the outlet of the specified reaction zone is at least by 40°C higher than the temperature of the flow of products arriving into the specified reaction zone at the inlet to the specified reaction zone, and the temperature in the specified next reaction zone does not exceed 125°C.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to produce isopropanol of high degree of purity.
23 cl, 2 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a continuous method of removing methylbenzofuran and hydroxyacetone from a stream of crude phenol containing methylbenzofuran and hydroxyacetone. The method involves passing the stream of crude phenol through at least two successive reactors containing an acidic ion-exchange resin, where temperature in the successive reactors drops in the direction of flow of phenol such that temperature in the first reactor in the direction of flow phenol ranges from 100 to 200°C, and temperature in the next reactor in the direction of flow of phenol ranges from 50 to 90°C, without a step for thermal separation between the two successive reactors. The invention also relates to a method of producing phenol used in said phenol purification method.
EFFECT: group of inventions is an efficient and cheap method of purifying phenol to obtain highly pure phenol.
15 cl, 3 ex, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the way of production of phenol, acetone and α-methylsterene, and to the installation for its implementation. The way consists in decompounding of cumene hydroperoxide and dimethylphenyl carbinol that are included into the technical cumene hydroperoxide, in the solvent with the presence of heterogeneous catalyst by means of catalytical distillation in the continuous isothermal mode at the boiling point of the solvent and with the latter's recirculation; as a solid heterogeneous catalyst, heteropoly acid H3PW12O40 or caesium-displaced salt of heteropoly acid Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 is applied on the silicon dioxide, and as a solvent, acetone is employed. As a bearer, mesoporous silicon dioxide of MCM-41 grade is used, and decompounding of the cumene hydroperoxide and dimethylphenyl carbinol is carried out in two stages; the first stage stipulates decompounding of cumene hydroperoxide thus releasing phenol and acetone, and the second one - of dimethylphenyl carbinol thus releasing a-methylsterene; the mesoporous silicon dioxide and heteropoly acid or caesium-displaced salt of the heteropoly acid are used with the following component ratio, weight %: heteropoly acid - 10-50; silicon dioxide - the rest; or caesium-displaced salt of the heteropoly acid - 10-20; silicon dioxide - the rest.
EFFECT: decompounding of the cumene hydroperoxide and dimethylphenyl carbinol with 100 % conversion and 100 % selectance.
8 cl, 1 dwg, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of producing phenol involves: a) oxidising cumene to obtain an oxidation product containing cumene hydroperoxide; b) splitting said oxidation product using an acid catalyst to obtain a splitting product containing phenol, acetone, hydroxyacetone and impurities; c) neutralising and washing said splitting product with an alkaline aqueous medium to form a neutralised splitting product; d) separating said neutralised splitting product via at least one distillation step to obtain at least a fraction containing phenol, and an aqueous fraction containing hydroxyacetone; e) treating said aqueous fraction with an oxidative reagent in the presence of a base to obtain an alkaline aqueous medium with low content of hydroxyacetone; f) recirculating at least a portion of said aqueous alkaline medium to the neutralisation and washing step (c) and g) extracting phenol from said phenol-containing fraction obtained at step d).
EFFECT: obtaining the desired product with efficient removal of the by-product - hydroxyacetone.
25 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of decomposing cumene hydroperoxide with an acid catalyst to phenol and acetone in the system of a hollow reactor with back-mixing and swirling motion of reaction products, cooling the decomposition reaction mass in a cooling heat exchanger, using a catalyst system in form of 0.3-0.5 wt % solution of sulphuric acid in acetone, while feeding the catalyst into suction line of a circulating pump in the medium of the reaction mass, regulation of residual content of hydroperoxide at the end of the back-mixing cycle using a "control decomposition tube", in which a small portion of the reaction mass is mixed with the whole amount of the acid catalyst fed into the decomposition system, decomposition of the reaction products output from the back-mixing system by heating, holding in a structured flow apparatus and stepwise reduction of acidity in said apparatus by feeding water at the end of the first quarter of the length of the apparatus and fast cooling of the reaction mixture at the output of the structured flow apparatus. The volume of the hollow reactor in the back-mixing system is equal to or greater than the volume of the inter-tube space of the cooling heat exchanger of the reaction mass, wherein a constant amount of a portion of the acid catalyst per constant amount of the reaction mass is fed into the "control decomposition tube", the remaining portion of the catalyst through the flow regulator from the temperature difference at the ends of the "control decomposition tube" is directly fed into the suction line of the circulating pump, and mixing the decomposition reaction mass with the acid catalyst at the input of the tube with structural length in order to reduce the distance from the point of contact of the decomposition reaction mass with the catalyst to the first thermocouple of the "control decomposition tube".
EFFECT: invention enables to conduct a high-selectivity process for decomposition of cumene hydroproxide.
2 tbl, 2 dwg, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing phenol and acetone through acid-catalysed decomposition of cumene hydroperoxide in series-connected reactors in two steps at high temperature with simultaneous formation of dicumyl peroxide at the first step followed by its decomposition in a reaction medium at the second step. The process is carried out using a catalyst in form of 2-hydroxy- benzene sulphonic acid of general formula , where X and Y denote hydrogen, alkyl, arakyl, halogen, oxyalkyl, sulpho group, alkyl(2-hydroxy benzene sulphonic acid group) in amount of 0.1-1 mmol/l.
EFFECT: method enables to obtain desired products with high output while maintaining low content of hydroxy acetone in the reaction mass.
2 cl, 9 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to production of phenol, method of extracting phenol from products of splitting cumene hydroperoxide and to a device for extracting phenol from products of splitting cumene. The method of producing phenol involves the following stages: i) oxidation of cumene, obtaining a reaction mixture containing cumene hydroperoxide and unreacted cumene; ii) splitting products obtained from stage i), obtaining a mixture of splitting products containing at least phenol, acetone, hydroxyacetone, unreacted cumene and water; iii) treatment of the mixture of splitting products obtained on stage ii) through distillation, which involves separation of the mixture of splitting products into at least three fractions using a single fractional distillation stage through: putting the mixture of splitting products into a distillation column, removal of the first fraction, containing acetone, from the upper part of the distillation column, removal of the second fraction, containing phenol, from the lower part of the distillation column, and removal of the third fraction, containing at least unreacted cumene, hydroxyacetone and water, in form of an off-stream. The outlet opening of the off-stream is higher the area for putting in the mixture of splitting products into the distillation column, characterised by removal of heat from the distillation column. The section for removing heat is higher than the outlet opening of the off-stream of the third fraction.
EFFECT: increased energy efficiency of methods using old technology, while maintaining quality standards and total output of end products.
25 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of producing cumene includes interaction of benzene with acetone and hydrogen with catalytic compound added as containing one or more zeolite in acid form or preferentially acid form, copper and, optionally, one or more element chosen from elements of groups IIIA, VIB, VIIB. Additionally the given invention concerns method of producing phenol with using cumene prepared by the method as described, catalytic compound for production cumene, and also methods of producing catalytic compound for cumene.
EFFECT: application of the methods and catalytic compounds specified above allows simplifying considerably producing phenol from cumene, allowing for simultaneous one-stage reaction for all chemical transformations required to produce high-yield cumene from acetone, benzene and hydrogen with minimum amount of secondary reactions of various reagents, intermediate compounds and products.
69 cl, 16 ex, 2 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: one of method versions is carried out in presence of catalyst with strong acidity in one or several reaction zones with further separation of reaction mixture by means of rectification and possibly partial recycling into reaction zone(s) of one or several components of reaction mixture. Decomposition is carried out in presence of inert easily-boiling solvent, which contains mainly hydrocarbons, whose boiling temperature is lower than 70°C, preferably lower than 40°C, but not lower than minus 1°C, which is partially evaporated directly from reaction zone(s) and partially distilled from obtained reaction mixture, is in liquid state returned to reaction zone(s) with supporting in it (them) temperature from 1 to 70°C, preferably from 10 to 45°C. Second method version is carried out in presence of catalyst with strong acidity in one or several reaction zones with further separation of reaction mixture by means of rectification. Applied is easily-boiling solvent, which after separation from reaction mixture, possibly with part of ketone, is recycled into reaction zone(s), and sulfocationite catalyst in H+ form, resistant in liquid media, containing alkylaromatic hydroperoxides, ketones, phenol and hydrocarbons in large amount, at temperatures up to 70°C, in fine-grain or coarse-grain form, possibly, in form of mass-exchange filling with size from 1.5 to 25 mm.
EFFECT: obtaining phenol and ketones without formation of large amount of by-products and resins and practically without equipment corrosion.
14 cl, 1 dwg, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalytic systems based on organophosphorous compounds, complex-forming, suitable for hydrocyanation and hydroformylation of alkenes of formulas M[Lf]t(V) or HM[Lf]t+nCO4-n(VI), where M is transition metal, t is number from 1 to 10, n is number from 1 to 4, Lf stands for organofosphorous ligand of formulas:
where R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R7, Z stand for hydrogen atom, C1-12alkyl, phenyl, optionally substituted with 1-3 substituents, selected from C1-6-alkyl and hydroxy-C1-6-alkyl, or C1-12halogenalkyl; X, X1 and X2 stand for O or S, R6 stands for covalent bond, C6-aryl or several bound C6-aromatic cycles, n and n1, stand for valence X1, X2, reduced by 2.
EFFECT: claimed are novel effective catalysts of hydrocyanation and hydroformylation.
13 cl, 30 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves: a) heterogeneously catalysed vapour-phase partial oxidation of a starting organic compound selected from propylene, propane, isobutylene, isobutane, acrolein or methacrolein with molecular oxygen in a parallel-functioning system of oxidation reactors containing catalysts, which results in formation of two gas streams respectively containing the desired compound and respectively formed in one of two systems of oxidation reactors, and b) subsequent extraction of the desired product from two streams of the obtained gas to form at least one stream of crude desired product according to which c) before extraction of two from two streams, the obtained gas is mixed with each other into a mixed stream. In case of change in selectivity of formation of the desired product and/or by-products during operation the entire amount or partial amount of catalyst is replaced in parallel with fresh catalyst not in all parallel-functioning systems of oxidation reactors in which end products contained in the mixed stream are formed.
EFFECT: improved method of obtaining acrolein, acrylic acid, methacrolein or methacrylic acid as the desired product.
2 cl, 4 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: organic chemistry, chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention describes a novel method for synthesis of 1,2,4-triazole derivatives of the general formula (I): wherein R means radicals phenyl, benzyl, 4-phenylthiazole-2-yl or 4-methyl-5-carbethoxythiazole-2-yl; R1 means radicals acetyl, trifluoroacetyl, succinoyl, benzoyl, methylbenzoyl or toluenesulfonyl. Method involves addition of an acylating agent of the general formula (IV): R1X wherein R1 means abovementioned values; X means chlorine atom (Cl) or group OR1 wherein R1 means abovementioned values to a mixture of 3,5-diamino-1-R-1,2,4-triazole of the general formula (II): wherein R means abovementioned values, aprotonic solvent, for example acetonitrile or dimethylformamide, and an organic base (III) that represents triethylamine or pyridine. The interaction is carried out at temperature (-10)-(+120)°C and stirring in the mole ratio II : III : IV = 1.00:(1.15-1.40):(1.05-1.35), respectively. The proposed method provides preparing the end compound with high purity degree and without over consumption of reagents.
EFFECT: improved method of synthesis.
2 cl, 11 ex
< / BR>in which a represents the residue of the benzene cycle; radical or radicals R are identical or different and denote one of the following groups: alkyl, linear or branched, having 1-6 carbon atoms, preferably 1-4 carbon atoms, such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, sec.butyl, tert.butyl, alkoxy, linear or branched, having 1-6 carbon atoms, preferably 1-4 carbon atoms, such as methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, isopropoxy, butoxy, a radical of the formula-R1-X, in which R1mean valence bond; X is a halogen atom, preferably a chlorine atom, bromine or fluorine, n is a number less than or equal to 4, preferably 0 or 1, by reaction of the compounds with allermuir agent of formula II
< / BR>in which X' represents a chlorine atom and R3means alkyl, linear or branched, having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms, preferably 1-4 carbon atoms, in the presence of a zeolite catalyst, characterized in that carry out the mixing in any way aromaterapiey layer of catalyst, and recycle the reaction mixture was released from the catalytic layer, through the catalytic layer as many times as necessary to obtain the desired degree of conversion of the aromatic compounds
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalysis. Described is a catalyst for dehydrogenating alkylaromatic compounds, which contains oxides or iron, potassium, caesium and/or rubidium, magnesium and/or calcium, molybdenum compounds which can be decomposed to oxides, portland cement and samarium oxide, with the following content of components (with respect to oxides), wt %: potassium oxide - 8-22; magnesium oxide and/or calcium oxide - 0.5-10; molybdenum oxide - 0.5-5; portland cement - 5-10; samarium oxide - 1-5; caesium oxide and/or rubidium oxide - 0.05-5; iron oxide - the balance.
EFFECT: high stability of the catalyst, resistance to catalytic poisons.
1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production and application of hydrocarbon dehydration catalysts. Proposed catalyst represents a stainless steel, nickel or copper substrate with one side coated with polyacrylonitrile (UV-PAN) pyrolised by UV radiation. Opposite side of said substrate has the layer containing nanoparticles of alloys Pt-Ru, Pt-Re, Pt-Rh or Pd-Ru distributed in UV-PAN film. Proposed method comprises application of PAN layer of its solution in organic solvent on said substrate, draying, irradiation by UV light and application on opposite side of precursor, i.e. combined solution of PAN with compounds of Pt or Pd c Ru or Re or Rh at the ratio of Pt(Pd):Ru(Re,Rh)=(7÷10):1 with introduction of fine carbon material into said solution. It includes also the stepwise irradiation by UV light of definite intensity at every step and cooling. Method of hydrocarbon dehydration is implemented at the plant with through-flow membrane reactor wherein obtained catalyst divides the plant into dehydration zone and that wherein hydrogen selectively diffuses.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and catalyst stability, efficient dehydration.
9 cl, 1 tbl, 11 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a catalyst used to produce methyl formate via gas-phase dehydrogenation of methanol, and a method of producing methyl formate using said catalyst. Described is a catalyst for dehydrogenating methanol used to produce methyl formate, which contains copper, zinc and aluminium oxides, a phosphoric acid compound and an alkali metal bromide. Described also is a method of producing methyl formate, which includes a step for gas-phase dehydrogenation of methanol using the methanol dehydrogenation catalyst described above.
EFFECT: improved output and selectivity of formation of methyl formate and excellent longevity and thermal of the disclosed catalyst.
8 cl, 4 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: at the first stage a flow containing first non-saturated hydrocarbon contacts first dehydration catalyst with temperature factor T1 and selectivity factor S1; at the second stage the first stage reaction product containing first and second non-saturated hydrocarbon contacts second dehydration catalyst with temperature factor T2 and selectivity factor S2, so that T1<T2 and S1<S2. Temperature factor denotes temperature in °C, at which a single dehydration catalyst sustains 70 molar % of the first non-saturated hydrocarbon transformation in definite conditions, and selectivity factor denotes selectivity in molar %, which is achieved for the second non-saturated hydrocarbon.
EFFECT: high general selectivity at low operation temperature and high volume flow rate.
14 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex