Metal-dielectric structure and method of its manufacturing

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: metal-dielectric structure and method of its manufacturing are related to electronic industry and electronic engineering and may be used both in modern energy-saving systems and components being an integral part of modern processors, in particular for development of microsized and nanosized electromechanical systems. The metal-dielectric structure consists of dielectric and conducting layers made as an assembly of capillaries filled with metals to the required length, at that conducting layers are etched on selective basis at different butt ends and metalised. The conducting layers are represented by two different types of electroconductive materials etched on selective basis at different butt ends, at that the conductive layers may be made of semiconductor materials, conducting glass, carbon nanoparticles and nanotubes while the dielectric layers may be made of optical and electron-tube glass, polymer materials. In cross-section the dielectric and conducting layers may be made as concentric circles. The manufacturing method for the above metal-dielectric structure includes assembly, overstretching, stacking to the unit, at that upon multiple overstretching vacuum filling with conducting materials is performed, and butt ends are etched on selective basis with different chemical composites and then they are metalised.

EFFECT: invention allows increasing capacitance and breakdown voltage for capacitors.

5 cl, 7 dwg

 

The invention relates to electronic industry and electrical engineering and can find application in modern energy-saving systems and components that are an integral part of modern processors, in particular for creating micro - and nanoscale Electromechanical systems. The design of the metal-insulator-metal nanoscale level can be used to create energy-storage devices called capacitors to create elements (cells) of memory for integrated circuits, in high-q circuits, decoupling elements and backup power sources.

Very intensive research in the development of devices able to store large amounts of electrical energy. The diversity of applications leads to an exceptionally large variety of types of capacitors used with modern appliances. Therefore, along with miniature capacitors can meet high-voltage capacitors with several tons of weight and height exceeding human growth. The current capacity of the capacitors can range from fractions of PF to several tens and even hundreds of thousands of microfarads per unit, and the nominal operating voltage may be in the range from a few volts to several hundred kilovolts.

The Glo�NY electrical capacitors United States patent US 5.856.907, U.S. patent US 6.180.252 having a large specific capacity based on solid dielectrics, such as capacitors, and the dielectric BaTiO3have a large dielectric constant ε>1000 and specific capacitance of the order of 0.3 f/cm3. However, in most energy applications such specific capacity is insufficient.

Obviously, the advantage of capacitors prior to electrochemical batteries is the possibility of accumulation of energy and an unlimited number of recharge cycles. However, in capacitors, made by the above patents, is used, the barium titanate with a high degree of alloying metals. This leads to the transformation of the dielectric in a semiconductor. This leads to large leakage currents, resulting in rapid loss of stored energy. Therefore, to use these capacitors for long-term storage of energy is not effective.

Known another type of capacitors with high specific capacity USA patent US 4.697.224, US 5.557.497. This so-called supercapacitors, having an electric double layer formed between the liquid electrolyte and the electrode. To increase the specific capacity of the electrode is made from a variety of materials with large specific surface area, for example, patent RU 2160940. However, the use of electrolytes of the case�t them unreliable in operation, but also leads to high leakage currents, which reduces energy storage. In addition, the low specific stored energy is not possible in practically important cases to replace electrochemical batteries.

You know, N. F. Borrelli, etc. Electric-field-induced birefringence properties of high-refractive-index Glasses exhibiting large Kerr nonlinearities. J. Appl. Phys. 70 (5). 1.09.1991, EA fiber glass with electrodes embedded in it directly in the drawing process, could open the possibility of its practical application. This is evidenced by the current patents in which the subject matter is silica or polymer optical fiber with electrodes, and also patents on methods of manufacturing such fibers, based on traditional methods of drawing optical fibres (method "rod-tube and double-crucible method.).

These methods are extremely complex and require precision process units.

The article D. J. Welker, etc. Fabrication and characterization of single-mode electro-optic polymer optical fiber. Optics Letters / Vol.23. No.23. December 1. 1998 described a method of manufacturing a single-mode electro-optic polymer fiber. As the shell used polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as the core - PMMA doped scattering red azo dye, as electrodes is indium. First, a preform is made from two poluchil�ndraw, inside which are placed in the grooves of the core and the electrodes. The semi-cylinders are placed in a preform with a diameter of 12.7 mm and a length of 100 mm and preforms pull the fiber diameter 125 um fiber diameter of 10 μm, a length of 1 km. However, the described fiber construction does not allow to obtain a homogeneous fiber transmission and resistance due to the high interdiffusion of polymer components in the hot zone of the hood. The result can be obtained suitable for measuring only short periods.

Known "Zhelobkovoi optical fiber electrode and its manufacturing method" described in U.S. patent No. 5.768.462, Int. CL. G02B 6/02, Jun. 16, 1998, "Grooved optical fiber for use with an electrode and a method for making same". Optical fiber at the specified patent is made of quartz glass. With the aim of creating a difference in the refractive index in the core and the shell in the core of the added germanium, and in the shell - fluorides. On the outer surface of the fiber grooves are made along the fiber, which is placed the electrodes, to which is attached an electrical voltage, which changes the refractive properties of the fiber. The electrodes used wire of gold with a diameter of 25 μm. For the manufacture of fiber using traditional technology - drawing of rod-shape. First made of rod with grooves along the generatrix, then rod load�are in the furnace using a high-frequency inductor to the melting point and pull fiber, spooling it on a reel. In the grooves of the stacked electrodes made of gold wire along the entire length of the fiber.

The disadvantages of this solution are: first, the fiber material is quartz, secondly, it is very difficult to lay electrodes with a diameter of 25 μm along the fiber in a groove formed in the fiber thickness of about 200 μm, when the fiber length, and cannot be effectively operating electric field applied to the active light-guiding gilet.

Known patent RU 2247414 on electro-optical fiber comprising a light-guiding core and a shell made of glass, and the conductive electrodes placed along the fiber. Moreover, the conductive electrodes form in the cross section of the fiber pair of symmetrical geometric shapes of a given shape and size, arranged in the light-absorbing shell with diametrically opposite sides relative to the core, wherein one side of each shape is close to a boundary between the light-guiding and light-absorbing shell, all glass design elements are fibers made from materials agreed by the temperature coefficient of linear expansion with a difference of ±5×10-7K-1. However, the close location of the absorbing material to the light-guiding gilet leads to large losses due to absorption, and nasogenian�nce on the temperature coefficient of linear expansion of the conductive electrodes with glass elements construction leads to the rupture of conductive electrodes while stretching and cooling design of the fiber.

Known patent US 6421224 B1, in which the microstructure capacitor made of silicon on the substrate. First is the process of etching liquid and then stops the restrictive layer. Thus, a uniform etching. After etching to form pores on the silicon layer, a thin film with a high dielectric. Further, thin-film metal layer is formed. Metal layers are uniformly distributed in the pores connected with each other and thus form a metal-dielectric structure (microstructure capacitor). Use different methods of joining metals for the formation of the microstructure of a capacitor with different structures. For example, the microstructures can be stacked on each other to form a multilayer metal-dielectric structure to form the multi-microcondenser. Each of microcondenser has a very small size and high capacity. However, the porous structure, which is formed by etching a silicon layer on the substrate has a low aspect ratio and it is not always possible to accurately reproduce the geometric parameters of the pores and partitions.

The closest to the proposed is the patent US 20120014035.

Its essence in the following.

The preform consists of WHI�following electrode, surrounding the Central vein. Insulating sheath made of a dielectric material having a high dielectric constant such as glass or polymer, but it may be any other suitable material selected from the group consisting of glass, ceramics, polymers. In particular, as a material for the shell can be selected a glass from the group including sodium-calcium glass, borosilicate glass, potash-lead-silicate glass, polymeric materials and combinations thereof. On top of the shell, placed electrically conductive bushing so that the vein is electrically isolated sheath from the hub. In addition, the sleeve is a cylindrical shape, which slides on the structure and closes the shell. For electrical contact on the first side of the core caused the deposition of conductive or semiconductor material, which is not in contact with the shell. Further, on the other, opposite side there is a spacer or dielectric insulating cylinder, so that the core can pass through them thoroughly, formed the second electrical contact. It is electrically isolated from the first electrical contact.

The disadvantage of this solution is the complexity of automation of the production process of such structures due to the requirement for complex�th handmade patterns at the micro-level.

The object of the present invention is the fabrication of metal-dielectric structures, which will improve the energy characteristics of the capacitors, will provide greater capacity and breakdown voltage power capacitors, as well as the creation of industrial, reproducible manufacturing techniques of such structures.

This is achieved through the creation of nanostructures formed by alternating layers of metal and glass, made in a certain way. According to one variant of the invention, the metal-dielectric structure comprises at least two electrodes, the space between them is filled with nanostructured material.

The technical result is the creation of MDS, more simple and cheap to manufacture, does not require complicated manufacturing processes, allowing to achieve the best electrical parameters in comparison with analogues.

A capacitor contains two conductors which are separated from each other by a thin layer of insulating material. The generated electric potential increases with opposite charges and decreasing the distance between them, occupied by an insulating layer. The ratio between the density of electric charge and separating distance - this is the capacity, which is the stationary measure perfomance�ness of the capacitor. If the dielectric layer will have an infinitely small dimensions, the capacity of the structure is infinitely great.

To increase the specific energy, it is necessary either to increase the permittivity of the dielectric ε, or, more effectively, to increase the intensity of the field E. However, the increase of the field intensity E leads to irreversible dielectric breakdown. The solid dielectric breakdown occurs due to the emission of electrons into the dielectric of the capacitor plates. The emitted electrons into the dielectric under the action of the accelerating electric field are moving from the cathode to the anode. On their way they have multiple impacts, which leads to the formation of an electron avalanche, i.e. to breakdown. As a result of impact ionization of positive ions are created, remaining in the avalanche track and forming a residual charge. In addition, there is the option to activate in the dielectric material of electrons that are also involved in the avalanche breakdown. In addition, when increasing the thickness of the dielectrics has a so-called bulk effect, i.e., sharply decreases the breakdown voltage of the dielectric, which reduces storage energy density.

The invention consists in the creation of a new mechanism of accumulation of energy in the whole volume of solid dielectrics due at�management mechanism of breakdown by creating a nanostructure of the dielectric and conductive materials.

In the present invention, the metal-dielectric structure comprises a dielectric and conductive layers, made in the form of an Assembly of capillaries filled with metal to the desired depth, and the conductive layers are selectively etched with different ends and is metallized. The conductive layers can be represented by two different types of conductive material is selectively etched with different ends, and the conductive layers can be made of semiconductor materials, conductive glass, carbon nanoparticles and nanotubes and dielectric layers may be made of optical, electro-vacuum glass, polymeric materials. In the cross section of dielectric and conductive layers can be formed as concentric circles.

A method of manufacturing such a metal-dielectric structure includes Assembly, hauling, laying the block, and after multiple constrictions produce vacuum filling conductive material, selectively chemically etched end faces, different chemical compositions, which are then metallized.

The increase in capacity is due to the quantum effects caused by nano-sized structures. With repeated Assembly and constriction of a single micro-sized structures that receive large-scale device. Method of manufacturi� " s proposed metal-dielectric structure allows to obtain a fiber structure in different asked by shape, size and relative positions of their component elements, versions.

A method of manufacturing a metal-dielectric structure is as follows.

A key activity is to tug at a certain temperature of the glass workpiece with a proportional reduction in the transverse dimensions. The workpiece is formed in a specific structure of several varieties of glass or any other materials from close to the softening temperature, the transverse linear dimensions of this structure is reduced by maintaining geometric similarity, and their ratio does not change. This procedure is repeated several times to achieve the required linear dimensions. After constriction, the workpiece is cut into elements of the desired length, which, if necessary, polished and metallized. The length of such elements can vary from tens of micrometers to several meters.

In the case that different parts of this structure have a substantially different rate of chemical or electrochemical action, then there is a selective elimination of certain elements of the structure. Thus formed as cavities and holes inside the structure and its external geometry. The hole is filled with materials with different properties, such as metals, oxides of metals, solders, PI�politicheskii graphite, carbon nanotubes, etc. Then selectively etched opposite ends, which are then metallized.

An example implementation of one of the proposed designs and manufacturing techniques of metal-dielectric structures

From the glass melt, for example S-1, manufactured capillaries with an outer diameter of 2880 μm and an inner diameter of 1440 µm (Fig.2). Then 7 of the capillaries is filled with a metal. Bismuth is heated to the melting temperature of 300°C in a special crucible. Next, the capillary is placed in a special uniformly heated tube, so that when filling the metal quickly hardens. Then to one of the ends of the capillary is connected to the vacuum pump and the opposite end is dipped into the crucible with the metal, next, open the valve to the vacuum line, and under the action of the pressure difference between the metal fills the capillary length equal to the length of the heated tube.

Then 7 filled with metal and 30 empty capillaries are placed in polycapillary structure, a preform (Fig.3).

Next, the resulting structure pulls in similarity to the size of a single capillary with an outer diameter of 400 μm and an inner diameter of 200 μm and cut into the workpiece 500 mm.

The next step is carried out by chemical etching of metal from one side of the resulting blank solution of acid HNO3+3HCl (Aqua Regia) at room Tempe�the atur for 2 hours. The etching depth is 5 mm. Then the workpiece is thoroughly washed with water, the remains of the acid neutralized with a weak alkali solution, further washed with deionized water in an ultrasonic camera. Then to remove residual liquids from the structure of the workpiece is blown with air for 2 hours and 1 hour and dried in special the heated tube with an inner diameter of 15 mm at t=250°C. the resulting preform is presented in figure 4.

Then in the resulting billet fill 30 remaining empty capillaries metal in a similar way, with the only difference that the vacuum pump is connected to the end face where the metal is not protable, and the opposite end is dipped into the crucible with the metal. Through the etched on one side of the rods excluded the penetration of the metal in the channels that were previously filled. Thus, get 30 metal rods 2 coming out on one end, and 7 rods 1, facing the opposite end face of the received workpiece (Fig.5).

After this, the workpiece is slowly cooled, both ends soldered pads. Next, the resulting capacitor check the circuit between group 1 and 2 rods, then measure its capacity. However, this example demonstrates the fabrication of structures with two constrictions, which receive the micron sizes of metal and dielectric. To obtain nano-sized�in patterns, with quantum effects, produce at least two banners.

Metal-dielectric structure contains 37 vitrified lived metal, such as bismuth, which are stacked in a hexagonal structure. Based on the geometry of the structure, where she lived surrounded by six 1 conductors 2 on the figure 1, we have 37 parallel connected unit capacitors, each of which consists of two parallel vitrified metal rods.

The capacity of such unit of an element is calculated by the following formula (Jackson, J. D. (1975). Classical Electrodynamics. Wiley, p.80):

where

ε is the relative permittivity of the medium filling the space between the conductors (glass brand S-1), which is numerically equal to 7.3,

ε0- electric constant, numerically equal to 8,854187817·10-12F/m,

l is the length of the conductors,

d - the distance between centers of conductors

ais the radius of the cross section of the conductor.

Two banners get the structure with the following parameters:

the diameter of metallic core - 200 µm,

- the thickness of the dielectric layer is 200 μm,

- length l=500 mm.

Calculated the capacitance of a single capacitor is equal to 77 pF. Metal-dielectric structure consists of 37 such capacitors connected in parallel, therefore, its capacity needs in drawing up�yield of 3.2 nF. The measured capacitance was ~3.15 nF, which probably is a consequence of the imperfect surfaces of glass and metal core. If you make several constrictions that make the workpiece of smaller transverse dimensions, in a similar way to fill metal, selectively etch the ends of the blank, cut into shorter fragments and then these fragments lay parallel to each other and connect as a parallel capacitor, it is possible to obtain a large capacity in a smaller metal-dielectric structure. For example, if you drag this MDS 10 times and obtained from blanks folded structure, is equal to the original area, then the capacitance of the obtained capacitor while maintaining the length will increase in 91 times.

We also produce other patterns of metal-dielectric, as in figure 6. Its difference is that it is possible to obtain a layered structure of cylindrical capacitors and drag this structure to the nano range, getting the big capacitors with very small dimensions.

Materials obtained as a result of multiple banners, sintering, chemical processing, can be used as a technological platform for creation of nanostructures that implement a wide range of physical effects. Due to the fact that the size of individual elements in nanostruc�turno arrays commensurate with the wavelength of the electron, photon or size of molecules, opens the possibility of creating materials with properties that are not inherent to the three-dimensional structures.

The main advantage of metal-dielectric structure is its miniaturization, along with high capacitance and breakdown voltage, which is achieved by specific patterns.

The advantages of the technology group, reproducible, precise, enables mass-produced from a single blank of hundreds of meters of nanoscale metal-dielectric structures.

The invention is illustrated by the following drawings.

Figure 1 shows a cross section of MDS, where 1 metal electrodes having the Pinout on one end of the structure, 2 - metal electrodes having the Pinout on the opposite end of the structure, 3 - glass capillaries.

Figure 2 shows a longitudinal section of a glass preform MDS, where 3 - glass capillaries, 4 - clearances.

Figure 3 shows a longitudinal section of a glass preform MDS, with selectively filled with metal channels, where 1 - metal electrodes, 3 - glass capillaries, 4 - clearances.

Figure 4 shows a longitudinal section of a glass preform MDS, with selectively filled with metal channels, where 1 is partially etched metal electric�odes, 3 - glass capillaries, 4 - clearances.

Figure 5 shows a longitudinal section of a glass preform MDS with metal-filled channels, where 1 is partially etched metal electrodes having the Pinout on one end of the structure, 2 - metal electrodes with pin contacts only on the opposite end of the structure, 3 - glass capillaries, 4 - clearances.

Figure 6 shows a cross section of MDS, where 1 metal electrodes having the Pinout on one end of the structure, 2 - metal electrodes having the Pinout on the opposite end of the structure, 3 - glass capillaries.

Figure 7 shows a longitudinal section of a glass of MDS with metal-filled channels and soldered contact pads, where 1 is partially etched metal electrodes having the Pinout on one end of the structure, 2 - metal electrodes with pin contacts only on the opposite end of the structure, 3 - glass capillaries, 4 - air gaps, 5 - pads.

1. Metal-dielectric structure consisting of a dielectric and conductive layers, which is an Assembly of capillaries filled with metal to the desired depth, characterized in that the conductive layers selectively prot�aulani on one side of the workpiece and is metallized.

2. Metal-dielectric structure according to claim 1, characterized in that the conductive layers can be represented by two different types of conductive material is selectively etched with different ends.

3. Metal-dielectric structure according to claim 1, characterized in that the conductive layers may be made of semiconductor materials, conductive glass, carbon nanoparticles and nanotubes and dielectric layers may be made of optical, electro-vacuum glass, polymeric materials.

4. Metal-dielectric structure according to claim 1, characterized in that in the cross section of dielectric and conductive layers are concentric circles.

5. A method of manufacturing a metal-dielectric structure, including Assembly, hauling, laying the block, characterized in that after repeated constrictions produce vacuum filling conductive material, selectively chemically etched end faces of different chemical compositions, which are then metallized.



 

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EFFECT: increased mobility of μt 2D electrons in quantum well with simultaneous increase of concentration nS.

4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: manufacture of thin-layer films used in electronics, non-linear optics and magnetism.

SUBSTANCE: proposed substrate is coated with composite film on base of meso-porous inorganic layer containing nano-particles forming in-situ inside layer. Composite film has structure of periodic lattice in larger part of layer where nano-particles are present; nano-particles are arranged in periodic pattern in domain scale in at least four periods of film thickness. This structure may be obtained from meso-porous inorganic layer of periodic structure in domain scale in at least four periods of pores forming matrix on substrate by settling of at least one precursor in pores of matrix layer and growth of particles obtained from precursor at monitoring spatial distribution and sizes of structure of matrix pores.

EFFECT: possibility of obtaining material in form of layer containing nano-particles of regular structure.

26 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: polymer materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to composite materials based on high-molecular weight carbon-involving compounds and can be used for anodes of electrolytic condensers made from dielectric elastic film with current-conducting coating. Polyester-based film material has nano-sized metallic coating. A diamond-like layer 5-50 nm thick is disposed between modified surface of polyester base and metallic coating and, on the surface of metallic coating, spongy aluminum layer is deposited having surface development factor within a range of 80 to 400. Diamond-like nanolayer is characterized by sp3 hybridization of amorphous carbon atoms, amorphous carbon being deposited in vacuum from gas phase under action of ion-plasma source.

EFFECT: increased specific electrical capacity of condenser due to increased operation voltages and adhesion between high-developed surfaces of functional film coating nanolayers.

FIELD: chemical industry; production of the nanocomposite materials on the basis of the high-molecular compounds with application of carbon in the nanostucturized coatings.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the composite materials on he basis of the high-molecular compounds with usage of the carbon in the nanostructurized coatings including the additional devices and connections, and may be used as the anode of the electrolytic capacitor due to storage of the electrical potential in the current-carrying layers. The nanostructurized coating of the current-carrying basis is bound directly to the layer of the amorphous carbon sp3 - the hybridized state of the carbon atoms and additionally has the metal layer with the depth of 25-250 nanometers. The surface of the film basis has a flutings of 10-30 nanometers depth and-or is equipped with the pores of 0.2-6 microns and the total volume of 10-60 %. At that 1/5-1/3 part of the pores is through. The invention ensures the adhesion bond and improvement of the electro-physical performances of the material.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the adhesion bond and improvement of the electro-physical performances of the material.

1 dwg

FIELD: instrument engineering; protective coatings for the components of the electronic equipment.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of instrument engineering. The technical result of the invention consists in the development of the protective coating having the high persistence to the action of the ionizing radiations at the small specific gravity of the structure. The substance of the invention consists that the protective coating is made in the form of the nanostructure. The nanostructure includes the totality of the atoms of the rare-earth elements introduced into the structure of the reinforcing is atomic-molecular metallic matrix array. The nanostructure may be the constituent part of the protected structure or the protective coating of the structure.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the development of the protective coating having the high persistence to the action of the ionizing radiations at the small specific gravity of the structure.

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