Method for producing glucosamine sulphate nanocapsules in carrageenan
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine and describes a method for producing glucosamine sulphate nanocapsules by non-solvent addition, wherein glucosamine sulphate is added in small amounts to a carrageenan suspension used as a nanocapsule shell in butanol, containing E472c preparation 0.01 g as a surfactant; the produced mixture is agitated and added with the non-solvent hexane 6 ml, filtered, washed in hexane and dried.
EFFECT: invention provides simplifying and accelerating the process of nanoencapsulation in carrageenan and higher weight yield.
The invention relates to the field of nanotechnology, in particular nanocapsules of glucosamine sulfate in the carrageenan physico-chemical deposition method by nerastvorim.
Previously known methods for producing microcapsules of drugs. So, in us Pat. 2092155 IPC A61K 047/02, A61K 009/16 published 10.10.1997, Russian Federation, proposed a method for microencapsulation of drugs, based on the use of special equipment use of irradiation with ultraviolet rays.
The disadvantages of this method are the duration of the process and application of ultraviolet radiation, which can influence the formation of microcapsules.
In us Pat. 2095055 IPC A61K 9/52, A61K 9/16, A61K 9/10, Russian Federation, published 10.11.1997, a method of producing a solid non-porous microspheres comprises melting pharmaceutically inactive substance carrier, the dispersion of the pharmaceutically active substance in the melt in an inert atmosphere, spraying the resulting dispersion in the form of a mist in the freezing chamber under pressure, in an inert atmosphere, at temperatures from - 15 to - 50°C, and separation of the obtained microspheres into fractions by size. The suspension is intended for administration by parenteral injection, contains an effective amount of microspheres distributed � pharmaceutically acceptable liquid vector, and the pharmaceutically active substance insoluble microspheres in a specified liquid medium.
Disadvantages of the proposed method are the complexity and duration of the process, the use of special equipment.
In us Pat. 2091071 IPC A61K 35/10, Russian Federation, published 27.09.1997, a method of producing the drug by dispersing in a ball mill to obtain microcapsules.
The disadvantages of this method are the use of the ball mill and the duration of the process.
In us Pat. 2076765 IPC B01D 9/02, Russian Federation, published 10.04.1997, a method of producing dispersed particles of soluble compounds in the microcapsules by means of crystallization from solution, wherein the solution is dispersed in an inert matrix, cooled and, by changing the temperature, get dispersed particles.
The disadvantage of this method is the complexity of: obtaining microcapsules by dispersing followed by a change in temperature, which slows down the process.
In us Pat. 2101010 IPC A61K 9/52, A61K 9/50, A61K 9/22, A61K 9/20, A61K 31/19, Russian Federation, published 10.01.1998 proposed chewable form of the drug with taste masking, having the properties of a controlled release drug product that contains microcapsules with a size of 100-800 microns in diameter and consists of pharmaceutical kernel crystalline�lionskin ibuprofen and polymeric coatings comprising a plasticizer, elastic enough to resist chewing. Polymer coating is a copolymer based on methacrylic acid.
Disadvantages of the invention: use of a copolymer based on methacrylic acid, as these polymer coatings can cause cancer; obtaining microcapsules by the method of suspension polymerization; the difficulty of execution; the duration of the process.
In us Pat. 2139046 IPC A61K 9/50, A61K 49/00, og 51/00 A61K, Russian Federation, published 10.10.1999, a method of producing microcapsules as follows. Emulsion oil-in-water is prepared from an organic solution containing dissolved mono-, di-, triglyceride, preferably of tripalmitin or tristearin, and perhaps therapeutically active substance, and an aqueous solution containing a surfactant may evaporate the solvent, add redispersible agent and the mixture is subjected to drying by freezing. Subjected to drying, the mixture is then dispersed in an aqueous medium to separate the microcapsules from the remnants of organic matter and a hemispherical or spherical microcapsules are dried.
The disadvantages of the proposed method are the complexity and duration of the process, the use of drying by freezing, which takes a lot of time�and and slows down the process of obtaining microcapsules.
In us Pat. 2159037 IPC A01N 25/28, A01N 25/30, Russian Federation, published 20.11.2000, a method of producing microcapsules by polymerization reaction at the phase boundary, containing solid agrochemical material of 0.1 to 55 wt.%, suspended in a stirred water organic liquid, from 0.01 to 10 wt.% non-ionic dispersant, is active on the interface and not acting as an emulsifier.
Disadvantages of the proposed method are the complexity, duration, use of vysokokalievogo mixer, obtaining microcapsules by chemical polymerization method.
In the article "Razrabotka and gel microencapsulated products and materials for various industries", Russian chemical journal, 2001, vol. XLV, No. 5-6, pp. 125-135, a method for producing microcapsules of drugs by the method of gas-phase polymerization, as the authors believe the chemical method of coacervation of aqueous media for the microencapsulation of drugs due to the fact that most of them are water-soluble. The process of microencapsulation by the method of gas-phase polymerization using n-xylylene includes the following basic stages: vaporization of the dimer of n-xylylene (170°C), thermal decomposition in the pyrolysis furnace (650°C at a residual pressure of 0.5 mm Hg.St.), transfer the reaction products� in the "cold" chamber of polymerization (20°C, the residual pressure of 0.1 mm Hg.St.), deposition and polymerization on the surface of the protected object. The polymerization chamber is made in the form of a rotating drum, the optimal speed for powder coating 30 Rev/min. shell Thickness is controlled by the coating. This method is suitable for the encapsulation of any solids (except prone to intense sublimation). The resulting poly-n-xylylene vysokokritichnyh polymer with high orientation and dense packing, provides a conformal coating.
The disadvantages of the proposed method are the complexity and duration of the process, using the method of gas-phase polymerization, which makes the method inapplicable to obtain microcapsules of drugs in polymers protein nature due to denaturation of proteins at high temperatures.
In the article "Development of micro - and nanosystems for drug delivery", Russian chemical journal, 2008, vol. LII, No. 1, pp. 48-57, presents a method of producing microcapsules with the included proteins, which is not significantly reduces their biological activity by the process of interfacial crosslinking of soluble starch or hydroxyethyl starch and bovine serum albumin (BSA) using terephthaloyl chloride. A the protease inhibitor Aprotinin or native, lib� protected with the active center was microencapsulated its introduction to the composition of the aqueous phase. Tapered form lyophilized particles confirm the receipt of microcapsules or particles tank types. The thus prepared microcapsules tear after lyophilization and easily regained their spherical shape after rehydration in buffer environment. The pH of the aqueous phase was decisive in obtaining robust microcapsules with a high yield.
The disadvantage of the proposed method of obtaining microcapsules is the complexity of the process.
In us Pat. 2173140 IPC A61K 009/50, A61K 009/127, Russian Federation, published 10.09.2001, a method of producing kremnijorganicheskih microcapsules using a rotary cavitation equipment with high shear forces and powerful hydroacoustic phenomena sonic and ultrasonic range for dispersion.
The disadvantage of this method is the use of special equipment - rotary-cavitational installation, which has the ultrasonic effect, which influences the formation of the microcapsules and thus may cause adverse reactions due to the fact that ultrasound has a destructive effect on polymers of protein nature, therefore, the proposed method is applicable when working with polymers of synthetic origin.
In us Pat. 2359662 IPC A61K 009/56, A61J 003/07, B01J 013/02, A23L 001/00 published 27.06.2009, Russian Fe�ercia, a method of producing microcapsules using spray cooling in the spray tower Niro under the following conditions: air temperature at the inlet 10°C, the temperature at the outlet 28°C, the speed of rotation of the spray drum 10000 rpm/min Microcapsules according to the invention have improved stability and provide adjustable and/or prolonged release of the active ingredient.
The disadvantages of the proposed method are the duration of the process and the use of special equipment, certain set of conditions (the air temperature at the inlet 10°C, the temperature at the outlet 28°C, the speed of rotation of the spray drum 10000 rpm/min).
In us Pat. WO/2009/148058 JP IPC B01J 13/04, A23L 1/00, A61K 35/20 ETF, A61K 45/00, A61K 47/08, A61K 47/26, A61K 47/32, A61K 47/34, A61K 47/36, A61K 9/50, B01J 2/04, B01J 2/06 published 10.12.2009, described the process of obtaining microcapsules that are applicable to industrial production, in which high content of hydrophilic biologically active substances contained in the envelope. Offer microcapsules can be used in food, pharmaceutical and other industries. In the production process are applied dispersant composition consisting of hydrophilic biologically active substances and surfactants in solid fat. Temperature not lower than the melting point of the solid�CSOs fat.
The disadvantages of this method are the complexity and duration of the process of production of microcapsules.
In us Pat. WO/2010/076360 ES IPC B01J 13/00; A61K 9/14; A61K 9/10; A61K 9/12 published 08.07.2010, we propose a new method for obtaining solid micro - and nanoparticles with a homogeneous structure with a particle size less than 10 microns, where the treated solids have a natural crystalline, amorphous, polymorphous, and other conditions associated with the reference compound. The method allows to obtain solid micro - and nanoparticles with substantially spheroidal morphology.
The disadvantage of the proposed method is the complexity of the process, and hence a low yield of the final product.
In us Pat. WO/2010/014011 NL IPC A61K 9/50; B01J 13/02; A61K 9/50; 01J 13/02, published 4.02.2010, a method for producing microcapsules with a diameter from 0.1 μm to 25 μm, comprising: a core particle with a diameter of 90 nm to 23 μm, containing at least 3% active ingredient by weight of the particles; a coating that completely covers the core particles containing at least 20% by weight of a hydrophobic polymer selected from cellulose esters, of cellulose esters, shellac, gluten, polylactide, hydrophobic starch derivatives, polyvinyl acetate, polymers or copolymers of the basics of acrylic acid ester and/or methacrylic acid ester and combinations thereof. The active ingredient is not released when administered in �oosterzee food, drinks, food or pharmaceutical composition. Once inside, however, the active component is released quickly.
The disadvantages of this method are the complexity, the duration of the process, and the use of ultrasound and special equipment, the use of the shells of the microcapsules of the copolymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid, which can cause cancer.
In us Pat. WO/2010/119041 EP IPC A23L 1/00, published 21.10.2010, a method of producing microspheres consisting of the active ingredient encapsulated in the gel matrix whey protein, including denatured protein, the serum and active components. The invention relates to a method of producing microspheres, which contain components such as probiotic bacteria. A method of producing microspheres includes the step of production of microspheres in accordance with the method of the invention, and the subsequent solidification of microspheres in a solution of anionic polysaccharide with a pH of 4.6 and below for at least 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 minutes. Examples of suitable anionic polysaccharides: pectin, alginates, carrageenans. Ideally, whey protein is a heat-denaturing, although other methods of denaturation are also applicable, for example denaturation induced pressure. In the preferred embodiment, the whey protein denaturise�t at a temperature of from 75°C to 80°C, appropriately in a period of from 30 minutes to 50 minutes. Typically, whey protein mixed with thermal denaturation. Accordingly, the concentration of the whey protein is from 5 to 15%, preferably from 7 to 12%, and ideally from 9 to 11% (weight/volume). Typically, the process of separation of the microcapsules is carried out through a cascade of filters with a pore size of from 0.9 to 0.1 µm.
The disadvantage of this method is the use of special equipment (encapsulators corresponding vibration (Inotech, Switzerland)), the microcapsules occurred through protein denaturation, the complexity of the allocation obtained by the method of microcapsules - filtration with the use of multiple filters, which makes the process lengthy.
In us Pat. WO/2011/003805 EP IPC B01J 13/18; B65D 83/14; C08G 18/00, published on 13.01.2011, the method of obtaining microcapsules that are suitable for use in the compositions forming sealants, foams, coatings or adhesives.
The disadvantage of the proposed method is the use of centrifugation for separation from the process fluid, the duration of the process, and the application of this method in the pharmaceutical industry.
In us Pat. 20110223314 IPC B05D 7/00 20060101 B05D 007/00, B05C 3/02 20060101 B05C 003/02; B05C 11/00 20060101 B05C 011/00; B05D 1/18 20060101 B05D 001/18; B05D 3/02 20060101 B05D 003/02; B05D 3/06 20060101 B05D 003/06 from 10.03.2011 US a method for producing microcapsules by the method of suspension polyester�polarization, belonging to the group of chemical methods with the use of a new device and UV exposure.
The disadvantage of this method are the complexity and duration of the process, the use of special equipment, the use of UV irradiation.
In us Pat. WO/2011/150138 US IPC C11D 3/37; B01J 13/08; C11D 17/00, published on 01.12.2011, the method of obtaining microcapsules of a solid water-soluble agents polymerization.
The disadvantages of this method are the complexity and duration of the process.
In us Pat. WO/2011/127030 US IPC A61K 8/11; B01J 2/00; B01J 13/06; C11D 3/37; C11D 3/39; C11D 17/00, published on 13.10.2011 proposed several ways of obtaining microcapsules: interfacial polymerization, thermoinduced phase separation, spray drying, evaporation of the solvent, etc.
The disadvantages of the methods are the complexity, the duration of processes, and the use of special equipment (filter (Albet, Dassel, Germany), spray dryer for collecting particles (Spray-M Dryer from ProCepT, Belgium)).
In us Pat. WO/2011/104526 GB IPC 01J 13/00; B01J 13/14; C09B 67/00; C09D 11/02, published on 01.09.2011, a method of producing a dispersion of encapsulated solid particles in a liquid medium, comprising: a) grinding composition, including solid, liquid medium and a polyurethane dispersant with an acid number of from 0.55 to 3.5 mmol per gram d�of pergatory, said composition includes 5 to 40 parts of the polyurethane dispersant per 100 parts of solid product by weight; and b) crosslinking the polyurethane dispersant in the presence of solid and liquid medium so as to encapsulate the solid particles which the polyurethane dispersant contains less than 10% by weight of recurring items from polymer alcohols.
The disadvantages of the proposed method are the complexity and duration of the process of production of microcapsules, and that the encapsulated particles by the proposed method are useful as colorants in inks, especially ink jet printing, for the pharmaceutical industry this practice is not applicable.
In us Pat. WO/2011/056935 US IPC C11D 17/00; A61K 8/11; B01J 13/02; C11D 3/50, published on 12.05.2011, a method for producing microcapsules with a size of 15 microns. As the shell material of the proposed polymers of the group consisting of polyethylene, polyamides, polystyrene, polyisoprenes, polycarbonates, polyesters, polyacrylates, polyureas, polyurethanes, polyolefins, polysaccharides, epoxy resins, vinyl polymers and mixtures thereof. Proposed polymeric membranes are relatively impermeable to the core material and materials in the environment in which the agent is encapsulated, the benefit will be used to provide benefits that will be received. Agroinkombank agents may include perfumes, silicone oils, waxes, hydrocarbons, higher fatty acids, essential oils, lipids, cooling the skin fluids, vitamins, sunscreens, antioxidants, glycerine, catalysts, bleach particles, particles of silicon dioxide, etc.
The disadvantages of the proposed method are the complexity, the duration of the process, using as the shells of the microcapsules of polymers of synthetic origin and their mixtures.
In us Pat. WO/2011/160733 EP IPC B01J 13/16, published on 29.12.2011, a method for producing microcapsules which contain a shell and core water-insoluble materials. The aqueous solution of protective colloid and a solution of a mixture of at least two structurally different bifunctional diisocyanates (A) and (B), insoluble in water, gather together before the formation of the emulsion, is then added to a mixture of bifunctional amine and heated to a temperature of at least 60°C before the formation of the microcapsules.
The disadvantages of the proposed method are the complexity, the duration of the process, using as the shells of the microcapsules of polymers of synthetic origin and their mixtures.
In us Pat. WO/2011/161229 EP IPC A61K 8/11; B01J 13/14; B01J 13/16; C11D 3/50, published on 29.12.2011, a method for producing microcapsules containing a shell made of polyurea and spirits in oil, where the shell is obtained by the reaction of two structurally R�slichnih diisocyanates in emulsion form. In the process of obtaining microcapsules used protective colloids. During the reaction of isocyanates and amines must be present protective colloid. This is preferably polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Protective colloid - polymer system, in which the suspension or dispersion prevents the adhesion, agglomeration, coagulation, flocculation). With this method it can be used for perfume and all kinds of consumer goods. An exhaustive list of consumer goods cannot be transferred. Illustrative examples of consumer products include all applications, including liquid detergents and powder detergents; all personal hygiene and hair care, including shampoos, conditioners, lotions for combing, styling cream, soap, body cream, etc.; deodorants and antiperspirants.
The disadvantages of this method of obtaining microcapsules are the complexity and duration of the process, using as the shell of the microcapsules of diisocyanates which are obtained by reaction of two isocyanate.
The closest method is the method proposed in us Pat. 2134967 IPC A01N 53/00, A01N 25/28, published 27.08.1999, Russian Federation (1999). In water dispersed solution of a mixture of natural lipids and PYRETHROID insecticide in a weight ratio of 2-4:1 in an organic solvent, which leads to the�Rosenau method of microencapsulation.
The disadvantage is the dispersion in an aqueous medium, which makes the proposed method applicable for obtaining microcapsules of water-soluble drugs in water-soluble polymers.
The technical objective is the simplification and acceleration of the process of producing nanocapsules of glucosamine sulfate in carrageenan, reduction of losses in obtaining nanocapsules (increase of the yield by weight).
The solution of a technical problem is achieved by a method of obtaining nanocapsules of glucosamine sulphate, characterized in that as the shell of the nanocapsules used carrageenan, as well as obtaining nanocapsules physico-chemical method of deposition of nerastvorim using precipitator - hexane, the process is carried out without special equipment.
A distinctive feature of the proposed method is the use as the shell of the nanocapsules of glucosamine sulfate carraminana, as well as obtaining nanocapsules physico-chemical method of deposition of nerastvorim using precipitator - hexane.
The result of the proposed method is to obtain nanocapsules of glucosamine sulfate in the carrageenan at 25°C for 15 minutes. The output of the microcapsules is more than 90%.
EXAMPLE 1 Obtaining nanocapsules of glucosamine sulfate in the carrageenan using hexane as the precipitant, the ratio�Linux 1:3
To 1 g of glucosamine sulfate added in small portions to a suspension of 3 g of carrageenan in 5 ml of butyl alcohol containing 0.01 g of the drug E472c as surfactants. The resulting mixture is put on the magnetic stirrer and turn the stirring. Then add 6 ml of hexane. The resulting suspension of nanocapsules was filtered, washed with hexane and dried.
Received 4 g of a white powder. The yield was 100%.
EXAMPLE 2 Obtaining nanocapsules of glucosamine sulfate in the carrageenan using hexane as the precipitant, the ratio of 5:1
To 5 g of glucosamine sulfate added in small portions to a suspension of 1 g of carrageenan in 5 ml of butyl alcohol containing 0.01 g of the drug E472c as surfactants. The resulting mixture is put on the magnetic stirrer and turn the stirring. Then add 6 ml of hexane. The resulting suspension of nanocapsules was filtered, washed with hexane and dried.
Received 6 g of a white powder. The yield was 100%.
The obtained nanocapsules of glucosamine sulfate in the carrageenan physico-chemical deposition method by nerastvorim using hexane as herstories. The process is simple to perform and lasts for 15 minutes, requires no special equipment.
The proposed method is suitable for pharmaceutical industry La�of minimum loss speed, ease of obtaining and allocation of nanocapsules of glucosamine sulfate.
A method of producing nanocapsules glucosamine sulfate by the method of deposition by aristotelem, characterized by the fact that glucosamine sulphate added in small portions to a suspension of carrageenan, used as the shell of the nanocapsules, in butyl alcohol containing 0.01 g of the drug Is as a surfactant, the resulting mixture was stirred and add 6 ml of the precipitant - hexane, filtered off, washed with hexane and dried.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of obtaining nanocomposite coatings and can be used in creation of optic microelectronic devices and materials with increased corrosion resistance and wear resistance. Method of obtaining two-phase nanocomposite coating, consisting of titanium carbide nanoclusters, distributed in amorphous hydrocarbon matrix, on products from hard alloys, includes application of adhesive titanium or chromium sublayer, magnetron sputtering of titanium target in gas mixture of acetylene and argon under pressure 0.01-1 Pa and precipitation of dispersed particles of target and carbon-containing radicals on product surface in combination with bombardment of surface with ions, accelerated by bias voltage, with product surface being subjected to purification with argon ions from plasma, generated by electronic beam, before application of adhesive sublayer, and gas mixture being activated in the process of coating application by impact with beam of electrons with energy 100 eV.
EFFECT: invention is aimed at increase of coating adhesion and micro-hardness of obtained products, as well as at provision of high efficiency of application of acetylene in the process of coating application.
1 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: catalyst contains carrier from porous zeolite KL and binding agent and catalytically active substance - platinum. Carrier additionally contains tin tetrachloride pentahydrate nanopowder, and as binding agent - mixture of gibbsite and rutile powders in equal proportions, with particle size of each not exceeding 40 mcm. Ratio of ingredients is in the following range, wt %: platinum - 0.3-0.8, mixture of gibbsite and rutile powders - 25-70, zeolite KL - 29.12-74.69, tin tetrachloride pentahydrate - 0.01-0.08. Claimed catalyst is characterised by high activity in reactions of aromatisation of synthetic hydrocarbons.
EFFECT: invention also relates to method of obtaining such catalyst.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of nanotechnology, in particular to plant growing, and deals with method of obtaining nanocapsules of 6-aminobenzylpurine. Method is characterised by the fact that 6-aminobenzylpurine is used as core and sodium alginate is used as envelope of nanocapsules, obtained by addition of E472c as surfactant to sodium alginate in butanol, portioned addition of 6-aminobenzylpurine into suspension of sodium alginate in butanol and further drop-by-drop introduction of precipitating agent-petroleum ether after formation of separate solid phase in suspension.
EFFECT: simplification and acceleration of process of obtaining nanoparticles and increased output by weight.
SUBSTANCE: method includes crushing and fractioning of initial material, delignification of initial raw material by alkaline hydration and alkaline pulping with further washings. After that, two-stage acidic hydrolysis with intermediate neutralisation and three washings is performed. Then, three-stage bleaching with hydrogen peroxide H2O2 with three washings is carried out. In second washing finely dispersed ozone is supplied. Obtained product is additionally subjected to homogenisation and drying. Invention makes it possible to obtain final product with virtually absolute absence of lignin, with high organoleptic and physical and chemical properties from lignin-containing initial material.
EFFECT: method does not require application of expensive equipment, does not involve application of highly toxic reagents, includes simple technological operations, is characterised by production scalability.
3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention describes a method for producing Sel-Plex nanocapsules possessing the supramolecular properties by non-solvent addition, characterised by the fact that Sel-Plex is dissolved in dimethyl sulphoxide; the prepared mixture is dispersed in xanthum gum solution used as a nanocapsule shell, in butanol, in the presence of E472c preparation while stirring at 1000 cycles per second; the mixture is added with the precipitator benzol, filtered and dried at room temperature.
EFFECT: simplifying and accelerating the process of nanoencapsulation and ensuring higher weight yield.
4 ex, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: ceramic membrane, applied for the separation of gas mixtures, has the following composition, wt %: aluminium oxide 30-54; sodium silicate 42-68; carbon nanotubes CNT with an external diameter of 1-5 nm with a three-layer structure and a specific surface of 350-1000 m2/g 1-4. The method of preparing the ceramic membrane for the separation of gas mixtures includes mixing of thermoactivated gibbsite - Al(OH)3 with sodium silicate and the carbon nanotubes CNT with an external diameter of 1-5 nm with the three-layer structure and the specific surface of 350-1000 m2/g, following addition of a nitric acid solution. The obtained mass is thoroughly mixed and an excess of moisture is removed until powder has a half-dry condition. The obtained powder is pressed, the pressed tablets are subjected to thermal-processing - first, they are exposed at a temperature of not higher than 150°C, then at a temperature of not higher than 400°C. The obtained membrane in the form of a tablet is annealed without air access at 850-1100°C.
EFFECT: increased factor of the gas mixture separation.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electronics and is intended to design devices which convert the chemical reaction of adsorbed molecules of a fuel gas (vapour) and oxygen (or air) into an electrical signal. The invention can be used to design compact batteries for electronic equipment in the form of single-chamber fuel cells, which consist of a working chamber having a fuel-gas mixture inlet and a gas outlet, inside of which there is a composite film with electrical contacts connected to an external load, the space between which is filled with a conducting material. The conducting material used is a nanocomposite material which consists of a non-conducting polymer film of polypropylene and conducting filler in the form of carbon nanotubes. Concentration of the carbon nanotubes with p-type conductivity is about 0.5-5% near the percolation threshold. The nanocomposite material may contain catalytic nanoparticles of Pt or Pd, or Rh, or Ru. Also disclosed is a method of producing a conducting nanocomposite material, which includes mixing carbon nanotubes and polymer material and then holding the nanocomposite material at external voltage of 4-10 V for 2-30 min in an atmosphere of saturated acetone vapour.
EFFECT: higher current density in the active layer.
7 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine and describes a method for producing chondroitin sulphate nanocapsules by non-solvent addition, characterised by the fact that chondroitin sulphate is added in small portions into xanthane gum suspension used as a nanosuspension shell, in butanol containing 0.01 g of the preparation E472 as a surfactant; the produced mixture is stirred and added with the nonsolvent hexane 6ml, filtered, washed in hexane and dried.
EFFECT: invention provides simplifying and accelerating the process of nanoencapsulation in xanthane gum and higher weight yield.
SUBSTANCE: invention represents a method for drug encapsulation by non-solvent addition, wherein according to the invention cores of nanocapsules are vitamins, whereas a shell is sodium carboxymethyl cellulose precipitated from isopropyl alcohol suspension by adding chloroform as a non-solvent and dried at room temperature.
EFFECT: simplifying and accelerating the process of nanoencapsulation, reducing accompanying loss.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of biotechnology. Method of extracting DNA from blood cells is claimed. Magnetic particles and ferromagnetic nanospheres CoNiFe2O4 50 nm are added into sample. Biologic material is lysed. DNA is washed and DNA is taken off from carrier.
EFFECT: preference of claimed method consists in increase of DNA quantity in obtained sample.
3 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods for obtaining colloids of a metal oxide (versions), namely silicon dioxide, as well as to colloids themselves. The method involves addition of a chemically active metal oxide to a reaction tank at optimum mass velocity of addition of the metal oxide, which is based on a mathematical model that considers (i) particle nucleation rate, (ii) rate of metal oxide deposition on existing particles of metal oxide and (iii) growth of metal oxide particles in the reaction tank. Mass velocity of addition of metal oxide increases as a reaction time function. Introduction of inoculating particles of metal oxide to the reaction tank is performed prior to a stage of addition of the chemically active metal oxide. An optimum mass velocity of addition of metal oxide q is presented by the following formula:
EFFECT: methods according to the invention are more effective due to reduction of reaction periods necessary to obtain colloids of metal oxide.
25 cl, 5 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in obtaining coatings, reducing coefficient of secondary electronic emission, growing diamond films and glasses, elements, absorbing solar radiation. Colloidal solution of nano-sized carbon is obtained by supply of organic liquid - ethanol, into chamber with electrodes, injection of inert gas into inter-electrode space, formation of high-temperature plasma channel in gas bubbles, containing vapours of organic liquid. High-temperature plasma channel has the following parameters: temperature of heavy particles 4000-5000K, temperature of electrons 1.0-1.5 eV, concentration of charged particles (2-3)·1017 cm3, diameter of plasma channel hundreds of microns. After that, fast cooling within several microseconds is performed.
EFFECT: simplicity, possibility to obtain nanoparticles of different types.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: claimed is emulsified composition for improvement of skin condition, which contains (A) 0.001-10 wt % of organic compound, which has two or more hydroxyl groups, inorganic value 220-450 and organic value 300-1000; (B) 0.001-10 wt % of organic compound, which has one hydroxyl group, inorganic value 100-200 and organic value 280-700; (C) 0.001-10 wt % of organic substance, represented by formula (2), in which R1 is C4-C30 hydrocarbon group; Z is methylene group, methane group or oxygen atom; X1, X2, X3 are hydrogen atom, hydroxyl group or acetoxy group; X4 is hydrogen atom, acetyl group or glyceryl group; each of R2 and R3 is hydrogen atom, hydroxyl group, hydroxymethyl group or acetoxymethyl group; R4 is C5-C60 hydrocarbon group; and R5 is hydrogen atom or hydrocarbon group, containing in total 1-30 carbon atoms; (D) (D) 0.00012-10 wt % of at least one compound, selected from group, consisting of non-ionic surface-active substance, which has polyoxyethylene group and HLB 10 or higher, ionic surface-active substance and sphingosine salt; (E) 0.003-15 wt % of at least one compound, selected from group, consisting of sugar alcohol, selected from group, consisting of erythritol, threitol, xylitol and mannitol, disaccharide and trisaccaride, and (F) water.
EFFECT: emulsion composition preserves water in skin for long time.
13 cl, 1 dwg, 18 tbl, 64 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to moulded particles of transition metals, particularly in the form of a dispersion in an aqueous and/or organic medium, to production thereof and to use thereof as an agent which absorbs infrared radiation, an infrared curing agent for coatings, an additive in conducting compositions, printing ink and coating compositions, an antimicrobial agent or for detecting organic and/or inorganic compounds. A dispersion of transition metal nanoparticles is obtained in the form of nanoplates. The metal is selected from a group consisting of Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir and Pt. An aqueous solution of a reducing agent is added to the cooled aqueous mixture containing a transition metal salt and a polymer dispersing agent. The obtained colloidal dispersion is treated with peroxide. In another version of producing a dispersion of nanoparticles, water is partially replaced with an organic medium. The dispersion substantially consists of the obtained transition metal particles and a thermoplastic polymer or a cross-linkable polymer.
EFFECT: invention relates to dispersions containing said moulded particles and aqueous and/or organic media, such as a thermoplastic or cross-linkable polymer, as well as antimicrobial compositions and products.
21 cl, 6 dwg, 2 tbl, 24 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to nanotechnologies and can be used in medicine, pharmaceutics and cosmetology. Platinum metal nanoparticles are produced in a water-based 7 transparent liquid at damaging platinum metal or alloy target 6 by cavitation observed by laser light 2 delivery in the form of focused laser light 2 pulses on copper vapour 1 at pulse energy 1-5 mJ and pulse length 20 ns, pulse repetition frequency 10-15 kHz and power density 5.7 GWt/cm2, through a transparent bottom of the tray 5 to the target 6 placed into the tray 5 with the water-based 7 transparent liquid.
EFFECT: invention enables producing pure uncontaminated nanoparticles in the form of flakes of no more than 200 nm in size.
1 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining stable suspensions of metal nanoparticles as a result of realising synthesis of metal nanoparticles with the assistance of microwave radiation, carried out in a water atmosphere at low temperature and under pressure, and in an atmosphere of the environment.
EFFECT: obtaining stable suspensions of metal nanoparticles, in particular, noble metals and iron.
13 cl, 9 dwg, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of highly molecular compounds, in particular to methods of obtaining polymer carriers by chemical modification of initial polymer microspheres based on acrolein-styrene copolymer, obtained by emulsifier-free radical polymerisation. Method includes interaction of microspheres with positively charged polyelectrolyte, then, negatively charged polyelectrolyte, which results in formation of polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) on particle surface. After double repetition of procedure of successive PEC precipitation, agents, providing visualisation - semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum points), salts of rare earth metals, magnetic particles, organic dyes are introduced. Positively charged polyelectrolyte is added in quantity 100-200% of the weight of microspheres, with negatively charged polyelectrolyte being added in equimolar quantity. Quantity of visualising agents constitutes 5-40% of polyelectrolyte weight. After that, external polyelectrolyte layer of poly-L-lysine and polyacrylic acid is formed.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to obtain carriers of visualising and physiologically active agents, intended for application in field of biotechnology, medicine, veterinary, biochemistry, analytical chemistry, environment monitoring.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of obtaining water dispersion of zirconium oxide, which includes interaction of zirconium salt with alkali in water with obtaining suspension of zirconium oxide particles, filtration, washing and re-pulping suspension, addition of organic acid to obtained suspension in amount one mole part or more per mole part of zirconium in suspension, hydrothermal processing of obtained mixture at temperature 170°C and higher for not less than an hour and washing obtained water dispersion of zirconium oxide particles. Invention also relates to method of obtaining water dispersion of zirconium oxide solid solution, which contains, at least, one stabilising element, selected from aluminium, magnesium, titanium and rare earth elements. Invention additionally claimed method of obtaining zirconium oxide dispersion, dispersion medium of which is organic solvent, where claimed method contains replacement of dispersion medium of water dispersion of zirconium oxide, obtained by method, described above, with organic solvent.
EFFECT: dispersion of zirconium oxide contains fine particles of zirconium oxide, uniformly dispersed in dispersion medium, and has high transparency.
12 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanotechnology and can be used to change effectively the optoelectronic properties of ensembles of silver nanoparticles coated with ligand shell in viscous media and films. The invention can be used to create photonic crystals, optical filters and a new generation of Raman lasers. For obtaining highly ordered assemblies of silver nanoparticles with a ligand shell in high-viscosity aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol or gelatin 3.6 mmol/g of silver nitrate solution, 15 mmol/g of sodium oleate and 10 mmol/g of sodium borohydride are added. The reaction proceeds without stirring.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain high-viscosity media and films assemblies of nanoparticles coated with a ligand shell with low degree of aggregation.
SUBSTANCE: powder composed of aggregates of nano-sized particles is subjected to ultrasound dispersion and mechanically mixed at the rate of 250-1000 rpm. Mechanical mixing and ultrasound dispersion are carried out successively at displacement of suspension in closed hydraulic circuit at the rate of 0.06-0.15 m/s. Proposed device comprises high-speed mixer arranged in the case composed of round-bottom tank, ultrasound continuous flow chamber and means to force suspension in closed hydraulic circuit. Said mixer and said chamber are communicated via pipelines.
EFFECT: stable sedimentation suspension containing high-dispersion particles.
13 cl, 3 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: according to the invention method, albendazole is added to the suspension of sodium alginate in butanol in the presence of the preparation E472s when stirring at 1000 revolutions per second. The mass ratio of albendazole and sodium alginate is 1:3 or 3:1. Then acetonitrile is added. The resulting suspension of the nanocapsules is filtered, washed, and dried. The process of production of nanocapsules is carried out at 25°C for 20 min.
EFFECT: simplification and acceleration of the process of production of nanocapsules, reduction of losses in their production.
1 dwg, 2 ex