Method of fire extinguishing
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in the use of an extinguishing composition, which is a normal water solution of graphite particles with a mass fraction in the solution from 0.5 to 0.9%. The graphite particles with a size less than 50 microns are used, and the extinguishing composition is fed into the seat of fire in the form of a monodisperse atomised stream with the droplets radius of 200 to 500 microns.
EFFECT: reduction of the number of the extinguishing composition used and reduction of time of fire suppression.
The invention relates to fire technique, in particular to methods of extinguishing fires while fire over large areas, and can be used to suppress and extinguish large forest fires, as well as in liquidation of fires in industrial and public facilities.
The known method of extinguishing fires [RU 2396095 C1, IPC A62C 3/00 (2006.01), publ. 10.08.2010] using flame retardant aqueous solution of potassium salt, served in a hearth burning in the form of volumetric aerosol flow with a range of particle size of 5-80 μm with an intensity of not less than 0.02 l/(m2C).
The disadvantage of this method is to reduce the intensity of evaporation of the extinguishing fluid in the flame zone due to its content of salt-retardants. Since more time is required to reduce the flame temperature to temperatures of termination of combustion, increases the flow of extinguishing composition and, as a consequence, the total time of extinguishing the fire. The small size of fluid particles in extinguishing fires, especially foci of large forest fires that lead to the change of direction of the greater part of the aerosol stream, its inevitable reversal and ash into the atmosphere with ascending products of combustion.
The known method of extinguishing fires [RU 2110302 C1, IPC6 A62C 2/00, publ. 10.05.1998], which consists in using granulated to a uniform particle size Mat�rials with a solid or porous structure. The size of the particles is the rate of crashes and weighing them in an upward flow of gases is suppressed combustion source.
In this method of fire-fighting composition does not use it for heat absorption of the energy emitted, and to suppress the thrust developed by the flame, which leads to the loss of power of burning up to values at which the final damping becomes possible by conventional means. In the case of large forest fires are not always the possibility of using such. Even with the availability of the additional funds will require some time, during which the fire may be resumed with renewed vigor.
The known method of extinguishing fires [CN 103041532 AND, IPC6 A62D 1/00, publ. 17.04.2013], selected as a prototype, which consists in the fact that the extinguishing composition use a solution of plain water with graphite particles with a mass fraction of graphite particles from 0.002 to 10%.
This method is not defined the size of the graphite particles in the solution and the spraying parameters extinguishing composition delivered into the fire zone.
The objective of the proposed method is the extension of Arsenal of means of similar purpose.
The task is solved due to the fact that the method of fighting fires, as well as in the prototype, is the use extinguishing composition consisting of ezrestore normal water with graphite particles with a mass fraction in the solution is from 0.5 to 0.9%.
In contrast to the prior art use of graphite particles with size less than 50 microns, and extinguishing composition serves in the fire in the form of a monodisperse spray stream with a radius drops from 200 to 500 microns.
The radius of the droplets in floured flow significantly affects the degree of ablation with high-temperature combustion products. It was established experimentally that the optimum radius drops from 200 to 500 μm. Droplets with a radius smaller than 200 μm are prone to reversal and ablation with high temperature products of combustion on the approach to the flame, and therefore not able to exert practically no influence on the process of fire fighting, especially in fighting large fires (Volkov R. S., Kuznetsov G. V., Strizhak P. A. Experimental study of the peculiarities of the motion of droplets sprayed extinguishing fluid at the inlet into the flame zone // explosion safety, 2013. - No. 12. - P. 16-22).
The use of graphite particles with size less than 50 microns can increase the rate of water evaporation, a member of the extinguishing composition, as the intensity of the phase transition at vaporization plays a crucial role in the process of reducing the flame temperature and, as a result, in fire fighting in General (Kuznetsov G. V., Strizhak P. A. Assessment of efficiency of use of heat of vaporization of water in extinguishing forest fires // Porownywania�city, 2013. - No. 9. P. 57-63). Intensification phase transition is due to the fact that the particles in the droplet absorbs significantly more radiation energy (combustion and flame) compared to water accumulate heat, and the evaporation process is intensified inside the droplet. Increases thermal conductivity of water droplets, consequently, less time is required for warming up and, as a consequence, complete evaporation.
Thus, application of the proposed method of extinguishing composition, which is served in the form of a monodisperse spray stream into the fire, allows to intensify the process of water evaporation in the flame zone, which reduces the amount of extinguishing composition and reduce the time of extinguishing the fire.
Table 1 shows experimental results showing the dependence of the proportion of water evaporated from the radius of the droplets in the stream and the mass fraction of graphite particles with sizes of 50 microns with the passage of the extinguishing composition in the form of a spray stream of a flame height of 1 m.
Table 2 shows the experimental results showing the dependence of the proportion of water evaporated from the radius of the droplets in the stream and the mass fraction of graphite particle size of 40 microns with the passage of the extinguishing composition in the form of a spray stream of a flame height of 1 m.
In table 3 �Evegeny the results of theoretical studies, reflecting the dependence of the percentage of water evaporated from the radius of the droplets in the stream and the mass fraction of graphite particles with sizes of 50 microns with the passage of the extinguishing composition in the form of a spray stream of a flame height of 5 m.
Were created to model the fire area of 0.09 m2height of 1 m. as a fuel used kerosene. Average flue gas temperature measured by a chromel-alumel thermocouple was 1100 K. as extinguishing compositions used water entered into the previously prepared solid graphite particles with sizes of 50 µm and 40 µm, mass fraction of which in the compositions was varied in the range of 0.5÷0.9 percent.
For the preparation of graphite particles used vibration micromelic "Vibratory Micro Mill PULVERISETTE 0", performs automatic crushing and subsequent sieving of graphite. When weighing the particles of the graphite powder used laboratory microbalance with a readability of 0.0001 g. Extinguishing composition is thoroughly mixed and then delivered to the flame zone in the form of a monodisperse spray flow, the radius of the drops which were changed in the range of 200÷500 µm. To determine the size of the droplets extinguishing composition in the flow system was used for diagnostics of two-phase gas-, vapor-liquid flows based on optical methods "Particle Image Velocimetry" and "Interferometric Particle Imaging� (Volkov P. C Kuznetsov G. V., Strizhak P. A. Experimental study of the completeness of evaporation of atomized water as it moves through the flame // explosion safety, 2013. - No. 10. - Pp. 15-24). To convert extinguishing composition is atomized in a monodisperse stream and its subsequent delivery to the area of the fire used the device to create a flow of water mist [RU 2415688 C1, IPC A62C 31/00(2006.01), publ. 10.04.2011].
As can be seen from tables 1 and 2, the optimal values of radii of droplets and the mass fraction of graphite particles was 200 μm and 0.9%.
In theoretical study of a simulated fire with a height of 5 m for extinguishing composition with the size of the graphite particles 50 microns with a mass fraction of from 0.5 to 0.9%. With the help of a specially developed program in MatLab determined the proportion of water evaporated, the optimal droplet size in monodisperse floured flow, optimal mass fraction of graphite particles in extinguishing composition.
Table 3 shows that the optimal values of radii of droplets and the mass fraction of graphite particles can be selected from the following series: 200 microns and 0.5%, 300 μm and 0.6%, 400 ám and 0.7% or 500 µm and 0.8%.
theoretical results (tables 1, 2) and experimental (table 3) studies show that with the introduction of extinguishing the composition of the graphite particles with the size less than 50 microns with optimally chosen (taking into account the height and area of locales�already listed flame) the values of the radii of droplets and the mass fraction of graphite particles in extinguishing composition significantly intensified the process of water evaporation in the flame zone, which leads to the decrease of amount of extinguishing composition and reduce the time of extinguishing the fire.
Method of extinguishing fires which consists in the use of extinguishing composition consisting of a solution of plain water with graphite particles with a mass fraction in the solution is from 0.5 to 0.9%, characterized in that the graphite particles with the size less than 50 microns, and extinguishing composition serves in the fire in the form of a monodisperse spray stream with a radius drops from 200 to 500 μm.
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: containers from shell destroyed by exposure to the burning object temperature are filled with dispersed fire extinguishing agent mixed with dispersed explosive exploding when exposed to high temperatures. The containers filled with the fire extinguishing agent mixed with an explosive are placed in fire hazardous places, in case of fire under exposure to high temperature the container shells melt, the explosive explodes thereby the spurts of flame are shot down, and the fire extinguishing agent is intensively sprayed. The fire extinguishing agent is deposited on red-hot items of the burning object in the entire volume of this burning object area, thereby heat removal is carried out.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of fire extinguishing of facilities inconstantly maintained.
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: containers are made of the shell destroyed by the impact of the burning object temperature, are filled with the dispersed fire extinguishing agent mixed with the dispersed explosive, exploding when exposed to the burning object temperature. The containers filled with fire extinguishing agent mixed with explosive are loaded on board of the helicopter. When reached the border of the burning object, the containers filled with fire extinguishing agent mixed with explosive are thrown down. Under the influence of high temperature of the latter the container shells melt and the explosive explodes thereby the spurts of flame are shot down. The fire extinguishing agent is deposited on red-hot subjects of the burning object thereby heat removal is carried out. Flying deep into the extinguishing area is carries out, where the following containers are thrown down, the described operations are performed, flying around the whole area of fire extinguishing.
EFFECT: increase in efficiency of fire extinguishing of vast crown forest and steppe fires.
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: dispersed extinguishing agent is produced, mixed with dispersed explosive exploding when exposed to the temperature of the burning object. For aircrafts the discrete sprayers of the extinguishing agent are produced, mixed with the explosive. When approaching the border of the burning object, the discrete sprayer of the extinguishing agent is activated, mixed with the explosive, with which the portions of the extinguishing agent mixed with the explosive are delivered to the selected area of the burning object. Under the action of high temperature the explosive of each portion of the extinguishing agent mixed with the explosive fallen to each selected area explodes, by which the spurts of flame are beaten out. The extinguishing agent is deposited on red-hot items of the burning object in the whole volume of this area of the burning object, by which heat extraction is carried out. When flying deep into the area of fire extinguishing, where the following portions of the fire-extinguishing agent mixed with the explosive are thrown out, the described operations are performed, flying around the whole area of fire extinguishing.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of fire extinguishing of extensive crown forest and steppe fires.
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: mobile fire extinguishing complex contains the ATV 1 used as a vehicle which by means of the coupling device 2 is coupled with a monoaxial trailer 3. On the trailer 3 a water vessel 4, a motor-pump 5 and a hydraulic accumulator 6 are placed. In the vessel 4 the filter 7 is installed with a possibility of extraction which placed inside the vessel 4 hollow; this filter is designed as a hollow metal cylinder the free end of which is punched with holes, and on the second end of the filter 7 connected to the suction sleeve 8 the float 9 is rigidly fixed. The motor-pump 5 is connected with the pressure head pipeline 11 the cavity of which is interconnected with the hydraulic accumulator 6 and the distributor 12 with the taps 13 which by means of connecting hoses 14 are connected with the side fire monitors 15 and with the manual fire monitor 16. The pressure head pipeline 11 is fitted with the bypass valve 17 which is connected to the overflow pipeline 18. On ATV 1 the additional frontal frame 20 with hingedly fixed axis 21 is installed on which the side fire monitors 15 connected among themselves by means of two rods 22 are placed. On the axle 21 the sliding screw spacer 23 is hingedly fixed, and in the top part of the frame 20 the lifting spacer 24 hingedly connected to the fixed part of the sliding spacer 23 is installed.
EFFECT: offered mobile fire extinguishing complex will allow to suppress forest fires in conditions of far location or absence of open water sources near the fire scene.
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: device of delivery of substances intended for extinguishing fire in confined spaces comprises a cannon 1 and a shell 2. The shell is made compound comprising a heavy cylinder 3 in the form of a cup and a light cylinder 4 connected monolithically to the conical part of the shell 2, in the form of a cup, and which outer diameter is equal to the inner diameter of the heavy cylinder, mounted to the sheared split pins 5 inside the heavy cylinder 3, forming the closed chamber 6 to accommodate the substance 7 for extinguishing fire. On the surface of the light cylinder 4 there are grooves 8 for the sheared split pins 5 with the length equal to the distance from the head 9 of the light cylinder 4 to the openings for the split pins 5.
EFFECT: possibility of extinguishing fires in confined spaces in the distance and the use of cannonry for peaceful purposes.
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: method of detection of peat fire comprises identification of the most fire-hazardous parts of peatlands and placement in the part area of vertical wells. The perforated tubes are mounted in the wells, the tubes are filled with smoke-generating pyrotechnic composition and the wellheads are covered with granulometric material. The coordinates of the wells are recorded on the forest fire map. The boundaries of the fire are determined by the smoke location over the wells and its coordinates are recorded on the map. In the well cavity simultaneously with feeding the exhaust gases of internal combustion engine the fine powder of calcium carbonate is fed.
EFFECT: in comparison with the analogue, the method provides the ability of use of signal wells on peatlands with high content of ferrous iron due to feeding into the well cavity of exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine and powder of calcium carbonate that suppress the vital activity of iron bacteria.
FIELD: firefighting means.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to extinguishing of large-scale fires. Experience of extinguishing such fires demonstrated practical inefficiency of existing methods for a series of reasons, the main of which is insufficiency and often unavailability of the main agent for fire extinguishing - water. The original source of the main fire extinguishing agent is atmospheric air, which contains water vapours. Absolute humidity of air, i.e. mass of water vapour per unit of air volume, depends on temperature and atmospheric pressure. According to statistics, in average on the soil surface on 1 m2 there is 28.5 kg of water vapour available in air above this surface. Production of water from air, according to the proposed method, is carried out by cooling of air volume above fire zone to the temperature below the dew point temperature, i.e. when water vapour condenses and falls in the form of rain (or snow). Air above the fire zone is cooled by means of even distribution of liquefied nitrogen in its volume from reservoirs installed in aircrafts, in layers at different altitudes in the altitude range from several hundreds meters to the soil surface to approximately 1500 m. Simultaneously air is cooled in the surface layer from reservoirs with liquefied nitrogen, placed on the surface of soil along the perimeter of the fire front.
EFFECT: method to extinguish large-scale fires has a scientific basis, which makes it possible to produce the original source of this main fire extinguishing agent, not using technical means for delivery of water to seats of fire from natural or manmade water reservoirs, which may be located at significant distances from the fire zone.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises forming inside a facility of a hypoxic gas-air medium with the set initial low content of oxygen under normal pressure of hot water supply; the oxygen content is set depending on the type of the pressurised space. Monitoring is carried out by sensors of pre-alarm pre-fire state of the gas-air medium, and the pressure and oxygen content are adjusted if needed, in the specified period of time, by reducing the oxygen content and increasing the content of nitrogen or inert gas to the values of the concentration and pressure specified for this space, sufficient to detect and eliminate the causes of the pre-alarm state. After a series of measures the initial set value of oxygen content is reset at the normal pressure of hot water supply for each closed space of the pressurised facility. The device for implementing the method comprises a system control unit, a sensor assembly of controlling parameters of the gas-air medium and the assembly of cylinders with inert gas or a mixture of inert gases, it additionally comprises a sensor assembly of pre-alarm control, connected by information-control and pneumatic bonds, a regeneration unit of the gas-air medium, an assembly of cylinders with oxygen, an assembly of oxygen distributors, an assembly of high pressure air cylinders, an assembly of the gas-air medium purification with the filter of purification from mechanical impurities and the filter of purification from harmful chemicals and carbon oxide, an assembly of separation of air, an assembly of high pressure compressor, and a compartment control unit in each controlled space of the pressurised facility.
EFFECT: reduction of the risk of combustion and fire on submarines and other pressurised inhabited facilities by introducing pre-alarm monitoring and creation in them of the hypoxic gas-air media, with simultaneous creating the conditions for normal functioning of the submarine crew under conditions of an extended voyage.
18 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: fire suppression system of premises with increased gas medium pressure, containing a firm sealed tank for storage and feeding of fresh water under pressure on the pipeline into the premises on the centrifugal sprayers, a high pressure air cylinder connected by the pipelines through the air reducer to the tank, the device of limiting the rate of pressure increase, the device of maintaining the differential pressure during decompression, and the control panel with alarm sensors. The air reducer over the membrane cavity is connected by the pipeline to the volume of the protected premises and creates a predetermined differential pressure between the sprayers and the premises, the centrifugal sprayers on the swirlers have spring-loaded movable cylinders, the regulating sections of tangential windows of swirlers, maintaining the required opening angle of the jet of atomised water, the device of maintaining the differential pressure during decompression by the pipelines is connected to the tank and the volume of the protected premises.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of the fire suppression system by increasing the intensity of supply of atomised water with an increase of pressure of gas medium during a fire.
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: in the unit of gaseous fire suppression for places of storing containers with flammable and combustible liquids in temporary settlement of population affected by emergencies, comprising a control unit and series-connected insulated tank for liquid carbon dioxide with the pipeline of supplying carbon dioxide and lock and release device located outside the tank, the switching gears and the distribution pipeline with sprayers. The lock and release device is located above the level of liquid carbon dioxide in the tank, and the intake of carbon dioxide is carried out through the pipeline in the tank from the bottom part of the latter, each nozzle housing is formed with a channel for supplying liquid and comprises a housing in which the screw is pressed, and a fitting for supplying liquid, and the housing consists of two coaxial interconnected cylindrical sleeves: the sleeve of larger diameter and the sleeve of smaller diameter, and the inside the sleeve of smaller diameter, coaxially to it, a screw is mounted, rigidly connected to its inner surface, such as pressed in it, and the outer surface of the screw is a helical groove and inside the screw a hole with a screw thread is made, and in the sleeve of larger diameter coaxially to it, the fitting is located, fixedly mounted in it, such as by the threaded connection through the sealing gasket, and in the fitting a cylindrical opening is coaxially formed passing into axially located diffuser which is connected to a cylindrical chamber formed by the inner surface of the sleeve of smaller diameter and the end surface of the screw, and the end surface of the sleeve of smaller diameter is fixed to two obliquely located rods, on each of which active sprayers are secured, for example made in the form of blades resting in the lower part on stops fixed to the rods perpendicular to their axes. The rods are tilted in the direction away from the axis of the injector, i.e. along the conical surface which apex is directed towards the sleeve of the larger diameter.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of fire-extinguishing.
FIELD: fire-fighting equipment, particularly for volumetric fire extinguishing in closed space.
SUBSTANCE: method involves separate feeding cooled gaseous aerosol with progressively increasing temperature to upper space of room to be protected at the command of control system; additionally supplying sprays of fire-extinguishing powder mixed with products of solid fuel combustion across the whole room volume or locally in lower room part at maximum speed, wherein quantity of supplied aerosol, initial time, direction and necessity of fire-extinguishing powder supply is determined from fire spread speed and nature. Fire-extinguishing substance is supplied in accordance with the following program. Under false operation of control system or in the case of small fire apparatus is given a command to supply gaseous aerosol. If fire covers the full room volume apparatus is given a command in 5 - 10 min to supply gaseous aerosol and, when needed, if fire is not extinguished, apparatus is given a command to additionally supply fire-extinguishing powder. If fire is accompanied by explosion and in the case of room air-tightness failure apparatus is given a command to simultaneous supply gaseous aerosol and fire-extinguishing powder. Fire-extinguishing apparatus comprises at least one aerosol generator AG 1, at least one powder extinguisher PE 2 with solid-fuel displacing gas generator GG 3, control system for operating fire-extinguishing composition supply connected to aerosol generator and powder extinguisher. Control system has sensors 4 and control-and-triggering means 5. Aerosol generator and gas generator GG 3 are provided with cooling inert nozzles. Control system is programmed to actuate aerosol generator and powder extinguisher in dependence of fire nature.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reduced time of space filling with fire-extinguishing composition and, simultaneously, increased economy and safety to people, possibility to extinguish fires at early stage in large rooms with dense equipment arrangement in the case of people present and in rooms with large quantities of pressurized combustible materials which may explode with creation of high-power fire sites distributed across the whole room volume; increased consumption of fire-extinguishing composition and reduced volumetric concentration thereof, increased reliability of fire-extinguishing system in temperature range from -60° to +60°.
10 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: protective and emergency equipment for servicing ground launch structures.
SUBSTANCE: in launching the vehicle, compressed gas is fed through collector nozzles to engine zone via one of mains to main circular main where pressure more than 0.6 Mpa is maintained. Simultaneously, air is fed to engine zone through nozzles of additional collectors via two mains. As pressure drops below 0.6 Mpa, air is fed via two other mains supplying gas to main collector and via three mains of additional collector. In case of repeated drop of pressure to 0.6 Mpa, air is fed via two remaining mains of main collector. Proposed system includes compressed gas bottles and gas supply mains with controllable shut-off fittings. Mains are combined (five mains) by means of main and additional collectors. Additional collector is provided with two or more divergent nozzles. Fittings are made in form of normally closed pneumatic valves controlled by separate groups. Circular collector nozzles are conical in shape and are located at angles of 30 deg. and 45 deg. relative to vertical axis of launch vehicle.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of fire prevention.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting technique; extinguishing large-scale fires.
SUBSTANCE: proposed fire airship includes disk-shaped aerostatic body, power plants with variable thrust vector, crew cabin with control system, landing gear and mooring arrangement. Body consists of upper and lower elastic convex envelopes whose edges are secured on frame which is closed over perimeter ; this frame is connected with tubular member by means of rigid radial beams forming the central compartment; said tubular member is located along vertical axis of aerostatic body whose cavity is divided by inclined gas-tight membrane into lighter-than-air compartment containing the bottles charged with this gas and thermal ballasting compartment located under first one. Upper and lower convex envelopes are provided with upper load-bearing ring secured on end face of tubular member and lower load-bearing ring with sleeve forming the cargo compartment. Inner and outer edges of gas-tight membrane are secured respectively on closed frame and on lower load-bearing ring which is connected with closed frame and with rigid tubular member by means of longitudinally rigid members. Water tank installed in cargo compartment is connected by means of flexible hose with pipe mounted coaxially relative to rigid tubular member; pipe terminates in funnel secured on upper load-bearing ring. Water tank is provided with outlet pipe for forming water packs dropped onto burning site.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of fire-fighting.
4 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: means of explosion preventive maintenance at ammunition depots.
SUBSTANCE: the plant has a interconnected compressed air source, measuring instruments, valves, vessels with ingredients of starting foaming agent and a mixer with air or liquid channels at the inlet. The air channel has an adjusting valve and/or pressure regulator, and the mixer - at the outlet a foaming hose with a hose barrel at the free end. At the inlet the mixer is provided with an injector connected through a vessel to the ingredients of the starting solution by means of a suck-in hose and a liquid channel with a water feed pump. The ratio of the inside diameter of the foaming hose-to-the length makes up 1:(500...1000).
EFFECT: provided compactness of the plant and expanded its functional potentialities.
10 cl, 18 dwg
FIELD: fire prevention, particularly for power engineering and transport, to design rooms, compartments and so on characterized by risk of explosive gaseous mixture (air and inflammable gas, combustible liquid vapor) accumulation, namely to protect combustible material storage facilities, power plant rooms, compartments in vehicles and so on.
SUBSTANCE: the essence in the invention is in the following. When combustible gaseous mixture even having stoichiometric fuel-oxidizer ratio ignites detonation wave appears practically immediately. For detonation wave forming some space is needed in which separate compression waves generated by flame are united in common compression shock, namely in detonation wave. The detonation wave unlike the compression wave immediately heats gaseous mixture behind wave front. Because of above heating detonation wave moves with supersonic speed, pressure in wave front is substantially higher than in the case of normal gas burning. Above pressure increase takes place practically instantly at distance equal to several free paths of gas molecules. To take into consideration above processes system has adjusting partitions arranged so that straight distance between any two points in free space does not exceed length of predetonation zone in stoichiometric mixture of above gaseous mixture including oxygen, wherein the mixture is under atmospheric pressure if the volume communicates with atmosphere and is under maximal possible pressure if the volume is closed.
EFFECT: prevention of gaseous mixture detonation.
FIELD: shaped-charge action on solid media, in particular, ice masses and emergency objects with the aim of their destruction, applicable for destruction of ice jams, elimination of avalanche-like and mud flow situations, liquidation of aftereffects of natural and technogeneous cataclysms, fires, as well as at production of fire-fighting water reservoirs.
SUBSTANCE: blasting supply has a cover, frame closed by a cover and made in the form of a latticework, propelled substance, explosive placed in the cover, the cover has two layers, pulled up on the latticed frame expansible upwards made of ribs converging in the lower part, the propelled substance is placed between two layers of the cover, an antioverturning is attached to the cover from the top.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of the blasting effect on the objects to be destructed.
22 cl, 1 dwg, 6 ex
FIELD: fire-fighting, particularly to prevent or suppress fire in closed space.
SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying oxygen displacing gas in the room to provide the first inert level characterized by reduced oxygen content in comparison with natural one; additionally stepwise or rapidly supplying oxygen displacing gas into the room to provide several different inert levels with greater oxygen content reduction. Stepwise gas supply is performed if needed. Rapid oxygen supply is carried out in the case of fire outbreak. Device for above method realization is also disclosed. The device comprises oxygen sensing means used to detect oxygen content in predetermined room and oxygen displacing gas source.
EFFECT: increased simplicity and reduced cost of displacing gas storage.
17 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting, particularly to extinguish fires in decompression pressure chambers of ships and boats and in deep-ocean diving systems.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating anoxic gas medium by compression with compressed helium at maximal possible rate to obtain pressure necessary to produce oxygen-nitrogen-helium medium having oxygen concentration of not more than 10-12%; holding above medium to combat fire; decompressing divers in special mode, which provides gas equilibrium in diver's organisms, when current summary human tissues saturation with nitrogen and helium does not exceed outer pressure value, and sufficient oxygenation.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of fire extinguishment due to provision of oxygen concentration, which does not sustain combustion, increased safety of divers due to necessary partial nitrogen pressure provision and due to correct decompression mode usage.
FIELD: rescue engineering; devices for rescue operations.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the device for rescue operations, which may be used both for fire extinguishing and for evacuation of people. The technical result of the invention achievable at realization of the given invention is expansion of the functional capabilities of the device for rescue operations. The device for rescue operations includes the skeleton, the lateral fencing wall made with the capability of folding in the vertical direction, the bottom. The lateral fencing wall is made out of the fire-resistant and waterproof material, has the lobes anchored by one edge along the perimeter of the bottom and above the mesh bottom. The lobes in their hanging down position cover the whole surface of the mesh bottom. The ends of some lobes have flaps made out of the waterproof material overlapping the gaps between the lobes while they are in their down position. The top end of one of the lobes is connected to the end of the cord. The skeleton has the upper and the lower hollow rim rings. At that the internal volume of the upper rim ring ensures buoyancy of the device.
EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the functional capabilities of the device for rescue operations.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: fire fighting, particularly to extinguish fire in large volatile flammable liquid storage facilities under low ambient temperatures in northern zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves delivering fire-extinguishing powder via pipeline to fire site so that fire-extinguishing powder is fluidized and aerated along the full pipeline length. Fire-extinguishing system comprises fire-extinguishing powder supply pipeline installed in potential fire initiation zone, accumulation vessels for fire-extinguishing powder, compressed gas source and alarm means. The supply pipeline has gas-permeable longitudinal partition, which divides the pipeline into low-pressure and high-pressure cavities. The pipeline is provided with outlet valves and is connected with compressed gas source through accumulation vessels. Alarm means are made as infrared sensors and are communicated with control electronic apparatus. Each outlet valve is provided with electric drive connected with control electronic apparatus.
EFFECT: provision of fire extinguishing in the cases, in which water and fire-extinguishing foam usage is impossible, increased reliability and safety of fire suppression under low temperatures, reduced fire-extinguishing system response time and decreased maintenance costs.
7 cl, 4 dwg