Dipole antenna

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to radio engineering and can be used as an antenna for radiating a high-frequency electromagnetic field in the short-wave range. Disclosed is a vertical, symmetrical short-wave dipole antenna, the phase of the magnetic component of the radiated field and the value of the electrical component of said field of which are controlled such that the ratio of the electric field strength to the magnetic field strength is equal to the wave impedance of the propagation medium.

EFFECT: reduced loss of energy in the near radiation zone of the antenna when generating a field in said medium.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of radio and can be used as an antenna for radiation of high frequency electromagnetic fields high (KB) range.

The disadvantage of the existing antennas is the cost of the portion of the radiated energy on the formation of the field structure inherent in the propagation medium (in particular - in the atmosphere), because near-field radiation at distances less than the wavelength of the operating frequency, the field structure is determined by the specific design features of the antennas. As used here, refers to the structure of the field synphasicity electric E and magnetic "H" of the field strengths and their ratio (E/N equal to 120 π in the atmosphere.

Known antenna that improves the specified characteristics of antennas, for example patent US 3618107 from 02.11.1971, patent GB 2208042 from 15.02.1989, patent RF 2247449 of 26.03.2003.

Known dipole antenna, patent US 6956535 (prototype). Dipole antenna that contains two dipole element in the form of metal cylinders arranged vertically with a gap between them, and the throttle setting phase, while the lower end of the upper dipole element through the throttle setup phase is connected to the Central core of the coaxial cable and the upper end of the lower dipole element is connected to a shared bus coaxial cable, allowing to provide synphasicity E and H in drawing up�promoting the radiated fields in the near zone, having improved characteristics in terms of bandwidth, size and efficiency. The radiation resistance of this antenna in the operating frequency band is active and is 120 Ohms, which corresponds to the ratio E/N near the antenna.

The disadvantage as analogues and the prototype is that they do not provide the ratio E/H=120π(377) Om, which is the characteristic impedance of the propagation medium is the atmosphere (Kulikovsky, A. A. Handbook of electronics. T1. Moscow: Energiya, 1967).

When calculating the equivalent ratio of the traveling wave management (IPM), for the case of active resistance load (Atabekov, G. I., Theoretical foundations of electrical engineering. Part 1. Moscow: Energiya, 1970), defined by the ratio of the resistance of the field in the near zone to the characteristic impedance of the propagation medium, are IPM=120/120π=1/π≈0,318.

Inequality IPM unit suggests that part of the radiated energy will be spent on the transformation of the field generated by the antenna in the near zone (Wolman V. I., Y. V. Pimenov Technical electrodynamics. M: Communications, 1971), with the ratio E/H = 120 Ohm in box, with the ratio E/H=120π Ohms.

The aim of the invention is to improve the efficiency of the antenna by reducing energy costs for the transformation of the field structure in the near zone.

This object is achieved in that the dipole antenna that contains two dipole� element in the form of a metal cylinder, vertically with a gap between them, and the throttle setting phase, while the lower end of the upper dipole element through the throttle setup phase is connected to the Central core of the coaxial cable and the upper end of the lower dipole element is connected to a shared bus coaxial cable, two conductive plates corresponding to the diameters of the cylinders of the dipole elements and fastened in the area of the gap between the dipole elements in isolation from them, and high frequency transformer with three windings, 3 of them-I winding has switchable contacts to change the transformation ratio, and the 1st end of the primary winding is connected to the Central core of the coaxial cable, and the 2nd end of the primary winding is connected to a shared bus coaxial cable, the 1st end of the second winding is connected to a 1st end of the throttle setup phase, the 2nd end of the throttle setup phase is connected with the lower end of the upper dipole element, and the 2nd end of the second winding is connected to the upper end of the lower dipole element, 1st switchable end of the third winding of the transformer connected to the upper conductive plate, and the 2nd end of the third winding is connected to the lower conductive plate.

A block diagram of the dipole antenna shown in Fig.

The notation adopted in Fig., following:

1 - coaxial cable;

2 - �isolatory transformer;

3 - phase choke settings;

4 - cylindrical dipole element;

5 - conducting plate.

The work of the dipole antenna is as follows. High frequency signal via a coaxial cable is fed to the first winding of the transformer and the 2nd winding with a constant ratio of the signal in opposite phase is fed to the dipole elements from the gap between them. On the upper dipole element signal supplied through the inductor of the phase settings.

The throttle phase sets the phase variation of the magnetic component of the radiated cylindrical dipole elements of the field so that the magnetic component "H" is emitted in phase with the electric component of the "E" as in distribution in the far zone. The level of the electrical component "E" emitted from this antenna fields is mainly determined by the field generated in the prototype in the gap between the cylindrical dipole elements-of-phase potentials applied to the dipole elements (YEON Introduction to antennas. Ted Hart CEO EH Antenna Systems, LLC, www.eh-antenna.com).

In the proposed technical solution, the level of the electric component E is determined mainly by field formed in the gap between the newly introduced conductive plates, the level of the potential difference between� which is adjusted by changing the transformation ratio so the ratio E/N was equal to 120 π, i.e. corresponded to the characteristic impedance of the propagation medium. In this case, is equivalent to IPM will be equal to 1, and the energy costs for the transformation of the field in the near zone will be minimized.

Dipole antenna that contains two dipole element in the form of metal cylinders arranged vertically with a gap between them, and the throttle setting phase, while the lower end of the upper dipole element through the throttle setup phase is connected to the Central core of the coaxial cable and the upper end of the lower dipole element is connected to a shared bus coaxial cable, characterized in that the two conductive plates corresponding to the diameters of the cylinders of the dipole elements and fastened in the area of the gap between the dipole elements in isolation from them, and high frequency transformer with three windings, 3 of them-I winding has switchable contacts to change the transformation ratio, and the first end of the primary winding is connected to the Central core of the coaxial cable and the second end of the primary winding is connected to a shared bus coaxial cable, the first end of the second winding connected to the first end of the inductor tuning phase, the second end of the inductor tuning phase is connected with the lower end of the upper dipole element, and the WTO�second end of the second winding is connected to the upper end of the lower dipole element, the first switchable end of the third winding of the transformer connected to the upper conductive plate and the second end of the third winding is connected to the lower conductive plate.



 

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