Technological installation for obtaining aldehydes, mainly from butanes or propylene, with application of rhodium catalysts

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: installation comprises: sources of synthesis-gas and olefins, connected to reactor via purification devices, successively connected by means of pipelines with reactor input gas-liquid separator and evaporator, collector of bottom residue of which is connected with reverse pipeline of liquid recycle, with output of aldehydes from evaporator being collected with rectification column via collector-separator, as well as unit for discharge of waste catalyst and heavy reaction products. Installation is provided with sensor of liquid level, installed in collector of bottom residue; device for preparation of fresh catalyst solution, connected with reverse pipeline of liquid recycle and made in form of mixer with dosing device of catalyst components, with unit for discharge of waste catalyst and heavy reaction products being made in from of successively connected pump with device of its switching on and off, meter of liquid flow, device for distilling aldehydes from waste catalyst solution and connected with meter of liquid flow and dosing device of catalyst components of actuator, with output for aldehydes from device for their distillation from waste catalyst solution being connected with mixer of device for preparation of fresh catalyst solution, and sensor of liquid level is located with device of pump switching on and off.

EFFECT: realisation of hydroformylation on claimed installation makes it possible to provide constant optimal quantity of heavy reaction products, optimal composition and quantity of catalyst solution.

1 dwg, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to organic synthesis, and in particular to equipment for production of aldehydes by hydroformylation of olefins with the use of rhodium catalysts.

Use when oxosynthesis rhodium catalysts, in contrast to cobalt, allows to achieve high selectivity and yield of the final product. The main disadvantage of these catalysts is the high cost of rhodium. Therefore one of the main objectives of cost reduction of the resulting product is to increase the productivity and specific yield of product aldehydes, reduction of catalyst consumption, the greatest possible utilization and recycle of the catalyst. One of the ways of reducing the consumption of catalyst and improvement of specific indicators is permanently optimal quantity in the reactor with a potentially high activity level and optimal composition of the reaction medium, providing high efficiency of the process.

Known installation of hydroformylation of olefins, which uses two independent reaction system, each with its own catalyst solution (catalyst from different systems is not mixed). Unreacted gases from the first stage come to the second stage, where the conversion of the remaining after the initial Convers�ation of raw materials (U.S. Patent No. 4593127).

The disadvantages of the known device is that each of the reactor stages has separate units for separation of product from catalyst (separator, evaporator, refrigerators, etc.) - i.e., the number of such equipment is doubled. At the same time it will be different capacity, as most of the conversion will occur in the first stage. Each gear has its own catalyst solutions for maintenance (control deactivation, regeneration, etc.) and circulation which have duplicate hardware.

Known technological system for producing aldehydes, comprising a system of two reactors - mixing (primary reactor) and the displacement (secondary reactor), so that the propylene conversion reaches 98%. Evaporative separation of product from catalyst solution occurs directly in the upper part of the reactor, and the use of special evaporator is not provided. This requires a sufficiently high temperature (120°C), which is unacceptable for metastability fofanah catalysts. Evaporative separation occurs in both reactors, and then a couple of aldehydes are condensed and fed to the separators and then to the stripper. Neskondensirovannyh gases after the separator the primary reactor is fed to the secondary power reactor, and an analogue�CNY stream from the separator of the secondary reactor on the reset. Catalyst solution circulates the primary reactor to the secondary reactor. On top of the stripper column residual hydrocarbons With3can be transferred to the primary power reactor (U.S. Patent No. 5,367,106).

The disadvantages of the known installations include the fact that to achieve high conversion, the total volume of the system must be large enough. Therefore, high conversions can be unjustified. Even in the case of reactor operation at a high conversion per pass through the reactor requires a significant increase in its volume. No special evaporator, therefore, the mode of distillation is carried out under stringent conditions.

Known technological installation of hydroformylation of olefins, comprising a reactor connected in series with the separator film evaporator and a reservoir for collecting the catalyst, reported a return pipe from the reactor to return the catalyst solution (Patent RF №2270829).

The disadvantage of this setup is the inability to maintain high catalyst activity in the reactor and its optimal number, as well as large loss of catalyst in the process of recycling. This is due to the degradation of the catalyst at high temperatures the separation of the liquid phase of the reaction products on lepraria�rowasa olefins with aldehydes and cubic fraction, containing the rhodium catalyst from 90°C to 180°C, or a low degree of separation at low temperatures from 40°C to 90°C, entailing a large loss of catalyst solution.

The closest technical solution to offer is process plant producing aldehydes, comprising connected to the reactor through the device for cleaning the sources of synthesis gas and olefins, are sequentially connected by piping with grocery outlet of the reactor evaporator aldehydes and unreacted olefins, the output of the cube which is communicated with the reactor return line recycling of the catalyst solution, the separator and the column rectification and site selection for spent catalyst solution that is used to compensate for the accumulation of heavy reaction products is connected directly to the reactor (U.S. Patent No. 4287370).

The disadvantage of installation is that intense heat coming out of the flow reactor, containing a catalyst to separate grocery aldehydes and unreacted olefin from the solution of the catalyst, which leads to the destruction and loss the latter. The selection of spent catalyst solution directly from the hydroformylation reactor also causes an increased flow of rhodium. In this case heavy products considerably diluted IP�odnymi olefins and grocery aldehydes, therefore, to compensate for their accumulation necessary to sample large volumes of the solution and, consequently, the catalyst, for example, than if you take the flow with a high concentration of heavy. In addition, it is difficult to maintain an optimum content of heavy products and catalyst, since the holding of a special chemical analysis of the exhaust stream does not have sufficient efficiency.

The present invention is to reduce the loss of catalyst solution and product aldehydes, higher productivity of the reactor and the conversion of the olefins, the decrease in the intensity of the formation of by-product heavy condensation products of aldehydes.

The technical result achieved by the present invention is the provision of a constant optimal number of heavy reaction products in the installation, optimum composition and quantity of the catalyst solution.

The problem is solved and the technical result is achieved in that the installation is supplied installed in the collection of still bottoms evaporator grocery aldehydes by the level sensor, the device of the preparation of the catalyst solution, connected to a return pipe recycling of liquid and is made in the form of a mixer with spout catalyst components, and the node selection process spent catalyst and the heavy n�of doctow reactions were performed in the form of series-connected pump device with it on and off, meter the fluid flow, the device for distillation of aldehydes from spent catalyst solution and connected to the flow meter liquid dispenser and catalyst components of the actuator, the yield of aldehydes from their Stripping of the spent catalyst solution is communicated with the mixer device for the preparation of fresh catalyst solution, and the liquid level sensor associated with the device to enable and disable the pump.

These distinctive features are essential.

The connection of the level sensor in the collection of still bottoms evaporator with a device to enable and disable the pump site selection for spent catalyst solution and heavy reaction products allows for the adjustment in the number of heavy products present in the catalyst solution. Output connection of aldehydes from their Stripping of the spent catalyst solution with the mixer device for the preparation of fresh catalyst solution together with the dosing of the catalyst components in proportion to the selected flow VAT residue of the evaporator ensures the preparation of fresh catalyst solution in return extracted in proportion to its consumption and the amount of extracted heavy products. In other words, t�Kai design provides a selection of coming from the evaporator catalyst mixture solution, heavy products and aldehydes, the return of the catalyst solution into the recycling pipeline with the addition of fresh catalyst to the desired amount. Moreover, this quantity is proportional to the volume extracted from the system of the spent catalyst solution, and aldehydes isolated from this solution, are added into the mixer in the device for the preparation of fresh catalyst solution and used as a solvent, thereby providing an automatic link between the quantity of heat withdrawn from the reactor and shipped to the site of regeneration of the catalyst, the volume of repeatedly returned to the reactor of a catalyst and a necessary amount of added fresh catalyst. This relationship is determined by the known proportions of the components of the output from the evaporator through conduit recycling mixture. Quantitative and qualitative composition of the mixture determines the mode of operation of the reactor and its associated devices, the initial composition of the raw materials. Adjusting the amount of the mixture and return mixture into the reactor with catalyst, is automatically adjusted by the number of prepared fresh solution of the catalyst. Thus, maintaining in the reactor a constant optimal number of heavy products and the catalyst with the highest activity.

On isuncertain flowchart of process plant producing aldehydes.

A process unit includes parallel-connected to the reactor 1 through the devices 2 and 3 clean sources of synthesis gas 4 and 5 olefins. Grocery outlet 6 of the reactor 1 is connected via a gas-liquid separator 15 with the evaporator 7, a collection of still bottoms 8 of which a return pipe 9 of the recycle fluid is communicated with the reactor 1. The pipe 9 is connected in parallel to the node selection process spent catalyst and the heavy products of the reaction device 10 and 11 preparation of the catalyst solution. In the collection 8 installed level sensor still bottoms 12. The evaporator 7 is connected to the rectification column 16 through the collector-separator 22. The device 11 preparation of catalyst solution is in the form of mixer 17 with dispenser 18 catalyst components, and the node 10 of the selection of the spent catalyst and the heavy products of the reaction is made in the form of series-connected pump 14 of the device 13 to turn them on and off, measuring the fluid flow 19, the device for distillation of aldehydes from spent catalyst solution 20 and the actuator 21 connected to meter fluid flow 19 and the spout 18 of the components of the catalyst. The yield of liquid aldehydes from the Stripping device 20 communicates with a mixer device 17 of the preparation of the catalyst solution 11, and the level sensor still bottoms 12 of the con�EN with the device 13 to enable and disable the pump.

Process unit operates as follows. Job description, conditions and characteristics are given for steady state operation of the plant.

In the installation serves the synthesis gas 4 and liquid 5 olefins, in particular propylene or butene, which after passing through the cleaning devices 2 and 3 are fed into the reactor hydroformylation of 1. There also a pump (not shown) of the collector 8 via line 9 is fed recycled catalyst solution (solution of a complex of rhodium and ligands in the grocery aldehydes and the products of their seal). The reaction proceeds under a pressure of 0.5 to 4 MPa and a temperature of 70-120°C. from the Top of the reactor the gas-liquid mixture after cooling (refrigerator not shown) flows into the gas-liquid separator 15 where the gases are separated, and the fluid after depressurization is fed to the evaporator 7 for separating the product aldehydes submitted after the condensation of (a refrigerator condenser not shown) and separating the remaining gas in the collector-separator 22 to the rectification column 16. The evaporator 7 operates at a temperature that does not allow intensive degradation of the catalyst. The bottoms from the evaporator 7, containing a solution of the catalyst in neolignans aldehydes and heavy products their seal, accumulates in the collector 8 and directed through the conduit 9 into the reactor 1. Given that the speed� flow in the conduit 9 and the temperature conditions at the evaporator 7 is constant, and the heavy seal products of aldehydes is not distilled over in the evaporator 7, the liquid level in the collector 8 with the accumulation of heavy products in the system increases. The sensor 12 detects the exceeding of a predetermined level and includes a pump 14, which selects catalyst solution from collection 8 Dor until the level is not lowered to the predetermined value and the sensor 12 does not disable the pump. Selected catalyst solution enters the device distilling off the aldehyde 20, which is divided into aldehydes and concentrated solution of spent catalyst in heavy products. The latter sent for recycling, and aldehydes supplied to the mixer 17. In this mixer serves the components of the catalyst from the dispenser 18 to dissolve the aldehyde and the preparation of fresh catalyst solution. The number of components of the catalyst supplied to the dispenser 18, is regulated by an actuating device 21 is proportional to the flow rate selected bottoms of the evaporator 7 from the tank 8, which is determined by the flow meter 19 is connected with an actuating device 21. Received a fresh solution of the catalyst is supplied to the conduit 9, fully compensating the output from the installation of the spent catalyst solution.

Changing the mode of the unit will result in an automatic mode change return catalysis�Torah, maintaining an optimal ratio of components in the reactor.

Process unit obtaining aldehydes, mainly from the butenes or propylene, with the use of rhodium catalysts comprising connected to the reactor through the device for cleaning the sources of synthesis gas and olefins, are sequentially connected by pipelines with the release of reactor gas-liquid separator and the evaporator, a collection of still bottoms which communicates with the reactor return line recycling of the liquid, and the yield of aldehydes from the evaporator through the collector-separator is connected with a distillation column and the node selection process spent catalyst and heavy reaction products, characterized in that the installation is supplied installed in the collection bottoms of the evaporator liquid level sensor, device for the preparation of fresh catalyst solution, connected to a return pipe recycling of liquid and is made in the form of a mixer with spout catalyst components, and the node selection process spent catalyst and the heavy products of the reaction is made in the form of series-connected pump device with it on and off, meter the fluid flow, the device of the distillation of aldehydes from spent catalyst solution and connected to meter the flow of fluid and a component of the dispenser�the components of the catalyst of the Executive device the yield of the aldehydes from the device of their Stripping of the spent catalyst solution is communicated with the mixer device for the preparation of fresh catalyst solution, and the liquid level sensor associated with the device to enable and disable the pump.



 

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1 tbl, 26 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a novel acyclic aldehyde having 16 carbon atoms, containing at least three branches and selected from a group consisting of: 3-ethyl-7,11-dimethyldodecanal, 2,3,7,11-tetramethyl-dodecanal, 7,11,-dimethyl-3-vinyldodeca-6,10-dienal and 4,8,12-dimethyltrideca-4,7,11-trienal, to a composition of substances suitable for use as starting material for producing surfactants and containing at least one of the disclosed acyclic aldehydes, to a composition of detergent alcohols, suitable for producing a composition of surfactants and containing at least one acyclic alcohol converted from the disclosed acyclic aldehyde, and to a surfactant composition suitable for use in a detergent or cleaning composition and containing one or more surfactant derivatives of isomers of the acyclic detergent alcohol converted from the disclosed acyclic aldehyde. The invention also relates to versions of a cleaning composition and to versions of a method of producing an alcohol mixture for a composition of detergent alcohols.

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19 cl, 10 tbl, 24 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing aldehydes via hydroformylation of terminal or internal olefins in the presence of a catalyst system containing rhodium and a mono- or polyphosphite ligand. An antioxidant is added to the reaction mixture, the antioxidant being phenols or thioureas of general formulae: where R denotes identical or different aliphatic or aromatic univalent radicals or hydrogen, and hydroformylation is carried out in liquid phase in a solvent medium in form of aldehyde, with rhodium concentration of 0.1-2 mmol/l, at temperature of 20-150°C and pressure of 0.2-5 MPa, wherein the amount of the antioxidant is 1-30 mol/mol phosphite ligand.

EFFECT: invention enables to obtain end products using an efficient method at low raw material costs.

2 tbl, 15 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method of processing a hydroformylation reaction liquid product which contains an aldehyde, high-boiling hydroformylation reaction by-products, a homogeneously dissolved rhodium complex catalyst, an unreacted olefinically unsaturated compound, synthesis gas and volatile by-products, in which a) the liquid stream after hydroformylation is throttled in an expansion tank, wherein there is separation into a liquid phase and a gas phase, b) the liquid phase obtained in the expansion tank is fed into a separation device in which there is separation into a liquid phase, which mainly contains high-boiling hydroformylation reaction by-products, a homogeneously dissolved rhodium complex catalyst and a small amount of aldehyde, and a gas phase which contains the bulk of the aldehyde, and c) a liquid rhodium-containing stream is collected from the separation device. A portion of the liquid rhodium-containing output stream collected from the separation device is removed from the process and the other portion is passed through a filter, and the separated solid substances are removed from the process while the obtained filtrate is returned to the hydroformylation reaction.

EFFECT: method enables to prevent breakdown and/or deactivation of the hydroformylation catalyst.

13 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for direct conversion of lower C1-C4 paraffins to oxygenates such as alcohols and aldehydes, which are valuable intermediate products of organic synthesis and can be used as components of engine fuel and/or starting material for producing synthetic gasoline and other engine fuels. The method involves passing a mixture consisting of a lower paraffin or oxygen, diluted with an inert gas or air or pure oxygen, through a catalyst bed at temperature not higher than 350°C. The catalyst used is a catalyst system for heterogeneous reactions, which contains microfibre of a high-silica support and at least one active element, the active element being in form of either a MeOxHalv composite or a EwMezOxHaly composite, wherein the element Me in both composites is selected from a group which includes transition metals of groups 5-12 and periods 4 and 5, or elements of lanthanum or lanthanide groups or, preferably, ruthenium; element Hal is one of the halogens: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, but preferably chlorine; element E in the EwMezOxHaly composite is selected from a group which includes alkali, alkali-earth elements, or hydrogen, and indices w, z, x and y are weight fractions of elements in given composites and can vary in the following ranges: z - from 0.12 to 0.80, x - from 0.013 to 0.34, y - from 0.14 to 0.74, w - from 0 to 0.50.

EFFECT: method enables to achieve high degree of conversion of starting reactants and high selectivity of formation of alcohols.

4 cl, 15 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a continuous hydroformylation process for producing a mixture of aldehydes with improved control over normal/branched (N/I) isomer ratio of the product aldehydes. The method involves contacting under continuous reaction conditions in a hydroformylation reaction fluid, one or more olefin compounds, carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a mixture of an organopolyphosphite ligand and an organomonophosphite ligand, at least one of said ligands being bonded to a transition metal to form a hydroformylation catalyst containing a transition metal-ligand complex; the organopolyphosphite ligand comprising a plurality of phosphorus (III) atoms each bonded to three hydrocarbyloxy radicals, any non-bridging species of which consists essentially of an aryloxy radical (substituted or unsubstituted); the contacting is further conducted: (a) at a sub-stoichiometric molar ratio of organopolyphosphite ligand to transition metal such that said molar ratio is greater than 0 but less than 1.0/1; (b) at a super-stoichiometric molar ratio of organomonophosphite ligand to transition metal such that said molar ratio is greater than 2/1; (c) at a carbon monoxide partial pressure in a negative order region of a hydroformylation rate curve wherein rate of reaction decreases as carbon monoxide partial pressure increases, and wherein rate of reaction increases as carbon monoxide partial pressure decreases, the rate curve being measured on an identical hydroformylation process in the presence of the organopolyphosphite ligand but not the organomonophosphite ligand; and (d) with varying the molar ratio of organopolyphosphite ligand to transition metal within the aforementioned sub-stoichiometric range while maintaining the molar ratio of organomonophosphite ligand to transition metal in the aforementioned super-stoichiometric range, so as to control continuously the normal/branched isomer ratio of the aldehyde products.

EFFECT: providing a continuous production of a mixture of aldehydes with improved control over normal/branched (N/I) isomer ratio of the aldehyde products.

21 cl, 3 ex, 4 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a carbonylation method in which at least one compound olefinically unsaturated compound reacts with carbon monoxide in the presence of a complex catalyst of a metal of subgroup VIII of the periodic table of elements, containing an organophosphorus compound as a ligand, where the additional reagent used is at least hydrogen and hydroformylation is carried out. Carbonylation is carried out in the presence of at least one sterically hindered secondary amine with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine , units. The invention also relates to a mixture for use in the disclosed carbonylation method.

EFFECT: invention enables to obtain desired products with high selectivity using a stable catalyst system.

18 cl, 4 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention discloses introduction of cobalt in form of a cobalt salt solution into a process for hydroformylation of propylene performed in the presence of a cobalt catalyst, where the said cobalt salt solution is specifically cobalt butyrate dissolved in a high-boiling azeotropic mixture of dimethyl acetamide (DMA) and dimethyl formamide (DMF) in butyric acid. Regeneration of a catalyst which is a mixture of cobalt butyrate and the azeotropic mixture of DMA and DMF with butyric acid is performed by treating the still residue after distillation of the end products with water, followed by stripping off the obtained aqueous extract and returning the stripped off residue to the hydroformylation step.

EFFECT: simple hydroformylation process.

2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of regulating hydroformylation process for obtaining aldehydes of normal structure (N) and iso-structure (I) with ratio N:I. Claimed method includes contact of unsaturated olefin compound with synthesis-gas and catalyst, which contains transition metal and organopolyphosphite and organomonophosphite ligand, with contact being carried out in conditions of hydroformylation, including partial pressure of synthesis-gas, where method includes increase of partial pressure of synthesis-gas to reduce ratio N:I or reduction of partial pressure of synthesis-gas to increase ratio N:I.

EFFECT: obtaining aldehydes of normal structure (N) and iso-structure (I) with ratio N to I.

10 cl, 1 ex

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