Method of manufacturing of tine, and tine

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: method of fork lug (18) manufacturing for hoisting devices with, in principle, horizontal in the work position fork blade (5), and adjacent to it via fork bend, in principle, vertical fork back (20), that is equipped with connecting elements (2, 3) for transportation devices, at that fork lug contains several connected parts means that at least some parts are welded with each other. At that parts of the fork lugs are welded by means of the electronic beam welding and/or laser welding. Weld between the adjacent surfaces of the parts is made from both sides over surface to minimum depth 15 mm.

EFFECT: increased lug strength.

11 cl, 16 dwg

 

The invention relates to a method for manufacturing prongs of the forks for loading and transport devices with essentially horizontal in the operating position the fork blade and the adjacent through bending fork, essentially vertical back of the fork, which is provided with connecting elements for transport devices, wherein the prongs of the pitchfork consists of several interconnected parts, and at least some parts welded to each other.

The invention also relates to prong fork made in accordance with this method.

Known tooth can be derived from DD 265050 A3, and there he is shown and described in one example of implementation as consisting of three steel plates, welded together along the edge of the corner seam, and mentioned that individual plates can be glued together, although not given, however, indicate how you could be bonding. The external plate can consist of high-quality steel, and the inner plate of ordinary structural steel. By the described construction should be reduced excessive costs in the manufacture, since the individual plates should be made flexible without forging.

Although this known approach to solving could really simplify the fabrication, however, durable�there are prongs of the forks cannot be achieved through steel plates welded together along the edge of the corner seams, in particular the deflection of the prongs of the forks under load due to the lateral corner welding seams substantially higher than conventional forks from a heat treatable steel. Further, the thickness of the plates was chosen so that the flexible prongs of the forks should be done by local heating of the bend region, and the power supply is already significant in flexion. The second additional increased flow of energy occurs through the selected method of welding corner joints on the edge of the steel plates, and required third subsequent flow of energy through heat treatment for stress relief of welds.

To simplify the manufacture of DE 19515834 C1 was also known to manufacture the blades of the forks and/or fork face or just fork out near each other plates. Although thus you can get rid of forging works, at least partially, still welding in certain areas is labour intensive and critical work, which in General is detrimental to the strength of the entire tooth.

The document EP 0560524 A1 shows likewise consisting of plates prong fork, and all without an exception of possibility of connection strips of the prongs of the forks are left open, however, dwell here, in particular, the bonding and in General also with�arch, moreover, as the only example in Fig. 4 shows and describes the gain 52 of the weld seam along the side edges of the prongs of the pitchfork, which apply to the whole direction of the welded surfaces. Nevertheless, here we are speaking about the outer surfaces of the plates, and welding leads to the fact that the welds behave like installed two steel plates that entails that when you load the installed steel plates excessively deformed in the direction of action of the load, the individual plates are participating in this movement, moving along the axis. Static action collected thus prongs of the forks corresponds to having the same dimensions of the hollow profile, and the desired strength values in the result may not be achieved.

The object of the invention is to provide a method of manufacturing a high-strength, most easily and economically manufactured teeth, in which the mentioned drawbacks of the prior art, is eliminated at least substantially. In particular, the manufacture has to happen very quickly, and, on the other hand, the power supply is only a very small.

This problem is solved by the method mentioned first type, wherein according to the invention the parts of the prongs of the forks are welded with each other by electron-Lou�eve of welding and/or laser welding, moreover, the weld seam between adjacent to each other surfaces of the parts is carried out from two sides to a depth of at least 15 mm.

Thus, according to the invention is essential that a surface (i.e. the surface) the connection between the individual plates, the penetration depth appropriate amount to 30% of the width of the forks (15% on each side surface, respectively, the depth of penetration advantageously is at least 15 mm, in order to get the really surface welding, which eliminates the problems mentioned earlier strength. However, in many cases, it is also recommended to weld across the width of the prong, so that the plates or parts are welded over the entire surface.

Further feasible of execution of the invention are characterized in the dependent claims.

The invention provides the advantage that despite only a small power supply are made of high quality forks, and the above-mentioned disadvantages of the prior art are eliminated.

The crystal structure of the entire prong fork and a separate steel plates remain substantially not damaged even after welding. Thanks to high power density electron beam welding, laser welding, respectively svarny� seams are very narrow, and preferably less than 1 mm), however, on the other hand, a deep (possibly up to 100 mm), so that a surface of high-strength connection between the plates without additional feed material. The strength of joints is so high that the depth of penetration of 30% of the width of the forks is sufficient to produce prong fork with maximum strength, which corresponds to the potential maximum strength durable metal sheets separate plates with a limit of tensile strength, for example, in 1500 N/mm2. However, the penetration depth, as needed, may decrease or increase. Mentioned as an example, 30% is distributed then to 15% on each lateral surface of the leaf plates. The leaves can be bent in a cold state, taking into consideration the minimum bending radius required and set by the manufacturer of the sheets.

Thanks to computer digital software control (CNC or CNC-control) the invention is suitable for the production of a large number of products, and the manufacturing costs are significantly reduced through the introduction of minor energy.

High welding speed (20 m/min) enables the rate of production in a momentary tact, as several plates can be welded simultaneously.

In more detail since the invention�snano below using exemplary embodiments, which are clearly shown in the drawings.

In the drawings:

Fig. 1 shows in exploded view the image in perspective prong fork according to the invention, respectively, its parts,

Fig. 2 shows a partial view in perspective of a plate, a stepped truncated from below

Fig. 3 shows an enlarged side view of a region of a bend of the forks,

Fig. 4 shows a side view of a prong of the pitchfork, assembled to a finished state,

Fig. 5 shows the prong fork according to Fig. 4 view in perspective from below and in front,

Fig. 6 shows another corresponding to Fig. 4 the image of the prongs of the pitchfork,

Fig. 7 shows in detail the rectified (aligned) sheet plates of the prong of Fig. 6,

Fig. 8 shows a cross-section according to section A-A of Fig. 10 with a separate sheet plates

Fig. 9 shows an enlarged fragment of Fig. 8,

Fig. 10 shows another corresponding to Fig. 4 the image of the prongs of the pitchfork,

Fig. 11 shows a magnified region of the bend in the prong fork according to Fig. 10,

Fig. 12 shows a schematic side view of another embodiment of a prong fork made according to the invention,

Fig. 13 shows in exploded view the individual parts of the prongs of the pitchfork with Fig. 12,

Fig. 14 shows another exploded view of the image obkladyvaetsya leaf elements prong fork,

Fig. 15 showing�provides a cross section through the core prong fork according to Fig. 14 and obklady elements and

Fig. 16 shows a view similar to Fig. 15, welded end state.

Fig. 1 shows an exploded a perspective view of the first embodiment corresponding to the invention of the prong fork 18 in a layered (lamellar), with each individual plate (layer) 1, for example, of steel Dokol 1500 M (with a limit of tensile strength of 1500 N/mm2)used with sheet metal thickness, which easily allows you cold bending (for example, about 2 mm). Essentially horizontal in the working position the blade fork 5 prongs 18 passes through the bend 19 of the carriage in the vertical back of the fork 20. As explained later in more detail, the individual plates 1 are welded together along the edge by electron beam welding, and the weld between adjacent to each other surfaces of the parts is carried out from two sides to a depth of at least 3 mm.

Since the strength of joints is very high, the depth of penetration (welding) in 30% of the width of the forks is sufficient to produce prong fork with maximum strength. However, the depth of penetration of decrease or increase, and it may also (through) penetration across the width of the prong.

Those 30% are distributed to 15% on each side surface of plates of sheet IU�Alla. When used, referred to as an example metal sheets, the minimum bending radius r as prescribed by the manufacturer of the sheets, is 14 mm.

Further, in Fig. 1 you can see the top of the connecting element 2, which is welded over the entire surface of the plate pack by the method of electron-beam welding and/or laser beam welding. The lower connecting element (3) adapted to the outer radius of the bending space of the package and also welded on the surface by using the above welding methods. Wear sheet 4, for example, made of HARDOX 500 likewise is welded on the surface using the above-mentioned welding method. The connecting elements may consist, for example, of steel grade S235JR.

Individual lamina appropriate way shortened with increase in the degree of shortening down. Fig. 2 are seen the lower surface 6 of shortened plates, shortening it from the top down entails that the prongs of the pitchfork is narrowed toward the front. This tapered shape of the prong is the most desirable, as it facilitates as a consequence, the pickup of the goods. Outer closing plate 1 can also consist of another metal, such as nonferrous metal, and likewise can be made.

Fig. 3 shows that the inner radius r MFR�BA forks less than unmarked outer radius. Further, the diagonal d1 bending fork is almost twice thicker than the thickness d of the prongs of the pitchfork. All welded structural elements arranged in series on each other, so that when welding must not be administered an additional weld metal. Selection of sizes, which corresponds to approximately described, positively affects especially on the strength in the bending fork.

Fig. 4 shows the individual structural elements assembled in prong fork 18 state, when viewed from the side, and Fig. 5 shows the finished prong fork 18 in a perspective front, bottom, and left.

Fig. 6 also shows the finished prong fork 18 welded thereto with the connecting elements 2, 3 and wear the sheet 4. It should be noted that the lower connecting element 3 can be formed also integrally formed with the wear sheet 4 covering the outside of a bend of the fork 19.

Fig. 7 shows the rectified sheet plate for larger image Fig. 6. This straightening may be performed, for example, the cutting processing.

From a cross-section of the blade prongs of the pitchfork in accordance with Fig. 8 and an enlarged image of Fig. 9 is a partial sectional view of Fig. 8 shows the welding of individual leaf plates 1 from the edge. In particular, see how narrow is the weld seam 7, for example, only about 0.5 mm and a depth of�Oh is the process of electron beam welding, namely, in this example about 15 mm. According to the invention, the depth of penetration must be at least 3 mm from both parties, but it can also be much deeper, as well as to extend over the entire width of the sheet.

Fig. 10 again shows the finished prong fork 18, and of increase shown in Fig. 11 parts can be seen that the wear sheet 4 and the lower connecting element 3 is welded also on the surface.

The described implementation provides also the advantage that due to the multilayer performance prong of the pitchfork can't break sharply, as through broken cross section of a possible crack may not pass further through the entire cross-sectional area.

Fig. 12 shows a schematic side view of another variant of the prongs of the pitchfork, which (option) in the configuration profile used heat treatable steel. Separate structural elements, namely the back of the fork 9, the blade fork 11, the upper connecting element 2, the lower connecting element 8, the wear sheet 4 and vykruzhnymi element 10 in this case also welded to each other by electron beam welding and/or laser welding, and the weld between adjacent to each other surfaces of the parts is carried out from two sides to a depth of at least 3 mm. Position 19 in this case �also marked bending of the forks.

Fig. 13 shows in exploded view the individual image of the said portion of the prong fork with Fig. 12 prior to welding.

Only through the application of the method of electron-beam welding, respectively, of a method of laser welding a small energy or heat there is a possibility of significant preservation of the crystal structure has already improved heat treatable steel (for example, 36NiCrMo16 material no 1.6773 with a limit of tensile strength of 1500 N/mm2). Annealing and subsequent flexible and forging is not required here when shown the performance of the individual parts. Vacations for stress relief may also be cancelled due to minimum income heat. A combination of structural elements, as can be seen in Fig. 12 that best meets the static requirements. The entire welding process lasts less than 10 seconds on the fork tines.

Fig. 14 shows the exploded view of another embodiment of prong fork 18 in which the one-piece main portion 18 which has been made before, for example, according to Fig. 1, to pay the closing plates 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, consisting of non-ferrous metal or stainless steel, and according to the invention is welded with the main part 18 of steel through the application of the method of electron-beam welding and/and�and method of welding with a laser beam. In this Fig. 15 shows a transverse section of the main part 18 and obklady elements 12-17 still in an unattached state, and Fig. 16 is a transverse section of the main part 18 obklady elements 12-17 of non-ferrous metal or stainless steel assembled through the application of the method of electron-beam welding and/or welding with a laser beam. The use of blanking plates from certain other metals allows for the use of prong fork 18 in the external environment with special requirements, such as the food industry. For the food industry often require the use of high quality stainless steel forks. Welded of high quality steel in the form of a closing plate with the usual flat plates, there is an opportunity to save significant costs.

Also, for example, it should be noted that when the explosion forks (to prevent sparking) and steel can be welded, for example, bronze, in General, non-ferrous metal.

1. A method of manufacturing a tooth (18) of the forks for loading and transport devices with essentially horizontal in the working position the blade (5) of the forks and the adjacent through bending (3) vil essentially vertical backrest (9) fork, which is provided with connecting elements (2, 3) for the transport device�in, moreover prong fork consists of several interconnected parts(1; 2, 4, 8, 9, 11;1812-17), and, at least, several pieces welded together, characterized in that part(1; 2, 4, 8, 9, 11; 18, 12-17) teeth (18) of the forks are welded together by electron beam welding and/or laser welding, moreover, the weld seam is carried out from two sides to a depth of at least 15 mm on the surface between adjacent to each other surfaces of the parts.

2. A method according to claim 1 for the manufacture of tooth (18) forks, consisting of several connected to each other, are at each other's plates (1), characterized in that all the plates (1) are welded to each other.

3. A method according to claim 2, characterized in that the individual plates (1) teeth (18) of the pitchfork in the field of horizontal blades (5) forks are decreasing from the top down the length, so that the tooth is narrowed toward the front.

4. A method according to claim 2, characterized in that it has lower wear plate (4), which together with the lower connecting part (8) closes the prongs (18) from below and behind in the area of the bend of the forks.

5. A method according to claim 2 or 3, characterized in that at least one closing nonferrous metal plate welded to the adjacent plate (1) made of steel.

6. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the one-piece blade (11) fork, one-piece backrest (9) fork, vykruzhnymi element (10) and the upper � lower connecting element (2, 8) welded to each other on the surface.

7. A method according to claim 6, characterized in that the lower wear plate (4) is welded on the surface with backrest (11) of the forks and the lower connecting element (8).

8. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the pre-fabricated integrally formed the main part (18,) teeth (18) of the forks by welding is provided on their external surfaces of the plates(11, 12, 13, 14, 15).

9. A method according to claim 8, characterized in that the plates are made of stainless steel and/or nonferrous metal.

10. A method according to claim 1 or 4, characterized in that the upper and lower connecting element (2, 3) is welded on the surface with a vertical backrest (9) fork, with the lower connecting element (3) formed integral with the wear plate (4) covering the outside of a bend (19) fork.

11. Prong fork manufactured by the method according to one of claims. 1-10.



 

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