Method to control hydrate formation degree and technical state of operating gas equipment

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to systems of oil and gas equipment automatic control and allows timely detecting of pre-emergency situations related to hydrate formation in gas equipment. According to the method gas pressure and temperature is measured periodically upstream and downstream gas equipment, gas flow rate through gas equipment or gas pressure drop is measured at orifice located in the gas flow passing through gas equipment. Then against measured values hydrate formation coefficient is formed for operating gas equipment and degree of hydrate formation is evaluated against deviation of this coefficient from the basic value determined in hydrate-free mode of gas equipment. In hydrate-free mode of gas equipment basic values of the above hydrate formation coefficient are used as technical state indicator for gas equipment.

EFFECT: method allows timely detecting of pre-emergency situations related to hydrate formation in gas equipment.

3 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to methods or devices for extraction and preparation of natural gas, is designed for operational control of the degree of esagerazione and technical conditions of the working gas equipment (pipelines, heat exchangers, valves and control valves, etc.) and can be used in the oil and gas industry.

Sugerativna gas equipment leads to accidents and is one of the main reasons stopping them. So, the main cause of the shutdown and purge gas plumes or production lines of low-temperature separation of gas are the hydration tube.

There are many technical solutions for operational control of gas hydrates in the equipment, but the problem still not fully resolved.

Rapid assessment of the technical condition (pollution, wear and tear) working gas equipment without stopping is also an urgent task.

Known method for the diagnosis of hydrate formation in the pipeline (SU 1295137 A1, IPC4: F17D 5/00, publ. 07.03.1987) and the method of operation of the facility with the hydrocarbon production in the conditions of the hydration mode (EN 2245992 C1, IPC7: EV 43/00, F17D 1/00, publ. 10.02.2005), based on the control differential pressure along the length of the pipeline.

The disadvantage of these methods is that the differential pressure�tion along the length of the pipeline depends not only on hydrocotarnine, but also on the temperature and flow rate of the hydrocarbon products that may change (e.g., flow control) and cause false detection of hydrates. In addition, these methods do not allow to estimate the degree of esagerazione and the technical condition of the pipeline.

The known method of control of hydrate formation in the pipeline (SU 1384872 A1, IPC4: F17D 3/00; publ. 30.03.1988), the way to control the formation of hydrates in the pipeline (SU 1411720 A1, IPC4: G05D 11/13; publ. 23.07.1988) and the way to control the formation of hydrates in the pipeline (SU 1705666 A2, IPC5: F17D 3/00, publ. 15.01.1992), according to which the control is carried out by comparing the gas flow in the main pipe having a shut-off and regulating valves and bypass with memory in the form of hydrates hydraulic resistance. The ratio of these costs varies with the accumulation of hydrates in flow resistance of the bypass, but does not depend on the regulation of the total flow rate of both pipelines.

The disadvantage of these methods is that their implementation requires special gas bypass, as well as periodic cleaning of the bypass conduit from accumulating in it hydrates. Moreover, the conditions of hydrate formation in the main and bypass pipelines may differ (formation of hydrates depends on the temperature � pressure and gas concentrations in gas hydrate inhibitors), and it is possible that the hydrates will be formed only in the bypass pipeline, mostly absent, which will cause a false alarm about the formation of hydrates in the main pipeline. In addition, these methods do not allow to estimate the degree of esagerazione and the technical condition of the pipeline.

A known method of diagnosing deposits of hydrates or paraffins in the pipeline transportation of oil or gas (SU 1665176 A1, IPC5: F17D 5/00, publ. 23.07.1991), according to which determine the ratio of the increment of the magnitude of the control action on the actuator, installed on the process pipe to the corresponding increment of flow rate of the transported flow and the deviation of the result obtained from the fiducial value is judged on the presence of a hydrate or paraffin deposits.

The disadvantage of this method is that it is unsuitable for unregulated flow. In addition, this method does not allow to estimate the degree of esagerazione (zaparafinivaniya) and the technical condition of the pipeline.

The known method of control of hydrate formation in the pipeline (SU 1690800 A1, IPC5: B01D 9/00, G05D 11/13, 27/00, publ. 15.11.1991), according to which measure the pressure and temperature of the gas before and after local resistance, calculate the temperature of the gas after local resistance p� the formula a choke effect of Joule-Thomson and based on the error calculated and measured temperature is judged about the formation of hydrates. Since hydrate formation is accompanied by release of heat, the excess of the measured temperature to the calculated testifies to their education.

The method does not depend on the gas flow, however, is suitable only for local resistance in the pipeline, since the throttle-the effect of long pipeline without local resistance is superimposed heat exchange gas with the environment. In addition, this method does not allow to estimate the degree of esagerazione local resistance or gas pipeline as a whole and to assess their technical condition.

The closest to the essential features and selected as a prototype is a method of process control prevent hydrate formation in the intra-field plumes of gas and gas condensate fields of the far North (EN 2329371 C1, IPC8: EV 43/00, F17D 3/00, publ. 20.07.2008), according to which for the detection of hydrates measure the temperature of the gas at the wellhead and the temperature of the ambient air, these values taking into account the heat exchange gas with the environment calculates the estimated temperature of the gas at the exit of the loop, compare the dynamics of its changes over time with the dynamics of changing the actual gas temperature at the exit from the loop and the comparison result is judged on the process of hydrate formation.

As lowering those�temperature of the air in the external environment will be reduced and the temperature of the gas in the plume. At some value of temperature in the gas hydrate formation starts, the deposition of hydrates on the walls of the plume and the reduction of its internal diameter. And due to the occurrence of a choke effect will crash the actual gas temperature relative to the heat exchange gas with the environment.

In calculating the value of the gas temperature at the exit of the loop involves the pressure and temperature of the gas at the beginning and at the end of the plume and the gas flow [R. I. Vyakhirev, Korotaev, Y. P., Kabanov N. And. theory and experience of gas production. M., "Nedra", 1998].

The disadvantage of the prototype is that in calculating the value of the gas temperature at the exit of the loop are used in addition:

- temperature environment;

- the geometry of the cable (inner and outer diameter, the roughness of the inner walls, loop length, height difference starting and ending points of the loop);

- heat transfer coefficient of the wall of the gas plume;

- thermal conductivity of the wall of the loop;

- thermal conductivity of thermal insulation material;

- the coefficient of heat transfer of thermal insulation material plume into the environment (which essentially depends on wind speed and negativesense plume and may be different in different parts of the extended loop);

- the density of the gas.

In addition, the prototype does not measure the degree of sageretia�Oia and the technical condition of the gas plume.

The aim of the invention is the creation of technical solutions for the periodically measured process parameters to quickly assess the degree of esagerazione and the technical condition of the working gas equipment (gas pipeline, heat exchanger, valves, etc.) through which passes a stream of gas.

The invention achieves the following technical result:

- a comprehensive account of the influence of basic measurement of technological parameters associated with the deposition of hydrates in gas equipment;

- use of existing sensors in-line measurement of process parameters instead of creating special devices;

- assessment of the degree of esagerazione gas equipment;

- independent assessment of the degree of esagerazione from the process of controlling the flow of gas through the gas equipment;

- the possibility of rapid assessment of the technical condition change (pollution, wear and tear) gas equipment.

To achieve the mentioned technical result periodically measure the pressure of the gas before and after the gas equipment, the gas temperature inside (or before and after) gas equipment and gas flow through the gas equipment.

The novelty lies in the fact that the measured values of the specified technological PA�of amerov form an indicator of esagerazione gas equipment and the degree of deviation of the current value of this indicator from the base, certain a certainly hydrate-free operation is judged on the degree of esagerazione gas equipment. For gas equipment, regulating the flow of gas, in addition use the relative size or degree of the opening of its orifice. Instead of the gas flow through the gas equipment can be used is directly proportional to the flow rate of the gas is the result of square root extraction from differential gas pressure at the metering orifice device in the gas flow passing through this gas equipment. An additional effect of the invention is the ability to use the index value of esagerazione in hydrate-free operation for rapid assessment of dynamics of change of a technical condition (pollution, wear and tear) gas equipment.

The inventive method of monitoring the degree of esagerazione and technical conditions of the working gas equipment is illustrated by drawings, where Fig.1 shows a diagram of the method of monitoring the degree of esagerazione and technical condition of the gas equipment, not regulating the gas flow, Fig.2 shows the circuit implementation of the same method for gas equipment, regulating the flow of gas.

The diagrams labeled: gas equipment, not regulating the gas flow 1; gas equipment, control on�OK 2 gas; measure pressure of gas flow at the inlet 3 and outlet 4 of the gas equipment; measuring temperature of the gas flow inside the gas equipment 5; evaluator exponent of esagerazione and technical state 6; measuring the flow rate of gas after 7 gas equipment; measuring relative area or the degree of opening of the gas equipment, regulating the gas flow 8.

The gas moves through the gas, not regulating the gas flow, for example, horizontally placed on the pipeline, is described by a quadratic law of friction [Taranenko B. F., Herman V. T. Automatic control of gas-field objects. - M., Nedra, 1976], according to which the difference of the squares of the gas pressure at the ends of the pipeline is proportional to the square of the gas flow through the gas pipeline, that is described by the equation

where P1- the gas pressure at the beginning of the pipeline;

P2- the gas pressure at the end of the pipeline;

- coefficient expressing the aggregate, the properties of the gas pipeline through its length L, inner diameter D and the coefficient of hydraulic resistance λ and includes the universal gas constant R;

T - temperature of gas in the pipeline;

z=z(P, T) is the compressibility factor of the gas-dependent �pressure P and temperature T;

P is the mean gas pressure in the pipeline, R=(R1+P2)/2;

F - gas consumption in the pipeline.

In hydrate-free mode of the pipeline, the coefficient does not change significantly and is equal to some value of αmin. As esagerazione its pipeline hydraulic resistance factor λ will increase, the inner diameter D will decrease and the value of the coefficient α will increase (up to infinity at a flow rate F=0). Return the value of 1/α in the range from hydrate-free operation up to full esagerazione (clogging) of the pipeline will vary in the range of 1/αminto zero and can serve as an indirect indicator of the degree of esagerazione of the pipeline.

The value of αminover time may change, for example to increase due to deposits of reservoir sand in the pipeline. That is, the base value of the exponent of esagerazione 1/αmindefined in hydrate-free mode, can serve as an indirect indicator of the technical condition of the pipeline.

The relationship between pressure, temperature and gas flow rate, shown in equation (1), is valid not only for gas but also for other types of gas equipment, regulating the flow of gas valves, heat exchanger, etc.).

Thus, an indirect indicator of esagerazione about gas�of orogovenia, not regulating the gas flow, can be determined by the formula

As esagerazione gas equipment such a factor and will change the value of the αminto infinity, the exponent of esagerazione PMTgas equipment, not regulating the gas flow, will vary from some maximum value to zero. Moreover, the maximum value is an indirect indicator of the technical condition of the pipeline.

Pressure, temperature and gas flow are measured by sensors, and gas compressibility factor is calculated according to the measured pressure and temperature using known methods or standards [GOST 30319.2-96 "natural Gas. Methods of calculation of physical properties. Determination of the coefficient of compressibility"].

The gas moves through the gas, regulating the gas flow (faucet, valve, valve, fitting), also described by a quadratic law of friction [Taranenko B. F., Herman V. T. Automatic control of gas-field objects. - M., Nedra, 1976], but the equation of the following form

where P3, R4- the gas pressure before and after the gas equipment that regulates the flow of gas;

is the coefficient aggregirovannoe expressing properties regulative�about gas equipment through its resistance coefficient ξ and includes the universal gas constant R;

S - the area of the passage opening of the regulating gas equipment, which can be defined by the formula S=s·Smaxthrough the relative size s opening the passage opening and the maximum opening size 5^;

z=z(P,T) is the compressibility factor of the gas, depending on its pressure P and temperature T;

P is the mean pressure of the gas, P=(R3+P4)/2;

T is the gas temperature in regulating gas equipment;

F is the gas flow rate through the control gas equipment.

Formula (3) are valid for up to critical modes of regulating gas flow through the gas, that is, when R4>0,546·P3. However, in real production conditions of critical gas flow regimes, as a rule, are not permitted.

In hydrate-free mode, the coefficient of resistance ξ does not change significantly and is equal to some value of ξmin. As the deposition control gas hydrates in the equipment, the coefficient of ξ will increase (up to infinity at a flow rate F=0) and the value will be decreased from some value Bmaxto zero (at a flow rate F=0).

The value of ξminover time may change, for example to increase due to deposits of reservoir sand in the regulatory authority or to diminish due to wear of the regulatory authority. That is �gas value B maxdefined in hydrate-free mode, can serve as an indirect indicator of the technical condition of the control gas equipment.

Transform (3) to the form

and denote

That is, conditional indicator of esagerazione gas equipment, regulating the flow of gas can be defined by the formula

As esagerazione gas equipment, regulating the gas flow, the exponent of esagerazione PGwill vary from some maximum value to zero. Moreover, the maximum value is an indirect indicator of the technical condition of the control gas equipment.

Thus, when forming the exponent of esagerazione gas equipment, regulating the flow of gas, additionally (compared to nereguliruemym) use the relative size s of its opening.

When forming the exponent of esagerazione gas equipment (as not governing and regulating the flow of gas) is gas flow through the hydraulic resistance can be used is directly proportional to the gas flow to the square root of the pressure drop across the metering orifice device in the gas flow passing through the �ƈ gas equipment.

Similarly, instead of the gas temperature in the gas equipment is possible using the arithmetic mean temperature of the gas at its input and output.

The proposed technical solution can be implemented within the framework of the management system of the mining and preparation gas. In particular, the subsystem of control of flow of hydrate inhibitors in gas flow passing through the gas, which may be deposited hydrates (gas, heat exchanger, shut-off or control valves).

Practical implementation of the invention is as follows.

Real-time sensors periodically measure the pressure of the gas before and after running the gas equipment, which can form hydrates, the temperature of the gas inside (or before and after) of gas equipment and gas flow through the gas equipment. If gas equipment regulates the flow of gas is measured and the relative size or degree of the opening of its orifice. As an alternative to gas flow through the gas equipment can be used the square root of differential pressure gas metering constriction device in the gas flow passing through the gas equipment.

The measured values of these parameters by the formula (2) or (4) also in the real real world for a long� time and also periodically calculates the index value of esagerazione gas equipment. A certainly hydrate-free operation of gas equipment (for example, in the beginning of his work, or after entering hydrate inhibitors) the value of the index of esagerazione gas equipment and maximum accepted (stored) as the base. As esagerazione gas equipment the current value of the index of esagerazione will gradually decrease from a maximum value corresponding to the hydrate-free mode of operation of the gas equipment, down to zero, corresponding to the total sugerativnu of gas equipment. The degree of deviation of the current value of the indicator of esagerazione gas equipment from its base value, obviously a hydrate-free operation of the gas equipment, is judged on the degree of esagerazione. The degree of deviation (degree of esagerazione) may be evaluated, for example, a relative percentage.

Thus, the ratio of esagerazione gas equipment can be used for operational control of the degree of esagerazione gas equipment.

The maximum indicator value of esagerazione gas equipment, defined (and stored) in the hydrate-free modes as baseline values, can serve as an indirect indicator of technical�ical condition of the gas equipment. Thus, the decline over time of the underlying value may indicate blockage of the gas equipment, such as the deposition of sand. The increase in baseline values may indicate wear or, for example, the internal destruction of the gas equipment.

1. Method of monitoring the degree of esagerazione working gas equipment by periodic measurements of gas pressure before and after the gas equipment, the gas temperature inside or before and after the gas equipment, gas flow through the gas equipment or gas pressure differential at the metering constriction device in the gas flow passing through the gas, characterized in that the measured values form the indicator of esagerazione gas equipment and the degree of deviation of the current value of this indicator from a base defined by a certainly hydrate-free operation is judged on the degree of esagerazione gas equipment.

2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the gas regulating flow of gas, in addition use the relative size or degree of opening his orifice.

3. A method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that determined in hydrate-free operation of the gas equipment base metric values of esagerazione used as an indicator of the technical�state of gas equipment.



 

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FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to oil and gas producing industry and can be used for annular gas bypassing to the flow string in wells operated by sucker-rod pump units. Task of the invention is to perfect design of the downhole device for annular gas bypassing in order to improve operational efficiency of the well sucker-rod pumping equipment notwithstanding temperature conditions of the well operation and pressure of annular gas. The device is placed in the well annular space over the well fluid level in the flow string collar. The device comprises a return valve and a radial hydraulic channel. In the collar lower part there is a radial hydraulic channel interconnected to the well annular space at the one side through the return valve and to the flow string cavity at the other side through a jet device. At that axes of the radial hydraulic channel and the jet device are crossed in the nozzle area of the latter. Besides the device comprises a flow string with a whipstock for gas-fluid flow in it. The whipstock is made as a bushing capable to be fixed in the flow string collar. Length of the whipstock for gas-fluid flow is less than distance between receipt and discharge of the jet device. Axes of the radial hydraulic channel and the jet device are perpendicular. Fixation of the whipstock for gas-liquid flow in the flow string collar may be implemented by equipping the flow string collar with an inner groove and the whipstock for gas-liquid flow with a ring holder.

EFFECT: usage of device allows reducing pressure of annular gas notwithstanding temperature and pressure conditions thus increasing life between overhauls for the sucker-rod pumping equipment; besides, this device allows reducing pump-setting depth for the sucker-rod pump due to increase of fluid level over the pump thus reducing consumption of the flow string and pump rods and increasing life between overhauls for the units.

3 dwg

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: according to the method the hydraulic fracturing of formation is performed. After hydraulic fracturing of the formation in the well the proppant underflash is left. From above in addition from the coarse fraction proppant the bridge with a rated length is created. This length is selected in view of the condition of providing of counter-pressure on the proppant in the hydraulic fracturing crack sufficient for holding of proppant in a hydraulic fracturing crack at decrease of liquid level in the well down to the well bottomhole level. The package of downhole pumping equipment includes the antisand filter. During the well operation the antisand filter is placed directly over the proppant bridge. The liquid is sampled. The liquid level during liquid sampling - operation is maintained at the level of the deep-well pump.

EFFECT: increase in oil production.

1 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: as per the method, continuous lowering of a flexible pipe is performed into an internal cavity of tubing string to the well bottom. Gas is supplied to the well annular space. At the same time, gas is supplied to the space between the flexible pipe and the tubing string directly from the pipeline of the same well. Killing liquid is removed to day surface via the flexible pipe. Gas is supplied when the flexible pipe achieves killing liquid level. The flexible pipe is lowered at the specified speed from killing liquid level to the well bottom. Flexible pipe lowering speed and minimum required gas consumption providing killing liquid removal to day surface is determined as per an analytical expression.

EFFECT: improving efficiency of removal of killing liquid from a gas well due to continuous removal of liquid, reduction of gas consumption and power consumption.

1 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: set of invention can be used, primarily, at development of remote oil deposits under extreme climatic conditions. Proposed process comprises recovery of associated oil has (AOG) at locations of oil separation via multistage low-temperature separation of AOG to stripped gas (SG) and dry gas condensate of AOG. This process involves separate delivery of DSG and AOG gas condensate via pipeline to the points of their accumulation, treatment and application. Note here that they are delivered via pipes to mid stations of their accumulation, treatment and partial application. These stations are located at distances not exceeding several tens of kilometres from oil fields. SG is liquefied at mid stations to produce liquefied natural gas for supply to local consumers. AOG gas condensate is subjected to deeper drying and cleaning of sulphur and other harmful impurities. LNG and dry AOG gas condensate produced at mid stations are accumulated in separate storage tanks. These products are carried by, mainly, regional line aircraft fuel carriers to regional refineries. Said refineries produce automotive propane-butane fuel and aircraft condensed fuel for local consumers as well as stock for consumers of petrochemical products as wide fraction of light hydrocarbons. The latter are delivered to other regions by, for example, medium-range tanker aircraft.

EFFECT: higher efficiency owing to almost full recovery and application of associate oil gas.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: according to the method a geologic structure is identified within the area of a deposit. Potential reservoir beds are identified in the section of rocks above the deposit, the direction of their highs - uprising and three-axis orientation of systems of subvertical fracturing is identified. Development and inspection wells are constructed with opening of the reservoir beds above the deposit height. Pressure and temperature survey is performed in the development wells and the composition of formation fluids is identified for all the wells. According to the results of the survey data depressurisation of the deposit is recorded. The inspection wells are constructed close to the wells intended for monitoring of sealing at the borehole annulus and the deposit in the direction of the subvertical fractures and uprising of the potential reservoir beds above the deposit. A change in pressure and temperature is identified for depth intervals of the reservoir beds on the real time basis.

EFFECT: reduced time for the detection of potential cross-flows of hydrocarbons to the above reservoir beds in result of the pressure failure in its cover and the borehole annulus of the wells in order to take measures on its elimination and prevention of potential blowouts to the surface.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: oil extractive industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes lowering a tail piece into well with temperature, electric conductivity and pressure sensors placed on tail piece along its length. Pressure sensors are used in amount no less than three and placed at fixed distances from each other. After that, continuously during whole duration of well operation between maintenance procedures, temperature, conductivity of well fluid, absolute value of face pressure and difference of pressures along depth of well in area of productive bed are recorded. Different combinations of pairs of pressure sensors are used for determining special and average values of well fluid density. When absolute pit-face pressure is lower then saturation pressure for well fluid by gas and/or when average values of density deviate from well fluid preset limits and/or when its conductivity deviates from preset limits, adjustment of well operation mode is performed.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher safety.

2 cl

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