Method of recycling diapers, sanitary pads and similar sanitary products and substrate for growing fungi

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to environmental science. Recycling of diapers, sanitary pads and similar sanitary products, containing cellulose, a granular adsorbent and polymer materials, is carried out by first pre-grinding into particles with maximum size of 5-20 mm and separating, from the obtained particles on a vibrating screen, particles with size of 0.5-1 mm, preferably the granular adsorbent, particularly sodium polyacrylate. The remaining ground mixture of materials consisting of cellulose, polymer materials and granular adsorbent residues is moulded into blocks or ribbons and used as a substrate for growing fungi, with the following ratio of components, wt %: cellulose 75-85; granular adsorbent 5-15; polymer materials 5-15.

EFFECT: simple technique of recycling sanitary products.

2 cl

 

The invention relates to the field of ecology, in particular to methods of waste utilization in the production of sanitary products, by separating the adsorbent from waste for reuse and use remaining wastes as substrate for growing organic mushrooms.

A known method of disposal of solid waste, including grinding materials, separation materials for materials lighter than water and heavier than water and office of solid waste in the centrifuge (see US patent No. 5104047, CL. VS 23/18, 14.04.1992).

This disposal method is very time-consuming and energy-consuming, which narrows the scope of its use.

Closest to the invention to the technical essence and the achieved result is a method of disposal diapers, liners, and similar sanitary articles, namely that of articles containing cellulose sorbent and polymer materials, separate the cellulose (see US patent No. 5429311, CL. VS 19/12, 04.07.1995).

This method allows you to separate waste sanitary-hygienic products for cellulose and polymeric materials. However, this method does not allow to allocate from hygiene products is the most expensive component of the adsorbent, as well as create received from the separation of the components is almost ready for re �use. faction, that narrows the possibilities of this method of disposal.

The closest in terms of substrate for mushroom cultivation is a substrate for mushroom cultivation, cellulose containing waste (see patent RU No. 2332005, CL A01G 1/04, 27.08.2008).

The specified substrate for growing mushrooms, however, for their cultivation requires the use of a cellulose complex composition and adding thereto a number of components in a specific ratio, namely, the following composition: straw of winter cereals 58-61; buckwheat husk 29-31; slaked lime, enriched with magnesium and 2.5-3.5; gypsum 0,4-0,6; brewer's grain - the rest. All this leads to complication of the technology of preparation of the substrate, making it less attractive.

The problem to be solved by the invention is the unification processes of disposal diapers, liners, and similar sanitary articles and the creation of substrate for mushroom cultivation.

The technical result is that there is the possibility of simplifying the technology of disposal of sanitary products with the simultaneous formation of substrate for mushroom cultivation.

This problem is solved and the technical result is achieved due to the fact that the method of disposal diapers, liners, and similar sanitary articles �glycaemia in the article containing cellulose, granulated adsorbent and polymer materials, pre-crush on particles with a maximum size of from 5 to 20 mm, and then from the resulting particles on the vibrating screen separates particles size from 0.5 to 1 mm, preferably granular adsorbent, in particular sodium polyacrylate, and the remaining powdered mixture of materials, consisting of a mixture of cellulose, polymeric materials and residues of granular adsorbent, is used as bulk material or in the form of blocks or in tape and used as substrate for mushroom cultivation.

In part of the substrate as the object of the invention this problem is solved and the technical result is achieved due to the fact that the substrate for mushroom cultivation waste contains cellulose, wherein it additionally contains a polymeric material and a granular adsorbent, preferably sodium polyacrylate, with the following ratio of components (wt.%):

Cellulose75-85
Granular sorbent5-15
Polymeric materials5-15,

wherein the substrate is made in the form of a mixture of particles of the above �of komponentov with a maximum particle size of from 5 to 20 mm.

In the process of production of hygiene articles, in particular diapers, pads and similar articles, must be disposed of marriage and form in the production process residues, which contain valuable and often quite expensive, in particular granular adsorbent materials. It is important not only to return to the production of at least some of the components that are not primarily used granular adsorbent, but also can reduce environmental pollution. It is widely known (see, for example, patent US 5925439, CL A61F 13/15, 20.07.1999) that similar sanitary articles made using cellulose, polymeric materials and granular adsorbent. In this part of the granulated adsorbent attached to the surface of the material forming the cavity for the granulated adsorbent. Therefore, when disposing of the difficulty to extract this part of the granulated adsorbent.

At the same time, studies have shown that it is possible to create a substrate for mushroom cultivation from the remnants of sanitary-hygienic products after separation from them the most part they contained granular adsorbent. This eliminates the need to split the remaining residue after grinding utiliser�of upgrading hygiene products can be used in the form they have after separation of the granular adsorbent. Given that the size of the granules of the adsorbent is known and, as a rule, does not exceed 0.5-1 mm, you can create a simple and effective method of disposal, which allows you to simultaneously obtain for reuse granular adsorbent and to prepare waste from the substrate, fully prepared for the cultivation of mushrooms. It only requires, as shown by the experiments, chop of utilized sanitary articles to the size of a particle size of from 5 to 20 mm, and then only from the particles on the vibrating screen to separate the particles of the granulated adsorbent size from 0.5 to 1 mm. Further, from the obtained crushed particles forming blocks, for example, in the form of briquettes or belts that are fully prepared for the cultivation of mushrooms, so you can pack up the rest in bags for use as a bulk substrate. It remains only to put the resulting substrate in a suitable container and start growing mushrooms. The proposed technology allows to produce utilization of a substrate, which in the course of the research is optimal, as stated above, the composition of the substrate, and the above ratio of the components allows to maintain the required humidity of the substrate within just� cycle of growing mushrooms without the use of additional devices for watering and feeding of fungi in the process of growing. Thus, a sanitary article containing cellulose, granulated sorbent and polymer materials, pre-crushed to particles with a maximum size of from 5 to 20 mm, and then from the resulting particles on the vibrating screen to separate the particles size from 0.5 to 1 mm, preferably granular sorbent, in particular sodium polyacrylate, and the remaining powdered mixture of materials, consisting of a mixture of cellulose, polymeric materials and residues of granular adsorbent to form into blocks or belts that are ready for use as a substrate for mushroom cultivation. If necessary, make adjustments to the composition of the obtained substrate to the above optimal composition.

Unexpected was the fact that such a substrate allows to increase the productivity in the mushroom, i.e. at the expense of optimal conditions for the cultivation of mushrooms is accelerating the process of growing, and the appearance of fungi is possible by 14-17 day, this increases productivity.

Thus, the above method can almost completely dispose of waste and defective sanitary articles and return recycled most of the granulated adsorbent.

1. The method of disposal diapers, liners, and similar sanitary Gigi�technical products characterized in that the article containing cellulose, granulated adsorbent and polymer materials, pre-crushed to particles with a maximum size of from 5 to 20 mm, and then from the resulting particles on the vibrating screen separates particles size from 0.5 to 1 mm, preferably granular adsorbent, in particular sodium polyacrylate, and the remaining powdered mixture of materials, consisting of a mixture of cellulose, polymeric materials and residues of granular adsorbent, formed into blocks or tape and used as substrate for mushroom cultivation.

2. The substrate for growing mushrooms, obtained according to claim 1, characterized in that it further comprises a polymeric material and a granular adsorbent, preferably sodium polyacrylate, with the following ratio of components (wt.%):

Cellulose75-85
Granular adsorbent5-15
Polymeric materials5-15



 

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