Voltage regulator

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the area of electric engineering and referred to voltage regulators in automobiles. In order to reach the technical result of an increase in reliability and service life of the automotive alternator voltage regulator in the output cascade of the voltage regulator based on two or more parallel transistors, ballasting resistances switched to emitters of each output transistor are made as fuses of aluminium wire of the same diameters and length and shaped as arcs or loops oriented to different sides. Operating (blowing) current shall not be less than the maximum load current - current of the alternator excitation winding - and not more than 1.3 of the same maximum load current.

EFFECT: improving the reliability and service life of the automotive alternator voltage regulator.

5 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to electrical engineering and can be used in particular in the power system of the car.

Known voltage regulator, described in the Handbook: Electrical equipment of automobiles", Moscow, "Transport", 1993, p. 51, Fig.3.10 and containing the measuring element and the associated cascade of pre-amp gain and the output stage is performed on the transistor. The disadvantage of this controller is the lack of reliability and associated service period, which is often a failure of the power output transistor. The consequences of such a failure is either to discharge to zero battery in case of burnout of the output transistor and the engine to stop after 4 hours in the summer, afternoon, or boiling of the electrolyte of the battery and burning engine control unit for 20-40 minutes in the breakdown of the output transistor. In winter, the vast expanses of our country it is very dangerous, especially in North and equivalent areas.

Several higher reliability has a voltage regulator RR plant ATA-1, described in the book P. S. Bannikova: electric vehicles, M., Transport, 1970, p. 89, Fig.3.31 containing in addition to the above constituent parts of a system of protection against short-circuit in the load circuit, which is made on the electromagnetic relay, Thu� allowed for decades to use this control in cars ZIL.

The closest technical solution is the voltage regulator described in the Handbook: Electrical equipment of automobiles", Moscow, "Transport", 1993, p. 52, Fig.3.13, and the author's certificate of the USSR No. 824368.

In the specified controller when the measuring element is known and the cascade pre-amp, the output stage is made of two connected in parallel, powerful transistors in the emitter circuits of which included leveling the resistance of the wire. The last disadvantage of the controller is, as described above, the lack of protection in case of breakdown of one of the two output transistors.

Known "Device for protection of parallel connected transistors" by SU 711656 in which the compensating resistance in the emitter circuits of transistors made in the form of fuses, but not disclosed the value of pickup current (burnout).

The purpose of the present invention is to enhance reliability of the regulator by turning off of the load circuit pierced through the output transistor.

This goal is achieved by establishing for equalizing resistances of fuses the magnitude of the current, equal to 1-1,3 of the maximum load current of the regulator.

Fig.1 shows a circuit diagram voltage regulator for electric�system of the car; Fig.2 - view of the regulator with the cover removed.

The voltage regulator contains a measuring element 1 associated with a cascade of 2 pre-amp gain and the output stage 3. Terminal 4 is connected to one pole of the motor generator, for example to positive; terminal pin 5 is connected to the second pole of the generator, in this case to negative; terminal 6 is connected to the output of the shunt field winding of the automotive alternator.

The output stage 3 contains two parallel connected transistors 7 and 8, the compensating resistance fuses 9 and 10 included in the emitter circuits of transistors 7 and 8 respectively. In this case, between the base of transistor 7 and the emitter of the transistor 8 includes a resistor 11 and a resistor 12 connected between the base of the transistor 8 and the emitter of the transistor 7. The values of resistors 11 and 12 are equal. Bases of the transistors 7 and 8 are connected with the output of the cascade 2 pre-amp, through decoupling elements (diodes 13 and 14, respectively). The collectors of transistors 7 and 8 connected together and to the terminal 6.

Leveling the resistance of the fuses 9 and 10 made of aluminum (or aluminum alloy) wire diameter 0.02-0.47 mm (depending on the value of the load current - shunt winding of the generator), made in the form of bent in different directions of the arcs (or loops) of the same length and welded their �oncemy to terminal - the pin 5 (-), should not burn at maximum load current, but must burn out (collapse) load current up to (1,25-1,3) of the maximum load current.

The voltage regulator operates as follows.

When to terminals 4 and 5, the voltage below the voltage regulation, using a cascade of 2 pre-amp and diodes 13 and 14 to the bases of transistors 7 and 8 is fed to the bias current, resulting in the transistors 7 and 8 open and let the current of the excitation winding of the generator from terminal 6 through an alignment of the resistance of the fuses 9 and 10 to the terminal - output terminal 5, and the current through each of transistors 7 and 8 and, respectively, through an alignment of the resistance of the fuses 9 and 10, is equal to approximately half the current of the shunt winding of the generator, in this case, the equalization of currents through the transistors 7 and 8 is enhanced by the inclusion of cross-resistors 11 and 12 (see A. S. 824368).

When reaching a certain voltage generator of the measuring element 1 produces a signal that is cascade preamplifier 2 amplifies this signal, which is supplied to bases of transistors 7 and 8 of the output stage 3. The transistors 7 and 8 are closed and to interrupt the current in the field circuit of motor generator, i.e. the current through the compensating resistance fuses 9 and 10. Diodes 13 and 14 are used for the interchange of basic circuits transistor� 7 and 8.

If one of the transistors of the output stage 3, for example 7 will break, for example, because of a defect of a crystal in combination with pulse disturbance, it is the transistor 7 becomes unmanageable - and all non-reclosable excitation current passes through it and leveling the resistance of the fuse 9. Since the excitation current is not interrupted, the voltage at the generator grows rapidly with nominal 14 V to 18 V, while the current through metacrisis transistor 7 and leveling the resistance of the fuse 9 is increased 1.3 times and the fuse 9 is disconnected, interrupting the current in the shunt field winding of the generator. (In the most conventional regulators the voltage is then gradually increases as the boiling of the electrolyte in the battery to (42-70), and then breaks already heated rectifier of the generator and starts a fire on the car.) The voltage at the generator decreases to less regulated, cascade 2 pre-amp feeds to the base of transistor 8 bias current (doubled, because of the blown fuse 9, the current through the diode 13 to the base of transistor 7 is not), the transistor 8 is opened and skipping of the excitation current of the generator. Fuse 10 does not burn out, because designed for a maximum excitation current of the generator, and the generator operation continues in the normal mode, but with some� transistor in the output stage.

1. Voltage regulator, contains the hard terminal o, the output stage is performed in two or more transistors in the emitter circuit of each of which (transistors) included leveling resistance(fuse) fuse, characterized in that the permissible current for each of equalizing resistances of fuses is selected not less than the maximum load current of the regulator, but no more than 1.3 of the same maximum current.

2. The voltage regulator according to claim 1, characterized in that the compensating resistance is the fuse made of aluminum or its alloys.

3. The voltage regulator according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the compensating resistance fuses each welded at one end to a rigid terminal o of the voltage regulator and the other to the emitter of its transistor.

4. The voltage regulator according to claim 3, characterized in that the compensating resistance-the fuses are in the form of loops.

5. The voltage regulator according to claim 4, characterized in that the loops are directed in different directions.



 

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1 dwg

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3 cl, 5 dwg

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