Method of laser-plasma welding of metals and device to this end

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser plasma welding of metals and device to this end. Invention can be used for welding of such materials as steel and aluminium by combined laser plasma effects. Welding parts are preheated in the weld area by plasma flux. Laser beam is directed to but of welding parts. Produced weld is additionally heated by plasma flux. Plasma flux is shaped to circle while laser radiation is fed via geometrical centre of circular plasma flux to said butt. Device for laser plasma butt welding of metals comprises plasma flux and laser radiation sources. Plasma flux source comprises outer and inner ring electrodes to produce plasma flux located in one plane with their geometrical centres aligned at one point. Laser radiation source can feed laser radiation via said geometrical centre.

EFFECT: intensified welding, lower rate of weld cooling, higher strength of the weld.

2 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used to weld metals such as steel and aluminum, combined laser-plasma exposure. The technical result of the invention is to intensify the process of welding by laser radiation with lower cooling rate of the weld zone, which reduces the occurring longitudinal stresses in the metal of the weld area and increases strength of the weld. To achieve a technical result on the welded product is exposed to a combined laser-plasma stream, wherein laser radiation is applied through the geometric center of the annular plasma torch. Device for laser-plasma welding includes laser technological complex, the power source of the plasma torch, automatic control system, outer ring electrode of the plasma torch and the inner ring electrode of the plasma torch, laser radiation is applied through the geometric center of the outer and inner ring electrodes arranged in one plane perpendicular to the plane of the ring electrodes.

The known method of laser-plasma double-sided arc hybrid welding [5]. The invention relates to laser-plasma double-sided arc hybrid welding method. In this welding laser radiation vedettes one side of the welded products, and plasma arc on the other side. The disadvantage of this method is the technical solution associated with the need to bring welding equipment from two sides of the weld that is structurally complicates the equipment and does not allow with sufficient accuracy to position the laser radiation relative to the electric arc.

The known method of hybrid microlocally arc laser welding [6]. The invention relates to a hybrid microlocally plasma-arc/laser welding, which includes the following stages: fixation device micropackages plasma arc and laser beam transmitter, the propulsion of the workpiece with a constant velocity, and the formation of mode microlocally plasma arc. While using microdose there is a partial melting of the edge of the weld, and with the help of laser radiation further welding products. The disadvantage of this method is the inability to control the length of the arc, due to the design of the device used for implementing the method, which leads to different values of the temperature field in the initial heating in the zone of influence of laser radiation and, consequently, leads to instability of the coefficient of laser absorption and penetration and disabled�spine precise positioning of the exposure area of the electric arc relative to the laser radiation, this should reflect that the method does not allow welding products of great thickness.

The known method of hybrid laser-plasma welding [7]. The invention relates to a method of laser-plasma hybrid welding, in which welding parts, laser beam and plasma jet, the generation of which is due to the microwaves, are brought together in the region close to the workpiece. The disadvantage of this method is the defocusing of the laser beam as it passes through the plasma flow [1], which leads to instability of the resulting power density of the radiation on the surface to be welded and, as a consequence, instability of depth provarivanija of the weld, leading to the occurrence of weld defects.

Known hybrid welding of parts using electric arc and laser radiation [8, 9, 10]. In the famous inventions of the combined laser radiation and electric arc, the electric arc acts directly on the welded product. The disadvantages of these methods is the defocusing of the laser beam as it passes through the plasma flow [1] as a result of design features of the structural elements of the devices, which are implemented through known methods. In General this leads to instability of the resulting power density� radiation on the surface to be welded and, as a consequence, instability of depth provarivanija the weld, what is the cause of weld defects. In addition, overlaying the above drawback of the lack of precise positioning of the exposure area of the electric arc relative to the laser spot also contributes to the occurrence of weld defects.

The known method of continuous welding using plasma and laser and a method of manufacturing metal pipes using this method selected by the applicant as a prototype as matching the purpose and the greatest number of matching signs [11]. The specified invention includes a continuous supply welded products, welded parts which are facing each other and have a thickness of 0.1-0.2 mm, pre-heating the welded parts of the plasmatron and the emission of the laser beam on the welded parts for welding, welded parts, pre-heated by the plasma torch. A method of manufacturing a metal pipe includes a continuous supply strip of sheet metal, sheet metal with obtaining products of circular cross-section, so that both ends were facing each other, and laser welding with preheating the plasma torch. The use of the above-mentioned method of welding a butt joint and method of manufacturing metallic�tion of the pipe greatly accelerates the speed of welding and increases the productivity of manufacturing a metal pipe.

The disadvantage of this method is the separate positioning of the laser radiation and the plasma relative to each other, which greatly complicates the welding process in General, and leads to different distances between the plasma flow and laser radiation and, consequently, different thermal fields at the initial time in the welding area, and the occurrence of high residual longitudinal stresses in the weld seam area due to the high cooling rate of the material [3], which leads to insufficient quality of the weld, in particular in the manufacture of critical products of aerospace and mechanical engineering, or require additional non-productive labor costs to perform additional weld heat treatment [2] to reduce longitudinal stresses.

The main purpose of the claimed technical solution is to eliminate the disadvantages of the above analogues, including the prototype, namely, the goal is to obtain a quality weld carbon steels and aluminum with small longitudinal residual stresses in the weld seam area, in addition, by implementing the claimed technical solution is automatically provided as the decrease of the reflection coefficient of the laser radiation during welding of metals, and reducing the influence of plasma flow on the p�fokusirovku laser radiation and provides accurate positioning of the plasma stream relative to the laser radiation.

The essence of the claimed technical solution consists in that in the method of laser-plasma welding of butt metals, including preheating parts to be welded in the weld seam area plasma flow and the flow of the laser beam for welding on the joint to be welded, provide additional heating of the obtained weld plasma flow, plasma flow creates a circular shape, and the laser radiation is fed through the geometric center of the annular plasma flux on the joint to be welded. Device for laser-plasma butt welding of metals, comprising a source of plasma flow and the source of laser radiation, wherein the source of the plasma stream contains outer and inner ring electrodes for the formation of the plasma flow, mounted in the same plane with the combination of their geometric center in the same point, and the laser light source is arranged to supply laser radiation through said geometric center of the outer and inner ring electrodes.

Thus, the physical meaning of the claimed technical solution is to create a plasma flow annular shape, wherein the laser radiation is applied through the geometric center of the flow on the welded product with the possibility of increasing ka�society weld and to increase its energy efficiency.

The claimed technical solution is illustrated by the following materials.

The drawing shows the scheme of realization of the method and the device for its realization.

The scheme of realization of the method and the device for its implementation contains the following features:

laser technological complex 1,

- the power supply of the plasma torch 2,

- automatic control system 3,

- outer ring electrode of the plasma torch 4,

- the inner ring electrode of the plasma torch 5,

- laser radiation 6,

- plasma flow annular form 7,

- the zone of thermal influence of the plasma stream ring 8 shape,

- welded metal products, located butt 9 and 10

- weld seam 11.

As we know from research by the applicant above analysis of the prior art in laser welding of metals in the weld remain large longitudinal residual stress [2, 3]. These drawbacks arise mainly due to the high cooling rate of the metal. It is also known that at the initial moment of interaction of laser radiation with metals the reflection coefficient of the laser radiation has high values [3], including for laser welding, it is due to the relatively low initial temperature of the metals.

The reflection coefficient of the laser radiation by the surface of a rigid body R as�known from the prior art, depends on the laser radiation and other indicators, namely conductivity metal, it is assumed that the electrons that provide the electrical conductivity, are completely free, so you can calculate the reflection coefficient of the laser radiation by the metal surface R, with the specific conductivity of the treated metal σ and cyclic frequency of the laser radiation ω, by the following formula [4]:

where ω is the cyclic frequency of the laser radiation;

σ is the specific conductivity of the processed metal;

π |PI - the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter.

The decrease of the reflection coefficient of the laser radiation with solid surfaces is an important factor to improve the quality of welding in General and energy consumption reduction.

To reduce the reflection coefficient of the laser radiation necessary to reduce the conductivity of the surface layer, which could be achieved by raising the temperature of metals [3], and to reduce the residual longitudinal stresses in the weld it is necessary to provide a reduced cooling rate of the weld.

The imposition of laser radiation to the plasma flow leads to a defocusing of laser radiation [1], which leads to higher requirements for power� laser source, therefore, to ensure preheating is required to divide the plasma source and the laser radiation, leaving them linked, to improve the accuracy of positioning of the two streams relative to each other.

The inventive method is implemented in the following sequence.

Metal welded products 9 and 10 are fitted back to back with the formation of the weld line. Laser-plasma source moves along the weld joint 11 with velocity v, determined by an automatic control system 3. Between the outer annular electrode 4 and the inner ring electrode 5 by means of a power source of the plasma torch 2, adjustable automatic control system 3, an electrical arc ignited, moving the outer 4 and inner 5 ring electrodes under the action of electrodynamic forces. Moving, the arc heats the gas which is supplied toward the metal parts 9 and 10 extending between the inner 5 and outer 4 ring electrodes, forming a plasma flow annular shape 7.

The rising edge of the zone of thermal influence of the plasma flow annular shape 7 heats welded metal products 9 and 10 to the desired temperature in the weld zone 11, even in the case of curvilinear weld. Laser radiation 6 is fed through the geometric zentrierung 4 and 5 internal annular electrodes of the plasma stream ring mould 7 and the geometric center of the zone of thermal influence of the plasma flow annular form 8 perpendicular to the plane of the outer 4 and internal 5 ring electrodes. Due to the preheating of the plasma flow annular shape 7 of the weld zone 11, the reflection coefficient of the laser radiation is greatly reduced and thus required for welding laser technological complex 1 znachitelnaya power, which is controlled using an automatic control system 3. Thus, laser radiation is the process of welding metal products 9 and 10, respectively, the resulting weld seam 11 hits the trailing edge of the heat-affected zone of the plasma stream ring 8 shape and additionally podogrevali, achieved a reduced cooling rate of the weld zone 11 due to the plasma flow annular form 7. Reducing the cooling rate of the weld 11 reduces the residual longitudinal stress and increases the weld quality of the welded product, even if its angularity.

Device for laser-plasma welding includes laser technological complex 1, the power source of the plasma torch 2, the automatic control system 3, the outer ring electrode of the plasma torch 4 and the inner ring electrode of the plasma torch 5, mounted in the same plane parallel to the plane of the welded metal products 9 and 10, with a combination of geometric�about the center of the outer 4 and inner 5 ring electrodes at one point the laser radiation 6 is fed through the geometric center of the outer 4 and inner 5 ring electrodes perpendicular to the plane of the outer 4 and inner 5 ring electrodes in the geometric center of the zone of thermal influence of the plasma stream ring 8 shape. The proposed device allows to obtain plasma flow annular form 7, which automatically warms up the welded metal products 9 and 10 prior to laser welding, and after welding ensures a reduced cooling rate of the weld zone 11, regardless of the angularity of the weld.

The claimed technical solution meets the criterion of "novelty", presented to the invention, because of the investigated prior art is not identified combination of features presented in the claims.

The claimed technical solution meets the criterion of "inventive step", presented to the invention, as known from the prior art is not identified technical solutions with the features identical to the declared characteristics of the formula of the invention, providing the realization of the stated objectives. It should be noted sufficient originality of the claimed technical solution due to the fact that the claimed combination of features ensures�permanent AET advanced level of heating of the parts to be welded to the metal temperature, their welding and smooth enough cooling of the weld, providing, as a consequence, improving the quality of the weld by reducing the longitudinal residual stresses. You can also make a conclusion that the claimed technical solution is not obvious for specialists, due to the fact that it (the technical solution) provides elimination is given by the applicant in the investigated level of technology significant deficiencies and obstacles as analogues and prototype, greatly hindering the receiving quality of the weld, such disadvantages as the weld seam with high residual longitudinal stresses, the influence of plasma flow on the defocusing of the laser radiation and the impossibility of accurate positioning of the plasma stream relative to the laser radiation.

The claimed technical solution meets the criterion of "industrial applicability", presented to the invention, as implemented in the laboratory highly effective methods of materials processing Naberezhnye Chelny Institute (branch) of Kazan (Volga region) Federal University, to produce high quality welds on various materials (carbon steel, aluminum), the indicators - reduction of longitudinal tension, the homogeneity and uniformity of the IAS�tion of the seam.

Literature

1. The [A. A., G. G. Gladush, Physical processes in laser materials processing.- M.: Energoatomizdat, 1985. pp. 143-157.

2. Krektuleva R. A., Cherepanov, O. I., Cherepanov, R. O. the Effect of cutting on the formation of residual stresses and deformations in welded joints of dissimilar steels // Welding production, No. 6, 2012

3. Grigoryants A. G., Shiganov I. N., The article considers a formal definition of A. I. Technological processes of laser treatment: Training. Manual for schools / Ed. edited by A. G. Grigoryants, M.: Izd-vo MGTU im. N. Uh. Bauman, 2006. p. 86.

4. Israfilov I. H., Pesoshin V. A., Zvezdin, V. V., D. A. Bashmakov Control the electrostatic field depth of laser hardening in metals / Bulletin of the Kazan state technical University named. A. N. Tupolev No. 2, 2010. p. 47-49.

5. Pat. CN 102886612, B23K 28/02. Laser-plasma arc double-side hybrid welding method / Xunbo Li, Miao Yugang, Zeng Zhi; UNIV of ELECTRONIC SCIENCE & TECH. - CN 20121357600; Appl. 24.09.2012; publ. 23.01.2013.

6. Pat. CN 101992354, B23K 10/02; B23K 26/04; B23K 28/02. Micro-beam plasma arc/laser hybrid welding method / Shanglei Yang, Renyuan Lu, Bin Luo, Junshan Lin, Lichun Meng, Ding Sansan, Wenbin Chen, Lin Qinglin; QINGDAO SIFANG LOCOMOTIVE AND ROLLING STOCK CO LTD CSR. - CN 20091165663; Appl. 14.08.2009; publ. 30.03.2011.

7. Pat. US 2005016970, B23K 10/02; B23K 26/00; B23K 26/14; B23K 26/20; B23K 28/02; H05H 1/30. Laser-plasma hybrid welding method / Erwin Bayer, Hoeschele Joerg, Steinwandel Juergen, Willneff Rainer; Erwin Bayer, Hoeschele Joerg, Steinwandel Juergen, Willneff Rainer, Daimlerchrysler Ag - US 20040484729; Appl. 16.09.2004; publ. 27.01.2005.

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9. Pat. JP 2002113588, B23K 10/02; B23K 26/00; B23K 26/06; B23K 26/20. Machining equipment by the composite laser/AC plasma / Sonoda Hirofiimi, Kenji Okuyama, Ifukuro Junichi; NIPPON STEEL WELDING PROD ENG. - JP 20000305219; Appl. 04.10.2000; publ. 16.04.2002.

10. Pat. SU 1815085, B23K 26/00. Device for laser-arc processing / Kydyraliev S., Mamyrkaliev E. A., Kabaeva G. D., Akimzhanov A. Z.; Bishkek Polytechnic Institute. - 4815986; Appl. 25.10.1989; publ. 15.05.1993.

11. Pat. EN 2356713, B23K 31/02; B23K 28/02; B23K 26/30. The method of continuous welding using plasma and laser and a method of manufacturing metal pipes using this method / LEE sang-Hoon, WON Jong-Hee, KIM Tae-Seong, LEE Tae-Joong, BYUN Jung-Hun, Suk-Jo, EUN Suk Hwang, HWANG Jae-Ryun; es El cable co., Ltd., Korea, Advanst Institute of science and technology. - 2006143343/02; Appl. 18.06.2004; publ. 29.12.2005.

1. Method of laser-plasma butt welding of metals, comprising preheating parts to be welded in the weld seam area plasma flow and the flow of the laser beam for welding on the joint to be welded, characterized in that the additional heating is carried out of the obtained weld plasma flow, plasma flow creates a circular shape, and the laser radiation is fed through the geometric center of the annular plasma flux on the joint to be welded.

2. Device for laser-plasma welding of metals butt-containing source �lashmanova flow and the source of laser radiation, characterized in that the source of the plasma stream contains outer and inner ring electrodes for the formation of the plasma flow, mounted in the same plane with the combination of their geometric center in the same point, and the laser light source is arranged to supply laser radiation through said geometric center of the outer and inner ring electrodes.



 

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