Method of potassium nitrate regeneration

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of smoke black powder and can be used for the regeneration of potassium nitrate from sweepings of the gunpowder production with an expired storage term. The method includes mixing the smoke black powder to be utilised with water in a tank, heating the mixture to 90-100°C, filtration of a solution of a sulphur-coal mixture and potassium nitrate, crystallisation of the latter with constant cooling of the crystalliser, collection of potassium nitrate crystals, its centrifuging to remove the solution and drying, with the filtration being realised with a working mixer in a heated filter; crystallisation is carried out with mixing the solution by the supply of compressed air; mother liquor, which is formed in the crystalliser is pumped into a tank, heated to a temperature of 90-100°C and used to wash the residue on the heated filter, the obtained solution is re-supplied into the crystalliser and subjected to crystallisation, the precipitated sediment of potassium nitrate is removed, the solution, remaining in the crystalliser, is re-supplied for mixing with the smoke black powder to be utilised. The technical result of the invention consists in an increased output of potassium nitrate, extracted from smoke black powder.

EFFECT: method is simple and makes it possible to use industrial equipment.

1 dwg, 2 ex


The invention relates to the technology of the smoke of black powder (DCP) and can be used for regeneration of the potassium nitrate from recyclable smoky powders and powders with expired retention periods. Further potassium nitrate can be used in the production DCP or as a fertilizer.

From the literature known methods for extracting soluble substances by extraction followed by crystallization [1-3]. The main disadvantage of known methods is the low number of extracted nitrate (less than 30%).

Thus, in the method [2] described the extraction of soluble substances by extraction, and then crystallization of the solute. At the same time removed 25-30% of the substance, as when passing through the filter are big losses.

The closest in technical essence to the claimed invention is a method of regeneration of the potassium nitrate from smetak production [4], which consists in mixing recyclable powder with water, heated, with constant stirring, settling the mixture for the deposition of solid particles, passing a solution of potassium nitrate through the filter and the deposition of crystals in a cooled mould. As the fault is removed no more than 30% of potassium nitrate from whole contained in DCP.

The technical result of the invention is�tsya increasing the yield of extracted from DCP of saltpeter.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of regeneration of the potassium nitrate, which includes the mixing of recyclable powder with water, the mixture heated to 90-100°C, filtering the solution, the crystallization of potassium nitrate at a constant cooling crystallizer, crystals, potassium nitrate, centrifuging it to remove the solution and drying, and cherohala mixture and a solution of potassium nitrate are running the mixer through a heated filter, the crystallization is performed while stirring the solution by means of compressed air, and formed in the crystallizer mother liquor is heated to a temperature of 90-100°C and washed them precipitate on the heated filter, and the resulting solution is fed to the crystallizer and again subjected to crystallization, the precipitate was removed, and the remaining in the crystallizer the solution was again sent for mixing with recycled smoke of gunpowder.

Examples of specific performance.

Example 1. For the regeneration of the potassium nitrate from smetak production DCP used technological scheme shown in Fig.1.

In tank 1 with a stirrer pour water to half tank, the stirrer, load the recyclable powder by weight not more than half the weight of the water and let the steam in the steam jacket. When the temperature in the tank 100°C open the tap 2 and FILT�comfort suspension through a heated filter 3, which has a temperature of 95°C. the Filtrate is fed into the crystallizer with a jacket 4. In a shirt let the cold water, the solution was stirred by a stream of compressed air. The process is continued until the temperature of the solution to 25°C. the precipitate was nitrate overload in cloth bag and squeeze in a centrifuge 5 until the evolution of the solution.

The resulting mother liquor from the crystallizer 4 is pumped into tank 1, is heated to 95°C and washed them the precipitate on the filter 3, and then the resulting solution is poured into the mold 4 and again subjected to crystallization above method. In this case, is extracted 82% of the nitrate.

Drying the nitrate produced in the drying Cabinet 6 steam-heated at a temperature not exceeding 120°C until the moisture content of 0.08%.

Example 2. For the regeneration of the potassium nitrate from smetak production DCP used technological scheme shown in Fig.1, but in tank 1 was filled with water, and the mother liquor of ammonium nitrate from the mold 4, formed after crystallization of the nitrate. In this case, this method allows to extract 85% of the nitrate.

In any case, the use of the proposed method allows to significantly increase the number of extracted nitrate.

The method is simple and allows the use of industrial equipment.


1. Kasatkin A. G. Basic about�Essy and apparatuses of chemical technology. 9-e Izd., TRANS., Moscow: khimiya, 1973.

2. Pavlov K. F., Romankov P. G., A. A. Noskov Examples and tasks for the course of the processes and apparatuses of chemical technology. 9-e Izd., transl., Leningrad: Khimiya, 1981

3. Zhuikov V. A. Filtration. Theory and practice of separation of suspensions. 4-e Izd., transl., Moscow: khimiya, 1980.

4. The application for a patent RU №2008109343 from 20.09.09. G.

Method of regeneration of potassium nitrate, comprising mixing recyclable powder with water in the tank, the mixture heated to 90-100°C, filtering the solution sirogojno mixture and potassium nitrate, the crystallization of the latter at a constant cooling of the crystallizer, the crystals of potassium nitrate, the centrifugation to remove the solution and drying, characterized in that the filtering is carried out when operating the mixer in a heated filter, the crystallization is performed while stirring the solution by supplying compressed air generated in the crystallizer mother liquor is pumped into a tank, heated to a temperature of 90-100°C and washed them precipitate on the heated filter, the resulting solution is again applied to the mold and subjected to crystallization, the precipitate was nitrate is removed and the remaining in the crystallizer the solution was again sent for mixing with recycled black powder.


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