Method of potassium nitrate regeneration
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of smoke black powder and can be used for the regeneration of potassium nitrate from sweepings of the gunpowder production with an expired storage term. The method includes mixing the smoke black powder to be utilised with water in a tank, heating the mixture to 90-100°C, filtration of a solution of a sulphur-coal mixture and potassium nitrate, crystallisation of the latter with constant cooling of the crystalliser, collection of potassium nitrate crystals, its centrifuging to remove the solution and drying, with the filtration being realised with a working mixer in a heated filter; crystallisation is carried out with mixing the solution by the supply of compressed air; mother liquor, which is formed in the crystalliser is pumped into a tank, heated to a temperature of 90-100°C and used to wash the residue on the heated filter, the obtained solution is re-supplied into the crystalliser and subjected to crystallisation, the precipitated sediment of potassium nitrate is removed, the solution, remaining in the crystalliser, is re-supplied for mixing with the smoke black powder to be utilised. The technical result of the invention consists in an increased output of potassium nitrate, extracted from smoke black powder.
EFFECT: method is simple and makes it possible to use industrial equipment.
1 dwg, 2 ex
The invention relates to the technology of the smoke of black powder (DCP) and can be used for regeneration of the potassium nitrate from recyclable smoky powders and powders with expired retention periods. Further potassium nitrate can be used in the production DCP or as a fertilizer.
From the literature known methods for extracting soluble substances by extraction followed by crystallization [1-3]. The main disadvantage of known methods is the low number of extracted nitrate (less than 30%).
Thus, in the method  described the extraction of soluble substances by extraction, and then crystallization of the solute. At the same time removed 25-30% of the substance, as when passing through the filter are big losses.
The closest in technical essence to the claimed invention is a method of regeneration of the potassium nitrate from smetak production , which consists in mixing recyclable powder with water, heated, with constant stirring, settling the mixture for the deposition of solid particles, passing a solution of potassium nitrate through the filter and the deposition of crystals in a cooled mould. As the fault is removed no more than 30% of potassium nitrate from whole contained in DCP.
The technical result of the invention is�tsya increasing the yield of extracted from DCP of saltpeter.
The technical result is achieved in that in the method of regeneration of the potassium nitrate, which includes the mixing of recyclable powder with water, the mixture heated to 90-100°C, filtering the solution, the crystallization of potassium nitrate at a constant cooling crystallizer, crystals, potassium nitrate, centrifuging it to remove the solution and drying, and cherohala mixture and a solution of potassium nitrate are running the mixer through a heated filter, the crystallization is performed while stirring the solution by means of compressed air, and formed in the crystallizer mother liquor is heated to a temperature of 90-100°C and washed them precipitate on the heated filter, and the resulting solution is fed to the crystallizer and again subjected to crystallization, the precipitate was removed, and the remaining in the crystallizer the solution was again sent for mixing with recycled smoke of gunpowder.
Examples of specific performance.
Example 1. For the regeneration of the potassium nitrate from smetak production DCP used technological scheme shown in Fig.1.
In tank 1 with a stirrer pour water to half tank, the stirrer, load the recyclable powder by weight not more than half the weight of the water and let the steam in the steam jacket. When the temperature in the tank 100°C open the tap 2 and FILT�comfort suspension through a heated filter 3, which has a temperature of 95°C. the Filtrate is fed into the crystallizer with a jacket 4. In a shirt let the cold water, the solution was stirred by a stream of compressed air. The process is continued until the temperature of the solution to 25°C. the precipitate was nitrate overload in cloth bag and squeeze in a centrifuge 5 until the evolution of the solution.
The resulting mother liquor from the crystallizer 4 is pumped into tank 1, is heated to 95°C and washed them the precipitate on the filter 3, and then the resulting solution is poured into the mold 4 and again subjected to crystallization above method. In this case, is extracted 82% of the nitrate.
Drying the nitrate produced in the drying Cabinet 6 steam-heated at a temperature not exceeding 120°C until the moisture content of 0.08%.
Example 2. For the regeneration of the potassium nitrate from smetak production DCP used technological scheme shown in Fig.1, but in tank 1 was filled with water, and the mother liquor of ammonium nitrate from the mold 4, formed after crystallization of the nitrate. In this case, this method allows to extract 85% of the nitrate.
In any case, the use of the proposed method allows to significantly increase the number of extracted nitrate.
The method is simple and allows the use of industrial equipment.
SOURCES of INFORMATION
1. Kasatkin A. G. Basic about�Essy and apparatuses of chemical technology. 9-e Izd., TRANS., Moscow: khimiya, 1973.
2. Pavlov K. F., Romankov P. G., A. A. Noskov Examples and tasks for the course of the processes and apparatuses of chemical technology. 9-e Izd., transl., Leningrad: Khimiya, 1981
3. Zhuikov V. A. Filtration. Theory and practice of separation of suspensions. 4-e Izd., transl., Moscow: khimiya, 1980.
4. The application for a patent RU №2008109343 from 20.09.09. G.
Method of regeneration of potassium nitrate, comprising mixing recyclable powder with water in the tank, the mixture heated to 90-100°C, filtering the solution sirogojno mixture and potassium nitrate, the crystallization of the latter at a constant cooling of the crystallizer, the crystals of potassium nitrate, the centrifugation to remove the solution and drying, characterized in that the filtering is carried out when operating the mixer in a heated filter, the crystallization is performed while stirring the solution by supplying compressed air generated in the crystallizer mother liquor is pumped into a tank, heated to a temperature of 90-100°C and washed them precipitate on the heated filter, the resulting solution is again applied to the mold and subjected to crystallization, the precipitate was nitrate is removed and the remaining in the crystallizer the solution was again sent for mixing with recycled black powder.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of sulphide compound crystals based on sesquialteral sulphides of rare-earth metals doped with tin, including in the form of high-temperature polymorphous γ-modification. Proposed method comprises loading of initial components into heat-resistant crucible, placing the latter into quartz reactor, degassing and sealing of said reactor and heating the latter in oven. Said initial components represent the mix of sesquialteral sulphide of rare-earth element, REE=Y, La-Lu, and tin sulphide, or mix of powders of sesquialteral sulphide of rare-earth element and tin sulphide, or mix of elementary lanthanide, tin and sulfur taken in stoichiometric ratio for synthesis of Ln2S3 and SnS. Reactor is heated to above tin sulphide fusion point, tin sulphide being used as a solvent, and kept at said temperature unless melt-solution homogenising. Then, temperature gradient is developed over the reactor length for solvent mass transfer from said melt-solution into colder part of said reactor, evaporation of solvent and crystallisation from melt-solution with doping of crystals by tin cation.
EFFECT: possibility to grow crystals, larger sizes of grown crystals, expanded range of grown crystals, decreased losses of rare-earth metals in crystallisation.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: process line is suggested for extraction of black powder components, which comprises steam generator, two reactors for extraction of black powder components, which are equipped with nozzles for input of niter extractant and sulfur extractant from steam generator, and inbuilt filtering vacuum devices with sulfur-coal mixture for filtration of extracted niter and with charcoal for filtration of extracted sulfur, and crystalliser for dehydration and crystallisation of extracted niter and crystalliser for granulation of extracted sulfur and separation of extractant, which are serially arranged behind reactors. Two versions are also suggested for extraction of niter and sulfur from black powder.
EFFECT: invention provides for most complete extraction of niter and sulfur from black powder.
3 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: under the suggested method of the melts granulation including product melt supply to the liquid inert medium in form of jets flowing from the calibrated holes, with installed needles, the inert medium is melt. Melting temperature of the inert medium is below melting temperature of the granulated material. The obtained product granules are cooled in the inert liquid to temperature (20-30)°C. The inert liquid density is higher than the inert medium density and below the product granules density. The product melting temperature is (1.5-1.25) of melting temperature of the granulated material, and inert medium temperature is (1.05-1.15) of its melting temperature.
EFFECT: increased quality of produced granulated product, and capacity of the process of melt granulation due to contact of the product melt droplets with inert medium in form of the melt heated to temperature below the melting temperature of the granulated material.
FIELD: weapon and ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: method of disassembly of munitions to be utilized used as a working tool for crushing of explosive charge of the flow of frozen coolant granules includes supply to the surface of explosive of aerosol flow of liquid and a flow of carbonic acid granules. The used liquid is carbonic acid, the flows of liquid and granules of carbonic acid are supplied portionally and alternately with varying mass flow rate, granules are obtained from pre-cooled carbonic acid which is initially in a liquid phase.
EFFECT: as a result of disassembly of munitions the dry powdery explosive is obtained which is suitable for direct untended use, the process of obtaining of granules of carbonic acid is simplified, expansion of the scope of application of the method.
SUBSTANCE: method involves removing an alcohol ester solvent by pre-soaking the powder processed in an aqueous medium first at a temperature of 18-22°C for at least 1.0 hour, then in a new portion of water at a temperature of 30-40°C for at least 1.5 hour followed by removing the solvent in a centrifuge first by displacing it from the powder with water spraying at a temperature of 30-40°C at a consumption of fine and medium powders of 2.5-3.5 l/kg and 3.5-5.0 l/kg respectively and squeezing for at least 30 minutes; further the powder is squeezed additionally with no water supplied for at least 15 minutes. The solvent is removed by displacing in batch centrifuges at min. 1,100 revolutions per minute.
EFFECT: method enables producing the homogenous and high-quality low water-alcohol powder and creating state-of-the-art high-efficiency, cost effective and safe processing of all fine and medium powder grades.
2 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: demolition works.
SUBSTANCE: method of manufacture of pyrotechnical charges comprises the heating of powder mix up to the temperature of plasticization of polymeric binder, formation from the prepared composition of the cord by through-feed pressing through the calibrated die, temperature conditioning and the cord cutting into measured pyroelements. From the powder mix portion a tablet is pre-formed by compaction with the upsetting coefficient 3-4, and the heating is conducted up to the temperature 0.4-0.6 of the polymeric binder melting temperature at which the mix is conditioned in the thermostat during 35±5 minutes then the cord is formed.
EFFECT: solution provides high reliability of ignition of piece pyroelements for bulk functional charge and their stable burning, at improvement of producibility of manufacture and shortening the production cycle time.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed crusher is designed to crush polymer materials of natural and artificial origin and tubular shape and can be used in pulp-and-paper industry, production of white gun powder for disposal of outdated, discarded or obsolete tubular powders. Crusher housing (1) houses cylindrical rotor (2) with blades (3), loading cartridge (4) and discharge assembly (10). Loading cartridge has slotted hole (5) and proportioner (6) and branch pipe with slotted outlet hole (7).
EFFECT: higher efficiency and safety.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: demolition works.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cartridging of explosives for mining industry. The method of cartridging of blasting powders comprises the formation of vertically aligned cartridge shell from thermoplastic film on the forming pipe, cartridging using a rotating injecting worm located inside the forming pipe, by periodic filling of continuously dragged explosive shell and plugging of cartridge ends by sealing clips, crimping of the shell into a bundle, attaching of clips and cutting of the bundle at disabled injecting worm. Depending on the required density of explosive in the cartridge the speed and momentum of variable worm drive are set. The cartridging device contains a feeder, injecting worm, located inside the forming pipe and fitted with the rpm sensor and variable drive, sleeve former, device for longitudinal welding or gluing of the shell, shell dragging mechanism, device for feeding the thermoplastic film tape with a vertical drive, tape motion monitoring sensor, manufacturing mechanisms, clip attaching and ready cartridge cutting units, monitoring and control unit of injecting worm drive, unit of monitoring of rpm and movement of cartridge shell.
EFFECT: invention allows to implement high capacity, efficient and safe technology of manufacturing of high quality cartridges from blasting powders.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: blasting operations.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of production of large-sized charges of mixed solid rocket fuel (MSRF) by method of free casting. The method of manufacturing a MSRF charge comprises placing the mounted with channel-forming fitments and the drainage pipe line of the housing in the altitude chamber, coupling of the drainage pipe line with the drain valve of the mixer, vacuumising of the altitude chamber and the housing and draining the fuel mass into the housing, at that for placing the housing in the altitude chamber the altitude chamber lid is removed, the drainage pipe line is mounted on it, on which from the inner side of the lid the housing is mounted assembled with the channel-forming needle, and mounted into the altitude chamber housing.
EFFECT: possibility of manufacturing the MSRF charge in thin-walled housing of free casting without mounting the housing in the altitude chamber on the stand.
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of ball powders for small arms. A method for obtaining filled ball powder involves preparation of powder lacquer at mixing of nitrate-cellulose ingredients in water with ethyl acetate (EA), dispersion of lacquer, dehydration and removal of ethyl acetate by stripping; with that, as cellulose nitrates there used are ballistite nitroglycerine powders, tubular dinitro-diethylene g-pulvers or reusable process wastes that are first loaded to water at mixing in quantity of 30-40% of their total weight, 1.8-2.0 volumetric parts of ethyl acetate are dosed in relation to 1 weight part of the whole quantity of nitrate cellulose ingredients, temperature is increased up to 65-68°C, then, in 20-30 minutes, 0.20-0.60 weight parts of hexogene are dosed in relation to 1 weight part of total quantity of components, the mixture is mixed during 20-30 minutes at the same temperature, and the rest amount of nitrate-cellulose ingredients is added.
EFFECT: method provides for reduction of consumption as to EA and obtainment of dense filled ball powder with required physical and chemical characteristics in a wide range of particle-size distribution.
1 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: blasting operations.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to elimination of rifle smoke powders (RSP) and can be implemented using explosives as a primer. According to the proposed method, elimination is performed by blasting an RSP box with trinitrotoluene blocks with weight of at least 200 g. Blasting is performed on a platform intended for installation onto it of a box filled with smoke powder with the weight of not more than 50 kg. The box is put on its side with the neck turned to the right or to the left from electrical blasting circuit direction.
EFFECT: increasing productivity and reducing fire and explosion hazard.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to throwing charges. Modular charge comprises unplasticised cellulose nitrates (CN), water soluble polymer binder, diphenylamine (DPA) and, possibly, energy-saturated bilk (based on nitroglycerine, highly etherified CN, DPA and centralite II) and active filler of high explosives and/or high explosive powders and/or powder crumb. Proposed method comprises making of binder solution, DGA solution of ethyl alcohol and, possibly, active filler. Said components are mixed using the energy saturated bulk or without it to produce press-bulk. Moisture content of the latter is decreased by drying or by direct removal of excess liquid phase therefrom at pelletising in pelletiser. Charges from dried or pelletised press-bulk are compacted by keeping at pressure with simultaneous discharge of excess liquid phase from the mould. After two-stage moisture removal, block articles are subjected to surface coating with thin ply of energy active material of diluted CN solution in organic solvents.
EFFECT: higher physical and chemical, ballistic and operating characteristics.
12 cl, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: aluminium and alkali metal nitrate salts are processed by evaporating the nitrate salt solution to salt concentration of 45-55 wt %, thermal hydrolysis of aluminium nitrate with conversion thereof to aluminium hydroxide with a boehmite structure in an autoclave to degree of deposit of aluminium of 98% in an equimolar mixture of sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate at temperature of 220-250°C and pressure of 0.6 MPa while feeding jet steam into the autoclave. Sodium and potassium nitrate salts are leached from the obtained pulp and then separated from the aluminium hydroxide residue.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain aluminium hydroxide with a boehmite structure of high purity and alkaline nitrates in form of desired products.
1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to crushing of refrigerators. Refrigerators 12 are loaded into grinding chamber 16 via loading opening 14 and continuously crushed. Crushed material 24 is discharged via unloading opening 26. At grinding process gases originate to contaminate the chamber air. Grinding chamber is purged with air contained therein. For this, preset air volume L1 is forced per unit time via gas line 32 into gas processing device 34. Air volume L4 equal to volume L1 is continuously forced via loading opening 14 into grinding chamber 16. Sid gas line 32 is aligned with discharge opening 26 and gas processing device 34 and coupled therewith. Pressure of preset air volume L1 in grinding chamber 16 and gas lines 30, 40 connected therewith is kept lower than ambient pressure.
EFFECT: nonpolluting process of crushing of refrigerators.
10 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing of electrochemical cells and storage batteries. Proposed method comprises mincing of storage battery, removal of case materials, suspending of produced battery suspension in water in foam flotation tank. Foam flotation agent is added to said suspension to bubble said tank by air to produce foam. This allows hydrophobic materials to be trapped by air bubbles and trapped materials to afloat with said trapped materials. Compounds Pb (IV) are separated from compounds Pb (II) in battery suspension in foam flotation tank. Method of separation of materials in wastes of lead-acid batteries comprises extraction of pasted from used battery, suspending of extracted paste in water, addition of foam flotation agent to said suspension including paste and water, bubbling of said tank by gas to get the foam, separation of (PbO2) from other lead-bearing compounds of suspension is said tank.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of separation.
14 cl, 6 tbl, 10 ex
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: for solid wastes thermal neutralisation the solid wastes are loaded in drum drier, solid wastes are dried in the drum dryer, the solid wastes are moved from the drum dryer in the drum furnace, they are baked in the drum furnace, gases generated during neutralisation are exhausted, the neutralised solid wastes are unloaded from the drum dryer and drum furnace. The solid wastes are dried and baked by means of heat transfer to them from casings of the drum dryer and drum furnace, respectively. At that the casings are heated in the external heating chambers surrounding the casing of the drum dryer and drum furnace from outside. The suggested device of thermal neutralisation of the solid wastes contains the drum dryer and drum furnace connected by means of the transportation device, each of them has casing and is equipped with the loading chamber, unloading chamber and gas duct to exhaust gases generated during neutralisation. The device is additionally equipped with the external heating chambers surrounding the casing of the drum dryer and drum furnace from outside with possibility of heat exchange.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of neutralisation, reduced quantity of caught sludges or dust in gas cleaning system generated during dust removal of the neutralised gases, reduced power and material consumptions for neutralisation, and overall dimensions and weight of equipment installed in gas cleaning system.
8 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises grinding slaughter tankage, rotary subsurface mechanical treatment using the ripper with cutters on a horizontal shaft 5 and its mechanical drive in the form of a rotary milling chisel plough 6, the distribution of pulp from slaughter tankage and water in the soil in the process of its rotary subsurface loosening. For disposal of slaughter tankage, it is ground to a particle size of 2-5 mm, mixed with water or water containing disinfectant, in the ratio of 1:3-1:5. Then the formed pulp is applied in the soil to a depth of 30-80 cm. The soil is ground to a particle size of 1-25 mm and mixed with the pulp in a ratio of 1:6-1:20. Then the upper layer of soil is treated on the trace of passing of the rotary milling chisel plough 6 with the disinfectant.
EFFECT: increase in the degree of processing of slaughter tankage, accelerated decomposition of disposed biological material in the soil, improvement of soil fertility.
SUBSTANCE: for collection, temporary storage and recycling, class B medical waste are collected at sites of waste production into a storage container and transported to a recycling site. The waste is collected in a storage bin and conveyed to a waste combustor. In the storage container, the waste is cooled down and exposed to ultraviolet light. After the transportation the waste is reduced in size, whereas the reduced waste is conveyed into the storage bin and combustor in air flow.
EFFECT: higher ecological compatibility and economical efficiency of the waste recycling process.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ecology. For disposal of metallurgical wastes including heavy metals, slime is carried and sorted out with separation of uncomposted fractions and biochemical enrichment of residual fraction to get biomineral fertiliser. Slime solid fractions are minced by dispersion in fluid to get the pulp to be subjected to ultrasound processing for at least 3 hours at 20-30°C and, additionally, biochemically processed organic mass is added thereto. For compost fermentation, air heated to 35°C to 45°C is fed. Formed sediment with radio nuclides and heavy metals are separated, dewatered and directed for further processing or burial.
EFFECT: simplified process.
2 cl, 9 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: proposed insulating material comprises clay, calcitic material, oil sludge, and drill cuttings with the following component content, parts by weight: clay 1.0; calcitic material 0.5-5.0; drill cuttings 0.5-3.0; oil sludge 0.5-7.0.
EFFECT: reduction of consumption of natural clays, reduction of wastes of production in construction of motor roads and solid domestic waste landfills, improves the quality of final product.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 8 tbl