Ultrasound piezoelectric converter

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: ultrasound piezoelectric converter comprises a body with a damping layer applied to its inner surface and inside the body there is a prism, a damper connected to the body and a piezoelectric cell installed at the prism and connected to the damper. At the prism base there are additional plane-parallel rectangular metal plates with spacers between them. The metal plates have different height and form a graded pyramid, and dimensions of the plane-parallel rectangular metal plates are selected on the basis of certain conditions.

EFFECT: potential input of rectangular ultrasonic waves to an element of a metal structure at angles values close to 90 degrees without the use of a complicated control system for time delay in voltage pulses.

3 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to non-destructive testing of stress-strain state of structural material.

Known prismatic ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer containing a piezoelectric element, mounted on the prism, provided with a conical sound-absorbing waveguides mounted on the outer end surface of the piezoelectric element at a given angle thereto, and a removable cylindrical sound-absorbing nozzles according to the number of tapered waveguides, in which the end surface is conical cavity, the dimensions of the conical cavities correspond to the sizes of tapered waveguides, each of the nozzles conical cavity associated with the waveguide, the material of the nozzles are chosen to spread them transformed at the interface of transverse waves [RF Patent №2055359, IPC G01N 29/24, 1996].

A disadvantage of the known prismatic ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer is that it allows you to enter only the shear wave in the element of metal structures under the angle α until his second critical value of ~70°. However, this device does not allow to type longitudinal ultrasonic wave in the element of metal structures at angles close to 30°.

The closest to the proposed invention is a ul�raspokoval inclined piezoelectric transducer, comprising a housing located therein a prism placed inside the prism connected with the damper housing and coupled to the damper piezoelectric element, and the inner surface of the shell applied damping layer, the outer surface of the prism formed by the rotation of a truncated hyperbola, and the piezoelectric element is located in the part of the prism, designed to be mounted on a test object [Ed. Saint of the Russian Federation No. 1099274, IPC G01N 29/24, 1984].

The disadvantage of this ultrasonic tilting of the piezoelectric transducer is that it is not possible to obtain a multi-channel piezoelectric transducer with which you can enter longitudinal ultrasonic wave in the element of metal structures under certain angles close to 90°, without the use of complicated control scheme lines time delays of the voltage pulses.

The object of the invention is the creation of a single, multi-piezoelectric layer, with which you can enter longitudinal ultrasonic wave in the element of metal structures under certain angles close to 90°, without the use of complicated control scheme lines time delays of the voltage pulses.

This is achieved by the fact that the ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer comprising a housing, coated on the inner surface of the damping layer, and located in �the Cabinet is the prism, coupled with the damper housing and coupled with the damper photoelement mounted on the prism, the prism base is further installed parallel plate, rectangular metal plate, with spacers between them, and the metal plates have different heights and form a stepped pyramid, the thickness of the plane-parallel rectangular metal plates corresponds to the condition:and≤λ3/2

where: λ3- the length of the ultrasonic wave in the element metal construction, mm, and the thickness of the strips corresponds to the condition: b≤λ3/10,

where: λ3- the length of the ultrasonic wave in the element metal construction, mm, the height difference of the two adjacent metal plates corresponds to the condition:ΔL=dc1c2sinαc3(c2c1),

where: d is the distance between the centers of two adjacent metal plates, mm; α - the angle of longitudinal ultrasonic waves in the metal element of the design, grad., c1- the speed of ultrasound in the prism, m/s, c2and c3- the ultrasonic velocity, respectively, � metal plate and the metal element of the design, m/s, and the minimum height of the metal plate corresponds to the condition:L1=dc1c2sinαc3(c2c1)n,

where n is the number of metal plates, c1- the speed of ultrasound in the prism, m/s, c2and c3- the ultrasonic velocity, respectively, in the metal plate and the metal element construction m/s;

d - the distance between the centers of two adjacent metal plates, mm;

α - the angle of longitudinal ultrasonic waves in the metal element of the design, grad.

As the material of the prism is used, for example, organic glass or plastic materials.

Strip metal plates made of PTFE.

The presence of a plane-parallel rectangular metal plates having different heights and forming a stepped pyramid, separated by Teflon spacers, allows you to get phased lattice, which, in turn, increases the angle of the longitudinal wave in the element of design that allows you to enter the longitudinal ultrasonic waves in the metal element� design at right angles, close to 90°, without the use of complicated control scheme lines time delays of the voltage pulses.

The invention is illustrated graphically.

Fig.1 shows a section through the multi-channel ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer; Fig.2 shows a flow chart of a flat ultrasonic waves through the metal plate and forming a planar wave front in the element metal construction.

Multichannel ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer includes a rectangular housing 1 (Fig.1), which are plane-parallel rectangular piezoelectric element 2, the conductor 3 that is attached to the upper plane of the piezoelectric element 2, the damper 4, the prism 5, is made of organic glass or polystyrene, caprolon, plane-parallel rectangular metal plate 6 separated by Teflon spacers 7, and the metal plates have different heights and form a stepped pyramid.

Multichannel ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer operates as follows. On the piezoelectric element 2 through conduit 3 is supplied with alternating voltage from the generator of high frequency f and generates longitudinal ultrasonic wave in the prism 5. Wavefront consistently reaches the upper ends of the n metal plates 6, servants channels of ultrasounds�x waves. Longitudinal waves propagate independently of each other in the metal plate 6 and reaches the surface of the metal structure 8 (Fig.2). In this case the phase difference between the waves emanating from two adjacent metal plates 6, the same. These waves induce longitudinal waves in a cylindrical element of the metal structure 8. Envelope surface waves propagating in the element of the metal structure 8 at angle α to the normal of the surface of this element is a planar wave front of Pnperpendicular to the direction of propagation of these waves.

In the Fresnel zone of the longitudinal ultrasonic wave generated by the rectangular piezoelectric element 2 (Fig.1) is flat. The boundary of this zone is determined by the formula

where Sp- the area of the working plane of the rectangular piezoelectric element; λ1- the length of the ultrasonic wave in the prism 5.

Provided that

where L1- the height of the small metal plates, flat wave front passes through the metal plate 6. At time t1wave front reaches the upper end of the small metal plate. Upon further advancement of the wave front consistently reaches the upper ends of the metal plates 6, employees Cana�AMI ultrasonic waves. These metal plates separated by Teflon spacers 7 having a large coefficient of attenuation of ultrasound. Thus, there is no mechanical connection between these strips and metal plates due to a low coefficient of friction between PTFE and metal.

According to the method of Fresnel zones the thickness of the metal platesamust be equal to or less than λ3/2, where λ3- the length of the ultrasonic wave in the element of the metal structure 8. The thickness of PTFE gaskets b should choose minimum: equal to or less than λ3/10. The distance between the centers of the metal plate d (Fig.2). The number of metal plates - n.

With the passage of ultrasonic waves through the metal plate lower ends of these plates, in contact with the element metal construction 8 induce cylindrical longitudinal wave in this element, provided that the thickness of the metal platesamuch smaller than their length. Envelope surface waves propagating in the element of metal structures under an angle α to the normal of the surface of this element is a planar wave front of Pnperpendicular to the direction of propagation of these waves , at time tn.

At time tiflat front Piwave propagating in Prisma, comes to the upper end of the i-th metal plate (Fig.2). The time interval Δti=tn-tiduring which wave passing through the i-th metal plate reaches the plane of the Pnin the element of the metal structure 8, is equal to

where c2and c3- the ultrasonic velocity, respectively, in the metal plate and the metal element of the design; Lithe height of the i-th metal plate; Si=d(n-i-1)sinα - geometric path of the wave from the surface of the metal element of the structure to the plane of the Pn.

The time interval Δti-1=tn-tiduring which a wave passes from the plane of the Pithe plot of the prism ΔL, using (i-1)-th metal plate and reaches the plane of the Pnequal to

where c1- the speed of ultrasound in the prism; Li-1- height (i-1)-th metal plate; Si-1=d(n-i-2)sinα - geometric path of the wave from the surface of the metal element of the structure to the plane of the Pn; ΔL=Li-1.

Since Δti-=Δti-1then, equating expressions (3) and (4), we obtain for the difference between the heights of the i-th and the (1-1) th metal plates

which does not depend on the numbers of the two adjacent metal plates. Minimum height metal� plate is determined by the expression

where n is the number of metal plates.

The total thickness of the metal plates and PTFE gaskets

Example. Calculation of structural elements of multi-channel piezoelectric transducer for the introduction of a flat longitudinal wave with frequency f=5 MHz at the angle α=85° to the metallic element construction is made of steel grade 20, or grade 3.

In the prism, made of organic glass, the velocity of ultrasound (c1=2700 m/s and the wavelength isλ1=c1f=0,54mm.

In a metal plate made of stainless steel, the velocity of ultrasound (c2=5740 m/s.

In the element metal construction velocity of ultrasound (c3=5900 m/s and the wavelength isλ3=c3f=1,18mm.

Assuming thatα=λ32=0,59mmandb=λ310=/mo> Amount of 0.118mmderived d=0,708 mm.

For the number of metal plates n=50 the total thickness of the metal plates and PTFE gaskets l≈35,5 mm.

Assume that the cross-section of multi-channel piezoelectric layer is square. Then the area of the working plane of the rectangular piezoelectric element Sp=l2≈1260 mm2and the boundary of the Fresnel zone SF≈743 mm.

The difference in elevation of two adjacent metal plates ΔL≈0,61 mm. Minimum height of the metal plate L1≈30,5 mm.

Since LF>>L1then a flat longitudinal wave induced by the piezoelectric element, passes through the prism and all the metal plates that serve as channels of ultrasonic waves.

Thus, the calculation of construction elements multi-channel ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer shows the possibility of the introduction of longitudinal ultrasonic waves in the element of metal structures at angles close to 90°.

1. Ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer comprising a housing, coated on the inner surface of the damping layer, and located in the housing of the prism connected with the damper housing and coupled to the damper piezoelectric element, mounted on the prism, characterized in that the base of the prism is additionally a mustache�Rowley plane-parallel, a rectangular metal plate, with spacers between them, and the metal plates have different heights and form a stepped pyramid, the thickness of the plane-parallel rectangular metal plates corresponds to the condition: a≤λ3/2,
where: λ3- the length of the ultrasonic wave in the element metal construction, mm,
the thickness of the strips corresponds to the condition: b≤λ3/10
where: λ3- the length of the ultrasonic wave in the element metal construction, mm, the height difference of the two adjacent metal plates corresponds to the condition:

where: d is the distance between the centers of two adjacent metal plates, mm;
α - the angle of the longitudinal ultrasonic wave in the element of metal structures, hail, s1- the speed of ultrasound in the prism, m/s, with2and C3- the ultrasonic velocity, respectively, in the metal plate and the element of metal constructions, m/s;
the minimum height of the metal plate corresponds to the condition:

where n is the number of metal plates, with1- the speed of ultrasound in the prism, m/s, with2and C3- the ultrasonic velocity, respectively, in the metal plate and the element of metal constructions, m/s.
d - the distance between the centers of two with�one of the metal plates, mm.

2. Ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer according to claim 1, characterized in that the material of the prism is used, for example, organic glass or plastic materials.
3 Ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer according to claim 1, characterized in that the strip of metal plates made of PTFE.



 

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EFFECT: low power consumption and high sensitivity.

2 cl, 2 tbl, 4 dwg

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