Graphene-based tunnel field effect transistor

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: in a tunnel field effect transistor with an insulated gate containing electrodes of source and drain made of multilayer graphene and located at an insulating substrate in the same plane, and also the gate made of a conducting material and located above the areas of source, tunnel junction and drain, electrodes of source and drain are oriented towards each other crystallographically by an even edge of a zigzag type and separated by a vacuum barrier transparent for charge carriers.

EFFECT: invention expands the inventory of tunnel transistor nanodevices; this device alongside its pronounced switching property has on the current-voltage curve of the source and drain electrodes the area with a negative differential resistance, which allows its functioning as the Gunn diode; the device requires lower voltage at the gate.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of nanoelectronics, and in particular, to the active elements based on carbon nanostructures, namely, to the transistors that implement the effect of electric current, and can be used as a basic switching device and the device with a negative differential resistance in the manufacture of digital integrated circuits.

Analogue of the invention is a tunneling field effect transistor with insulated gate proposed in [1]. It consists of a tunnel field-effect transistor, the role of the source and drain which is highly doped silicon, and the gate is located over the area of the tunnel junction. The disadvantage of this device is the limitation of the operation speed due to the relatively small quantities of graphene mobility of charge carriers in silicon.

As a prototype, the device proposed in [2] and [3], in which the role of the electrodes plays a graphene with a mobility of charge carriers is much greater than that of silicon. A distinctive feature of this device is that the tunneling barrier in graphene by intercalation required region with compounds of boron, carbon and nitrogen having a hexagonal lattice (h-BCN) with different concentrations of these elements. As a result of the intercalation domain is formed �of heterostructure, have semiconducting conductivity type with a band gap of from 1 to 5 electron volts (depending on the concentration of elements in the compound (h-BCN). This device does not assume a particular orientation of the crystallographic lattice of the graphene relative to the tunneling gap. The main disadvantages of this device are the current problems in manufacturing technology domains heterostructures required sizes and shapes, as well as a relatively large voltage across the gate required for switching of the transistor.

The tunneling transistor with graphene electrodes is also proposed in [4]. It has similarities with the prototype proposed in [2], [3], however, the area of the tunneling barrier is proposed here to form by putting in the tunneling gap of a silicon insert. The main disadvantage of this device is that at the moment, the technological implementation of this operation is clearly not feasible. Also, this transistor requires a relatively large voltage on the gate for his shift.

Thus, the objectives of the proposed transistor, the following. First, it expands the Arsenal tunnel transistor nanodevices. Secondly, along with switching ability, its volt-ampere characteristics�of cteristic have a region with negative differential resistance, and for this reason this device can perform functions such as transistor and diode Gunn. Thirdly, it requires a gate voltage that is lower than the existing counterparts. Fourthly, the technology of manufacturing nanoscale with crystallographically smooth edges is now more attainable than the technology to create domains of h-BCN desired shape and the technology of dielectric inserts made of silicon oxide.

In the inventive tunnel field effect transistor electrodes of the source and drain are made of sheets monosloevogo graphene lying on an insulating substrate in the same plane, oriented to each other crystallographically smooth edge type zigzag and split tunneling is transparent to the charge carriers by a vacuum barrier. The shutter is made of a conductive material, is located above the regions of the source, the tunneling transition and flow.

The distinctive features of this invention are:

1. The presence of the vacuum tunnel-transparent barrier (nanoscale the necessary width). Vacuum tunneling barrier does not require manipulation of the introduction of dielectric spacers or create a hybrid domain of the correct form, and can be carried out with the following process methods:

a) nanolithography using scanning tunneling microscopy;

b) electromyogr�tion;

b) local anodic oxidation;

d) nanofabrication using transmission electron microscopy;

e) catalytic nanoesca.

2. The orientation of graphene electrodes crystallographically smooth edge type zigzag to each other. Within this region are concentrated specific electronic boundary condition, the presence of which is necessary for the functioning of the device.

The combination of these features allows to achieve the task.

List of figures.

Fig.1 shows an external view of the device.

1. - graphene sheet, width is not less than 10 nm and a length of not less than 100 nm

2. - graphene sheet, width is not less than 10 nm and a length of not less than 100 nm

3. - insulator (e.g., silicon oxide)

4. - the shutter is made of a conductive material (e.g. gold)

5. - ohmic contacts (for example titanium), are intended to ensure the connection of the electrodes to an external electric circuit

6. - contact the source

7. - contact runoff

Fig.2 shows a schematic diagram of the density of States for the left and right electrodes.

In order to avoid effects of dimensional quantization, the graphene sheets 1 and 2 in Fig.1 must have a length (size in the direction from the source to the drain) not less than 100 nanometers and a width of not less than 10 nm. The thickness of the insulator 3 in Fig.1 should be enough�, to avoid tunneling current between sheets 1 and 2 in Fig.1 and gate 4 in Fig.1 (several times greater than the width of the tunneling gap). To external circuits sheets of graphene connected by means of an ohmic contact 5 in Fig.1. The device operation can be explained using Fig.2.

This figure depicts the marginal density of States for the left and right contacts, depending on the energy. Region States filled with electrons, painted black. The upper part of the black area corresponds to the Fermi level. Partially transparent rectangle denotes the transport window is the energy range in which the possible directional tunneling transport. Fig.2(a) corresponds to the condition in which the potential difference V between the source (6 in Fig.1) and the outlet (7 in Fig.1) equal to zero and the voltage Vggate (4 in Fig.1) no, the area is filled with boundary conditions of the left electrode corresponds to a region filled with boundary conditions of the right electrode, electron tunneling is possible, the current through the structure is not flowing. After the source and the drain is applied a potential difference, a portion of the filled States in the left electrode will correspond to the field-free States in the right electrode, there will be directional tunneling current of electrons from the left electrode to the right. On f�G. 2(b) depicts the band diagram when the potential difference between the source and drain, at which maximum value of the tunneling current, as in this case, a maximum of occupied States in the left electrode corresponds to the maximum of available States in the right electrode. In this state the transistor is "open". Further increase in potential difference will lead to a divergence of peaks of the density of States and the current drop, as shown in Fig.2(c). This site will be characterized by a negative differential resistance.

When applied to the gate electrode (4 in Fig.1) positive potential relative to the source and drain, will increase the area occupied States (the so-called condenser effect [4]), as illustrated in Fig.2(d). When applying a potential difference of the source-drain current in the transistor is suppressed due to the very low density of States in the transport window (Fig.2(e)). In this state the transistor is "closed". Further increase in the potential difference of the source-drain leads to the fact that one of the peaks of the density of States will be taken in the transport window (as shown in Fig.2(f)), the latter, in turn, will lead to a sharp increase (step) current between the source and drain.

Thus, this device can be carried out the process of switching from "open" to "closed" state by changing the potential of the gate which is the main floor�tively effect the operation of the transistor. In addition, this device has additional beneficial effects, namely the current-voltage characteristic of this device is present in the region with a negative differential resistance, which allows it to function as a Gunn diode.

Links

[1] Patent RU 2354002

[2] G. Fiori, A. Betti, S. Bruzzone, and G. Iannaccone, Nano Vol.6, 2642 (2012)

[3] the Patent WO 2013080237 A1

[4] D. A. Svintsov, B. B. Finch, V. F. Lukichev, A. A. Orlikovskiy, A. Burenkov, P., Ochsner, Physics, 2013, volume 47, issue.2 p. 244

Tunneling field-effect transistor based on graphene with insulated gate containing the electrodes of the source and drain made of monosloevogo graphene and lying on an insulating substrate in the same plane, and the closure is made of a conductive material and positioned over the source areas, tunnel junction and the drain, wherein the source electrodes and drain are oriented to each other crystallographically smooth edge type zigzag and split tunneling is transparent to the charge carriers by a vacuum barrier.



 

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