Motor vehicle weight sensor

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: motor vehicle (MV) weight sensor contains a set of discrete sensing elements located between separate upper cover and lower cover the material of which is selected based on condition of providing sensor elastic deformation in bending approximately the same as for adjacent layer of road bed. Upper and lower covers can be made of material the Young 's modulus of which is not less than Young 's modulus of material of discrete sensing elements, and thermal linear expansion coefficient of this material can me approximately equal to thermal linear expansion coefficient of road bed adjacent layer material.

EFFECT: higher measurement accuracy and increased lifecycle time of sensor in specific road conditions.

22 cl, 15 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates

The present invention relates to a measurement technique, namely the weight sensor of the vehicle (ATS) designed, for example, for weighing in motion (WIM - Weigh In Motion) vehicles.

The level of technology

Currently there are many different gauges of weight used for weighing in motion of vehicles. These sensors are used, typically, piezoelectric or fiber-optic sensing elements.

Applied to the problem of dynamic measurement of axle and total weight of the PBX in the motion (the"Weigh-in-Motion - WIM) is the most common in the world practice are linear weight sensors based on the discrete sensing elements. These devices most often are a set of discrete single crystal, such as quartz, sensitive items, usually made in the form of washers and spaced with a small spatial step in installed in the pavement perpendicular to the direction of movement PBX rigid structure (see, for example, U.S. patent No. 5501111, publ. 26.03.1996).

In the most common in the world practice the implementation of the WIM sensor housing is mounted in a road surface of extruded aluminium profile (see, � example, the U.S. patent for industrial design №D686928, publ. 30.07.2013) placed in its closed internal volume of the sensitive elements. Fig.1A shows a view in isometric of such profile, and the reference position notes 1 discrete sensing element. Such sensitive elements (washers from single-crystal piezomaterial, most of monocrystalline quartz) is located within the closed volume of the sensor housing along its longitudinal axis, usually with the same spatial step; their shape can be arbitrary, although in most implementations, they are round disks (see, e.g., U.S. patent No. 5641924, publ. 31.10.1995, or the website of the company KISTLER: www.kistler.com/ru or the article "road of life sensors", journal of roads, No. 7, 2013, pp. 61-70). Fig.1B is shown in the section known weight sensor in the above profile, installed in the roadway.

Fig.1B a side view is shown illustrating the principle of operation of this known sensor is a conditional topological model, showing the mutual arrangement of the main elements for the case of uniform distribution (same spatial step) sensor 1 having, in this implementation, the shape of circular discs mounted between the upper electrode 2 and lower electrode 3 (Fig.1B is not the map�aetsa the internal volume of the case). Fig.1G shows a top view of the same topological model of the sensor. The upper surface 2 of the sensor acts as a hub and translator transmitted from the wheel PBX vertical force and distributes it between the set under her sensitive elements 1, based, in turn, to the lower electrode 3.

Real sensor design is much more complicated this topological model and contains, along with the hubs and sensitive elements, a good number of details, providing, in particular, the positioning and fixation of the sensing elements within the housing, and the signal occurring at their ends when the vertical force.

In the process output control at the finish of the production cycle variation of the known indications of sensors throughout their length, the sequential (step by step) the app is movable along the axis of the sensor the same amount of force in a perpendicular to the plane of the washer direction is usually placed in a fork of 2-3% at a constant, and in fact when supported in the process output control room temperature. However, after mounting the sensor in the road surface scatter of readings during the passage over it of the wheels (axles) PBX, forming a vertical load, already expanding to 11-13%. Fundamentally improve exactly�th sensor, mounted in the road surface, it is only possible to understand the reason fold increase of the scatter of readings from certification at the end of the production cycle to evaluate the total measurement accuracy, for example, the reference equipment rental directly after installation of the sensor in the road surface. Even a rough analysis of the existing situation reveals both the influence of errors in the process of installing a sensor in the road surface, which is fairly easy to exclude, and the principal drawbacks of the actual construction of the sensor. Moreover, a number of structural disadvantages of the known models of the sensors during output production control cannot be identified, and occurs only after mounting a pavement.

Most of the principal disadvantages of the known sensor associated with the use of said hard metal (particularly aluminum) housing with a closed interior volume. Sensitive elements placed inside the enclosed space of the housing, experiencing a number of distorting the final accuracy of the measurement of impacts.

The most critical distorting the sensor factor is thermal deformation of the housing. Since the coefficient of linear thermal expansion of the material of the body is known to date�of IR aluminum is about 20 times the coefficient of linear thermal expansion of the material of the sensing element, for example, monocrystalline quartz, with a closed perimeter of the hull structure when you change the polarity and magnitude of the ambient temperature of the plate of quartz or excessively crimped, or between them and the adjacent elements of the case have any gaps. It is obvious that, against the background of these processes, high-precision measurements of the weight of ATS is almost impossible to achieve. And from passport data, where the manufacturer is usually recorded only the results of testing the sensor at an output of a production control at room temperature, it is not detected. But after installing the sensor in the road surface in the course of its operation real changes in temperature are instantly reflected on the measurement accuracy.

Another reason that determines the increase of the dispersion of the known indications of the sensor with a closed internal volume of the housing when operating in real traffic conditions, appearance is virtually non-deterministic mechanical strain in the sensor housing. They can be caused, for example, the influence of the accumulated in the extrusion process, the most commonly used for its manufacture, residual stresses in the material of the housing; nerastas� wear and local deformations of the road surface. For example, due to the fact that the wheels are ATS directly interact with only relatively small portions of the surface of the sensor, its hard, and therefore not tracking deformations related to the mentioned sections of fragments of pavement design in this case undergoes a localized deformation, also resulting in distortion of the final statements.

Other disadvantages of the hull structure with a closed internal volume is the complexity of installation and fixing of sensing elements and, in the end, its practical prematerialist.

During long-term operation of the known sensor due to the differences in the values of moduli of elastic deformation of the external body parts and their associated fixing layer of mastic to the road surface, and also due to the different coefficients of linear thermal expansion of the mentioned elements, the sensor communication with the road is weakened and is pushing him towards the surface. This largely contributes to the absence of the case of the known sensor of any locking devices to prevent vertical displacement.

The procedure for installing the sensor in the road surface requires very careful placement of the sensor in previously prepared channel and control its position throughout the process� hardening fixing mastic. To ensure these requirements directly in the installation of outdoor and traffic on adjacent lanes is sometimes impossible, which are followed by an uncontrolled bias in the known position of sensor that directly affect his testimony.

Disclosure of the invention

Thus, the present invention is to develop a weight sensor ATS, which would exclude the majority of these distorting his testimony factors and would fundamentally improve the measurement accuracy and to extend the duration of the life cycle of the sensor in specific road conditions.

To resolve this problem and to achieve the said technical result, the present invention proposes a sensor weight of the vehicle (ATS) containing a set of discrete sensing elements located between the lower and upper plates whose material is selected from the conditions of elastic deformation on the bending of the sensor is about the same with the adjacent layer of the roadway, wherein each one of the discrete sensing elements may have a thickness, measured in the direction between the top and bottom plates, much less than the width of the discrete sensing element.

Another feature of the sensor of the present invention with�is what discrete sensing elements can be arranged in two rows between the upper and lower plates along their long sides.

Another feature of the sensor of the present invention is that the lower and upper plates can be made of a material, the young's modulus which is not less than the young's modulus of the material mentioned discrete sensing elements. In this case the discrete sensing elements can be made of single crystal quartz, and the lower and upper plates - stainless steel.

Another feature of the sensor of the present invention is that the lower surface may be made of a material, the young's modulus which is not less than the young's modulus of the material of the underlying layer of the fixing mastic and material of the roadway. Another feature of the sensor of the present invention is that the lower and upper plates can be made of a material the coefficient of thermal linear expansion which is approximately equal to the coefficient of thermal linear expansion of the material adjacent the layer of the roadway. The lower and upper plates may be made of ferritic stainless steel.

Another feature of the sensor of the present invention is that the width of each of the upper and lower plates can be more �Irina discrete sensing elements.

Another feature of the sensor of the present invention is that the lower and upper plates placed between the discrete sensitive elements can be placed in heat shrink tubing.

Another feature of the sensor of the present invention is that the surface of the discrete sensing elements contacting the bottom or top surfaces of the plates, can be metallized.

Another feature of the sensor of the present invention is that the discrete sensing elements can be placed in the appropriate apertures of the strip of insulating material, the young's modulus which is substantially less than the young's modulus of the material of discrete sensing elements, and the thickness of the mounting strip not less than the thickness of the discrete sensing elements. While the installation gasket may be on both sides of the trough for placement of the lower and upper plates.

Another feature of the sensor of the present invention consists in that between each of the discrete sensing elements and at least one of the upper and lower plates may be placed intermediate the contact elements and mounting strip has a thickness of not less than the sum of the thicknesses of the discrete sensitive �the item and the corresponding intermediate contact elements. Each of the intermediate contact elements may exceed the width of the discrete sensing element and the mounting strip on the side facing the corresponding one of the lower or upper plates, are recesses coaxial with the holes for the discrete sensing elements and are designed to accommodate intermediate contact elements.

Another feature of the sensor of the present invention is that the intermediate contact elements may be formed with a convex surface facing the corresponding one of the upper or lower plates.

Another feature of the sensor of the present invention is that in at least one of the side walls of the mounting strip may be formed a longitudinal groove on the discrete level sensing element and a height of not less than its thickness to accommodate the insertion of an elastic material of low density, designed for damping lateral pressure waves caused by movement of the PBX.

Another feature of the sensor of the present invention is that the mounting strip can have a width of its lower base longer than the width of its upper base.

Another feature of the sensor of the present invention is that the sensor may include optional Vneshnyaya material which at least the coefficient of thermal linear expansion and young's modulus are about the same as the material of the adjacent layer of the roadway.

Another feature of the sensor of the present invention is that the outer shell may have a bottom width of the base is greater than the width of its upper base.

Another feature of the sensor of the present invention is that in each of the side walls of the outer shell may be made of at least one longitudinal or oblique groove, designed to improve the fixation of the sensor in the pavement. In at least one of the longitudinal grooves, performed at the level of discrete sensor elements that can be placed damping spacer of elastic material of low density, designed for damping lateral pressure waves caused by movement of the PBX.

Finally, another feature of the sensor of the present invention is that in each of the side walls of the outer shell may be made of at least one vertical or inclined channel extending from the upper to the lower surface of the sensor and designed to provide a blend filling mastic to the side walls of the outer shell when installing the sensor in the roadway.

Brief description �Ortega

The invention is illustrated in the attached drawings, in which identical or similar elements are labeled with the same reference positions.

Fig.1A and 1B show a known type of weight sensor ATS, respectively, before and after installation in the roadway.

Fig.1B and 1D show the conditional topological model illustrating the principle of operation of the known sensor and showing the mutual arrangement of the main elements for the case of uniform distribution (equal spatial steps) discrete sensing elements.

Fig.2 shows a cross section of the simplest embodiment of the weight sensor PBX of the present invention.

Fig.3 shows a cross section of another simple embodiment of the weight sensor PBX of the present invention.

Fig.4 illustrates running a single weight sensor PBX of the present invention.

Fig.5 shows a conventional isometric view of the double-column weight sensor PBX of the present invention.

Fig.6 illustrates a cross section of the weight sensor PBX of the present invention when placed in shrink tube.

Fig.7 to 14 show cross sections of embodiments of the weight sensor PBX of the present invention.

Fig.15 shows the transverse and longitudinal cross section of the weight sensor PBX at present� to the invention with an additional outer shell, wherein the longitudinal grooves (Fig.15A) and the vertical channels (Fig.15B).

Detailed description of embodiments of

Weight sensor of the vehicle (ATS) of the present invention, as is known, the sensor contains a set of discrete sensing elements 1 (see Fig.1), made on the basis of single-crystal piezomaterial, for example of quartz, langasite, etc., usually in the form of thin washers arbitrary shape, for example in the form of squares, disks, hexagons, etc., the thickness of which may be much smaller than their width, i.e., transverse dimension, e.g. diameter in the case of a disk-shaped or diagonal in the case of a square shape.

Discrete sensing elements 1 are located between the upper and lower plates 2 and 3 (see Fig.1B) playing for discrete sensing elements 1 the role of hub efforts. But if for known sensor plates 2 and 3 have been structurally incorporated in a single housing (see Fig.1A, 1B), the weight sensor PBX of the present invention, the upper electrode 2 and lower electrode 3 (see Fig.1B) are separate, structurally independent (i.e. not mechanically linked) elements. Fig.2 illustrates a cross-section of the simplest embodiment of the weight sensor PBX of the present invention, when the width of the upper and lower plates 2 and 3 of RA�width of the discrete sensing element 1 (in the particular case of a disk-shaped discrete sensing element 1 - its diameter). Fig.3 shows a cross section of this embodiment of the weight sensor PBX of the present invention, in which the width of the upper electrode 2 and lower electrode 3 exceeds the width of the discrete sensing element 1 to provide greater sensor sensitivity.

Physico-mechanical characteristics of the material of the upper and lower plates 2, 3 are preferably selected from the conditions of elastic deformation of the bending sensor equally with the adjacent layers of the road pavement within the measured sensor loads. Thus, it is desirable that the design of the sensor tracked the deformation of the road surface when passing over it axis ATS in the range from minimum to maximum permissible measured weight in the regime of elastic deformation, i.e. without any changes to the geometry and shape after removal of the load.

For optimal transmission of vertical force to monocrystalline discrete sensing elements 1, the coefficient of elastic deformation under compression (young's modulus) of the material of the upper and lower plates 2 and 3 should preferably be not lower than that of the material of the discrete sensing element 1. These requirements can, for example, a pair of: stainless steel, monocrystalline quartz. The modulus of elasticity of the material nor�her plate 3 should preferably be not less than the elastic modulus of the underlying layer of the fixing mastic and material of the roadway (pavement), for example asphalt.

For a more secure fit weight sensor ATS on the road coefficient of thermal linear expansion of the material of the upper and lower plates 2 and 3 (concentrators) should preferably be approximately equal to the coefficient of thermal linear expansion of the material adjacent to the sensor layer of the roadway (pavement). This corresponds well to the requirements of, for example, ferritic stainless steel, similar in this parameter to the asphalt.

To improve the reliability of electric contact of the discrete sensing elements 1 and the upper and lower plates 2 and 3 over the entire area of contact of their surfaces parallel to the plane used in a discrete sensing element 1 of the washers from piezomaterial preferably metallized.

For ease of placement and fixation of discrete sensing elements 1 between the adjacent surfaces of the upper and lower plates 2, 3 can accommodate the installation gasket 4 made of elastic insulating material (Fig.4A). Fig.4B shows the isometric view of the sensor with removed upper hub (upper electrode 2), illustrating the placement of discrete sensing elements 1 in one row in the body of the insulating strip 4 along the longitudinal axis of the sensor with a constant spatial step h.

To optimize on�of reference of the external force to the discrete sensing elements 1 sensor preferably to the modulus of elasticity of the adjusting strip 4 was significantly lower than the modulus of elasticity of the material of the discrete sensing element 1.

To further increase accuracy and eliminate the mutual transverse displacement (swings) of the upper and lower integral hub (upper and lower plates 2, 3) deformations of the road surface of the discrete sensing elements 1 are preferably arranged in two or more longitudinal rows (Fig.5). In this case the discrete sensing elements 1 in each row can have, for example, the same step h, and the longitudinal shift between sensors in adjacent rows may be equal to h/2.

To ensure mutual fixation of the elements of the weight sensor ATS after installation of the discrete sensing elements 1 in the installation gasket 4 and install on both sides of the mounting strip 4 top plate 2 and bottom plate 3, the entire structure can be placed in shrink tube 5 (Fig.6A). Upon completion of the shrinking process, conventionally shown by the arrow "t0", the relative positions of all sensor elements of discrete sensing elements 1, the adjusting strip 4 and the upper and lower plates 2 and 3 are securely fixed to the tube 5 (Fig.6b).

To simplify the Assembly of the weight sensor PBX and more reliable mutual fixation elements on Thu�nd the length of the life cycle of the installation strip 4 preferably contains from both sides of the trough for placement of the upper and lower plates 2, 3. Fig.7 shows a cross section of this embodiment of the present invention, where the mounting strip 4 is shown with the longitudinal edges of the projections 6 to 9, between which are formed on the top and bottom of the said chute, so that when you install a discrete sensing elements 1 securely positioned between the protrusions 6-7 and 8-9 formed in the troughs of the upper electrode 2 and lower electrode 3.

To improve the reliability of the mechanical and electrical contact of the upper electrode 2 and lower electrode 3 with the surfaces of the discrete sensing elements 1 is preferably placed on opposite sides of each discrete sensing element 1, the intermediate contact elements 10, 11 having the same shape as the discrete sensing elements 1, for example, a disc shape, and made of the same material, and located above and below the hub, i.e., the upper surface 2 and the lower surface 3, respectively (Fig.8). In principle, the accommodation of the intermediate contact elements with only one (e.g., upper) side of the discrete sensing elements.

To eliminate the influence on the operation of the sensor transverse or longitudinal displacement of the upper electrode 2 and lower electrode 3 as a result of the relevant deformations of the road surface, caused�tions by changing the area of contact between adjacent surfaces of the discrete sensing elements 1 and the intermediate contact elements 10, 11, the surface of the intermediate contact elements 10, 11 adjacent to the adjacent surfaces of the upper electrode 2 and lower electrode 3, preferably have a convex shape, for example in the form of hemispheres. Fig.9 illustrates the implementation of the external surfaces of the intermediate contact elements 10, 11 in the form of hemispheres of radius R. it is desirable that the convex surface of the intermediate contact elements 10, 11 were above the surface of the adjusting strip 4.

The size of the intermediate contact elements 10 and 11, both planar and having a convex surface, for example a diameter D2 (Fig.10) in the case of disk form, can exceed the size of the discrete sensing elements 1, for example, the diameter D1 in the case of disc shape. In this case the discrete sensing elements 1 can be accommodated in annular non-conductive spacer 12 made of, for example, of elastic material, the outer dimension of which is equal to the size (D2) of the intermediate contact elements 10, 11. Either in the installation gasket 4 can be provided with recesses coaxial with the holes for the discrete sensing elements 1 and intended for placement intermediate the contact elements 10, 11.

To reduce the effect of discrete sensing elements 1 surface (side) of the wave generated by the moving wheels� PBX in the sensor with the intermediate contact elements 10, 11 by increasing the distance between the upper electrode 2 and lower electrode 3 on one or both sides of the mounting strip 4 can be made of a longitudinal groove at the level of discrete sensing element 1 and not less than its thickness to accommodate the insert 13 is of an elastic material of low density, for example silicone or rubber (Fig.11). This insert (insert) 13 is intended (s) for damping lateral pressure waves caused by movement of the PBX.

To improve the fixation of the weight sensor ATS in road surface the side walls of the adjusting strip 4 may be formed so that the width L2 (Fig.12) the lower base of the adjusting strip 4 was larger than the width L1 of its upper base, for example, with an inclination to the top of the sensor type "swallow's tail" (Fig.12A) or with the protrusions 14, 15 (Fig.12B) in the area of the base.

To improve the spatial accuracy of placement and to accelerate the installation procedure of the weight sensor ATS in road surface at the final stage of its manufacture, preferably using an additional outer shell 16 (Fig.13) made of a material which has at least the coefficient of thermal linear expansion and young's modulus are about the same as the material of the adjacent layer mentioned�th road, for example asphalt. After hardening of the filling substance of this additional outer shell 16 is set ready for installation in the channel of the road surface and fill in with a local intermediate cavity quickly hardening mastic. Fig.13 sensor shown placed in shrink tube 5 (see Fig.6), however, this option may not be used.

To improve the fixation of the longitudinal side walls 17, 18 of the outer shell 16 of the weight sensor ATS is preferably performed sloped (tapered) to its apex (Fig.14).

In one or both side walls 17, 18 of the outer shell 16 can be performed once or several longitudinal or oblique grooves. To further reduce the influence of lateral wave in such longitudinal grooves formed at the level of discrete sensing elements 1, can be placed damping strips 19, 20 of an elastic material of low density, such as silicone or rubber, designed to absorb the lateral pressure waves caused by movement of the PBX.

To improve the fixation of the weight sensor ATS in road surface on the side walls of the additional outer shell 16 of the weight sensor PBX can additionally be provided with longitudinal or oblique grooves 21 (Fig.15A).

To expedite the filling of InterMedia�tcov between the surface of the additional outer shell 16 of the weight sensor PBX and adjacent surfaces of the channel in the pavement at the base of the additional outer shell 16 preferably include one or more vertical or sloping channels 22 extending from the upper to the lower surface of the weight sensor PBX and designed to ensure the free flow of excess weight quickly solidifying priming mastic from the base to the side walls of the additional outer shell 16 and the zone occupancy weight sensor ATS when set up in the roadbed (Fig.15B).

Weight sensor of a vehicle according to the present invention operates similarly to the above-mentioned closest analogue.

However, the weight sensor PBX of the present invention eliminates the majority of distorting the readings of the factors closest analogue is primarily due to the separation of the upper and lower plates 2 and 3, which ensures insensitivity of such a sensor to any possible in the course of its operation deformations. Optionally, the indication of the weight sensor PBX of the present invention amplify this effect. Therefore, the present invention allows to increase the measurement accuracy and to extend the duration of the life cycle of weight sensor ATS in its work on specific road conditions.

1. Weight sensor of the vehicle (ATS) containing a set of discrete sensing elements located between the lower and upper plates, the material of which is selected and� the terms of the security of elastic deformation on the bending of said sensor about the same with the adjacent layer of the roadway, each of these discrete sensing elements has a thickness, measured in the direction between said top and bottom plates, much less than the width of the mentioned discrete sensing element.

2. The sensor according to claim 1, in which the mentioned discrete sensing elements arranged in two rows between said lower and upper plates along their long sides.

3. The sensor according to claim 1, in which the mentioned upper and lower plates made of a material, the young's modulus which is not less than the young's modulus of the material mentioned discrete sensing elements.

4. The sensor according to claim 3, in which the mentioned discrete sensing elements made of single crystal quartz, and mentioned the upper and lower plates made of stainless steel.

5. The sensor according to claim 1, in which mentioned the lower electrode is made of a material, the young's modulus which is not less than the young's modulus of the material of the underlying layer of the fixing mastic and material mentioned in the roadway.

6. The sensor according to claim 1, in which the mentioned upper and lower plates made of a material the coefficient of thermal linear expansion which is approximately equal to the coefficient of thermal linear expansion of the material of adjacent layers mentioned in the roadway.

7. The sensor according to claim 6, in which by mentioning�Tye upper and lower plates made of ferritic stainless steel.

8. The sensor according to claim 1, wherein the width of each of these upper and lower plates is greater than the width of the mentioned discrete sensing elements.

9. The sensor according to claim 1, in which the mentioned upper and lower plates placed between the mentioned discrete sensitive elements placed in heat shrink tubing.

10. The sensor according to claim 1, wherein the surface of the mentioned discrete sensing elements in contact with the surfaces mentioned in the lower or upper plates, metallized.

11. The sensor according to claim 1, in which the mentioned discrete sensing elements placed in the corresponding holes of the mounting strip of insulating material, the young's modulus which is substantially less than the young's modulus of the material of the mentioned discrete sensing elements, and the thickness of the mentioned installation strip not less than the thickness of the mentioned discrete sensing elements.

12. The sensor according to claim 11, in which the mentioned installation gasket is on both sides of the trough to contain the mentioned lower and upper plates.

13. The sensor according to claim 11, in which between each of the discrete sensing elements and at least one of the lower and upper plates are placed intermediate the contact elements, as mentioned �ustanovochnaja strip has a thickness of not less than the sum of the thicknesses mentioned discrete sensing element and corresponding intermediate contact elements.

14. The sensor according to claim 13 in which each of these intermediate contact elements exceeds the width of the mentioned discrete sensing element, and in said mounting strip on the side facing to the corresponding from the lower or upper plates, are recesses coaxial with the holes for the discrete sensing elements and are designed to accommodate the mentioned intermediate contact elements.

15. The sensor according to claim 13 or 14, in which the mentioned intermediate contact elements are made with a convex surface facing to the corresponding from the bottom or top plates.

16. The sensor according to claim 12, wherein at least one of the mentioned side walls of the installation gasket is made a longitudinal groove at the level of the mentioned discrete sensing element and a height of not less than its thickness to accommodate the insertion of an elastic material of low density, designed for damping lateral pressure waves caused by movement of the PBX.

17. The sensor according to claim 11 or 12, which referred to the distribution strip has a width of its lower base longer than the width of its upper base.

18. The sensor according to claim 12, containing additional outer shell of a material which has at least a coefficient of thermal Lin�rising expansion and young's modulus are about the same, as the material of the adjacent layer mentioned in the roadway.

19. The sensor according to claim 18, in which the additional outer shell has a width of its lower base longer than the width of its upper base.

20. The sensor according to claim 18 in which each of the mentioned side walls of the outer shell is made of at least one longitudinal or oblique groove, designed to improve the fixation of the sensor in the pavement.

21. The sensor according to claim 20, wherein at least one of the longitudinal grooves, performed at the level of discrete sensing elements placed damping spacer of elastic material of low density, designed for damping lateral pressure waves caused by movement of the PBX.

22. The sensor according to claim 18 in which each of the mentioned side walls of the outer shell is made of at least one vertical or inclined channel extending from the upper to the lower surface of said sensor and designed to provide a blend filling mastic to the side walls of the mentioned outer shell when installing said sensor in said roadway.



 

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Pressure regulator // 2526899

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flow regulators, particularly, to flow regulators with bowl-shape seat. Regulator consists of valve body to define fluid flow and valve seat, drive case engaged with valve body, control member arranged in drive case and adapted to displacement relative to valve body and valve seat for regulation of fluid flow at displacement between open position and closed position whereat said control member engages with valve seat, and spring articulated with control member to displace the latter to open position. Said control member has the surface directed to valve seat and furnished with recess. Recess can be reamed, or concave, or conical or have any other suitable surface.

EFFECT: higher reliability, perfected adjustment.

19 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: reference sample comprises a metal base with a central zone of reference complex stressed condition through the base thickness. At the edges of the base at one or different sides there is one or several zones of pad welds from another metal, coefficient of linear expansion and yield point of which is lower than the coefficient of linear expansion and yield point of the base metal. The base is first exposed to high-temperature tempering, afterwards control marks or a grid of measurement bases are applied onto surfaces of the central zone of the base at two sides, for two test measurements after high-temperature tempering of the base before applying pad welds and in the end of thermal treatment of the base already with pad welds. The form of the base, locations of pad welds and the mode of thermal treatment are defined in advance as a result of computer simulation modelling by the method of finite elements with account of grades of the base metal and pad welds metals and the required reference complex stressed condition of the central zone of the base through its thickness.

EFFECT: increased validity of results of measurements of mechanical stresses in cross sections of various thick-walled metal structures.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: method of determining tangential stress in steel pipelines involves making a sample in form of a hollow cylinder from the same material as the structure; step by step loading of the sample; measuring coercitive force indicators at each loading step, with a defined orientation of magnetic flux generated in the coersimeter relative the sample; obtaining a relationship between the coercitive force indicators and values of stress in the sample; measuring the coercitive force indicators of the metal of the structure; determining stress values using the obtained relationship; tangential stress in the sample is generated by applying torque to the sample; the coercitive force is measured along the axis of the sample or the pipeline twice, while directing magnetic flux in opposite directions. The coercitive force indicator used when determining tangential stress is the magnitude of the difference between measured values of the coercitive force.

EFFECT: high accuracy of determining tangential stress in surface steel pipelines.

1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: method for determining residual hardening stresses involves hardening of samples and determination of residual hardening stresses; at that, a pack is formed of plates of similar size, which are numbered and marked in advance; then, the above pack is subject to hardening; after that, plate bending deformations are measured in two planes, as per which residual hardening stresses are calculated.

EFFECT: improving accuracy of determination of residual hardening stresses.

6 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to determination of the stress-strain state of metal structures of high-risk facilities in the oil, gas and chemical industry, transportation systems and oil and gas processing using brittle strain-sensitive coatings, which enables to obtain a clear picture of the highest stress concentration and obtain data for evaluating strength of potentially hazardous structures. The brittle coating for deformation and stress analysis is made from a mixture containing water and sugar, with the following ratio of components, wt %: water 65-75, sugar 25-35.

EFFECT: reduced harmful effect on the environment.

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: proposed invention relates to measurement equipment, namely, to vehicle weight detectors. The proposed vehicle weight detector designed for laying into a road surface of a highway at an angle to its axial line, comprises at least one linear sensitive elements and upper and lower linings, between which there are linear sensitive elements fixed, having practically one and the same cross section in the vertical direction, besides, the material of each lining is the material, the coefficient of linear thermal expansion of which is close to the coefficient of linear thermal expansion of the material, forming the layer of the road surface, in which the sensor must be laid.

EFFECT: due to the proposed invention, such technical result is achieved as the provision of reliable fixation of the sensitive element position strictly along the sensor axis with the preservation of mechanical integrity of the sensor and an adjacent layer of the road surface.

18 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: instrumentation.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of weight measurement equipment and may be used to create instruments for detection of dynamic pressure at spans of road bridges, traffic areas of roads, air field runways, The method consists in measurement of dynamic pressure from a vehicle wheel by conversion of sensor deformation into a value of its resistance variance. Sensors evenly distributed along the area of measurement by means of their switching are connected to a measurement system that transfers the resistance variance value into dynamic pressure value.

EFFECT: increased accuracy of measurements.

2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: weighing devices are placed on a track for wheel-by-wheel or axle-by-axle weighing of motor vehicles; a reading device is placed near each of the weighing devices to read the identification mark of a passing motor vehicle with simultaneous recording of the reading time; readings from each weighing device are received at a data processing centre when the wheels or wheel of each of the axles of a specific motor vehicle passes said device, with simultaneous reading of at least one identification mark of said motor vehicle by the corresponding reading device and recording said reading time. Series of measurements are formed from the readings of the weighing devices at the data processing centre separately for each wheel or for each axle of the motor vehicle with the same identification mark, readings of weighing devices in the corresponding series of measurements are averaged and readings of weighing devices for the motor vehicle with the same identification mark, making up said series of measurements, are equated to the averaged value in said series of measurements.

EFFECT: lost cost of the equipment used while simultaneously increasing measurement accuracy of all weight sensors installed on the track.

16 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: weighing devices are placed on a track for wheel-by-wheel or axle-by-axle weighing of a motor vehicle, where readings of one of the devices, having a higher accuracy, is considered the reference reading. A reading device is placed near each of the weighing devices to read the identification mark of a passing motor vehicle. Readings from a weighing device are received at a data processing centre when the wheels or wheel of each of the axles of a specific motor vehicle passes said device, with simultaneous reading of the identification mark of the motor vehicle and recording of the reading time. Series of measurements are formed at the data processing centre from the readings of the weighing devices separately for each wheel or for each axle of the motor vehicle with the same identification mark. Those series of measurements in which deviation of readings of the weighing devices from the corresponding reference reading is less than a predetermined threshold are selected and readings of the weighing devices making up said series of measurements are equated to the corresponding reference reading.

EFFECT: high measurement accuracy of all weight sensors installed on the track, as well as independently from change in weight of a motor vehicle.

28 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system comprises computer, weight control unit, video observation and identification unit, short-range transceiver, all intercommunicated via communication lines to configure weight control station. To identify cargo carrier, used are short-range transceiver and cargo carrier RF identifier with individual number. Computer comprises cargo carrier data base, those of individual numbers and personal accounts. In case transport facility weight falls out of tolerances, computer computes compensation, writes off money from cargo carrier personal account and informs cargo carrier to this effect by SMS-message.

EFFECT: expanded operating performances.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method involves moving a motor-car on platform weighing machines, measurement using a fast analogue to digital converter and recording load codes, determination of offramp and runover of axles and passage of axles and bridges is identified. The weight of the motor car is measured while fixing one of axle configurations of the motor car: 1+1, 1+2 or 2+2 and stopped in static using a computer "end of measurement" command which is generated when the given number of said codes is attained. Signals on the beginning and end of weighing in static are sent to the driver through a light signal, and in motion on the first off-ramp after beginning of measurement from platform strain-gauge weighers of the motor car axle or the runover of the first axle of the trailer or semitrailer.

EFFECT: possibility of weighing different motor cars in static and motion with close errors in both cases.

5 cl, 7 dwg

The invention relates to weighing technique and can be used in industry, agriculture and transport for weighing moving vehicles

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method involves moving a motor-car on platform weighing machines, measurement using a fast analogue to digital converter and recording load codes, determination of offramp and runover of axles and passage of axles and bridges is identified. The weight of the motor car is measured while fixing one of axle configurations of the motor car: 1+1, 1+2 or 2+2 and stopped in static using a computer "end of measurement" command which is generated when the given number of said codes is attained. Signals on the beginning and end of weighing in static are sent to the driver through a light signal, and in motion on the first off-ramp after beginning of measurement from platform strain-gauge weighers of the motor car axle or the runover of the first axle of the trailer or semitrailer.

EFFECT: possibility of weighing different motor cars in static and motion with close errors in both cases.

5 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system comprises computer, weight control unit, video observation and identification unit, short-range transceiver, all intercommunicated via communication lines to configure weight control station. To identify cargo carrier, used are short-range transceiver and cargo carrier RF identifier with individual number. Computer comprises cargo carrier data base, those of individual numbers and personal accounts. In case transport facility weight falls out of tolerances, computer computes compensation, writes off money from cargo carrier personal account and informs cargo carrier to this effect by SMS-message.

EFFECT: expanded operating performances.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: weighing devices are placed on a track for wheel-by-wheel or axle-by-axle weighing of a motor vehicle, where readings of one of the devices, having a higher accuracy, is considered the reference reading. A reading device is placed near each of the weighing devices to read the identification mark of a passing motor vehicle. Readings from a weighing device are received at a data processing centre when the wheels or wheel of each of the axles of a specific motor vehicle passes said device, with simultaneous reading of the identification mark of the motor vehicle and recording of the reading time. Series of measurements are formed at the data processing centre from the readings of the weighing devices separately for each wheel or for each axle of the motor vehicle with the same identification mark. Those series of measurements in which deviation of readings of the weighing devices from the corresponding reference reading is less than a predetermined threshold are selected and readings of the weighing devices making up said series of measurements are equated to the corresponding reference reading.

EFFECT: high measurement accuracy of all weight sensors installed on the track, as well as independently from change in weight of a motor vehicle.

28 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: weighing devices are placed on a track for wheel-by-wheel or axle-by-axle weighing of motor vehicles; a reading device is placed near each of the weighing devices to read the identification mark of a passing motor vehicle with simultaneous recording of the reading time; readings from each weighing device are received at a data processing centre when the wheels or wheel of each of the axles of a specific motor vehicle passes said device, with simultaneous reading of at least one identification mark of said motor vehicle by the corresponding reading device and recording said reading time. Series of measurements are formed from the readings of the weighing devices at the data processing centre separately for each wheel or for each axle of the motor vehicle with the same identification mark, readings of weighing devices in the corresponding series of measurements are averaged and readings of weighing devices for the motor vehicle with the same identification mark, making up said series of measurements, are equated to the averaged value in said series of measurements.

EFFECT: lost cost of the equipment used while simultaneously increasing measurement accuracy of all weight sensors installed on the track.

16 cl, 3 dwg

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