Load-carrying structure with frame from oval tube

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: load-carrying structure with a frame from an oval tube includes flanges and a frame rigidly attached to them and provided with flattened ends from bent elements of zigzag shape; with that, rod-like elements of the frame have an oval cross-section with the ratio of overall dimensions of 1/2.5, where larger dimension is located in the plane of the structure and the smaller one is located out of the plane.

EFFECT: increasing carrying capacity of the structure with reduction of consumption of its structural material.

4 dwg, 2 tbl

 

The proposed technical solution relates to the construction, namely the lengthy construction load-bearing lattice structures of pipes, and can be used in the fabrication of trusses, girders, columns, arches, frames and other frame systems. Tubular construction designs feature a high technical-economic characteristics as a structural material (steel, aluminum alloy, plastic, composite, polymer, synthetic, etc.) in the cross section of the elements is located in a very effective manner. However, a further increase of technical and economic characteristics at the expense of more rational use of particularly thin-walled pipes (closed gotowanych profiles) is constrained by the complexity of the technical solutions of joints for truss elements in lattice structures.

The greatest distribution in tubular farms received nodal non-faceted connection with the direct connection of the rods of the lattice to the zones [1. The metal structure. 3 T. T. 1. Elements of design: Proc. for higher education institutions. / Under the editorship of V. V. Gorev. - M.: Higher school, 2001. - S. 459, 462, Fig. 7.26, a, 7.28, and; 2. Metal structures: Proc. for higher education institutions. / Edited by Y. I. Kudelina. - M.: Academy, 2007. - S. 292, 295, Fig. 9.24, 9.27]. Here, in order to avoid pushing (pulling out) the pipe diameter of the grille shall not be less than 0,3 dia�of ETP pipe belt. In farms of rectangular (square) tubes such restriction tightened twice, that is, the width of the rod of the lattice should be taken not less than 0.6 of the transverse dimension of the belt.

The disadvantage of nodes is the marked restriction, which leads to increased consumption of material rods and increase metal construction.

Another known technical solution is a lattice design with nodal non-faceted connection of the tubular elements of the farm (options), in which the diagonal of the cross section of a rectangular (or square) zone is located in the axial plane of the farm, and braces in the junction have through the notch (V-shaped), repeats the geometry of this junction. Through this cut the connection of each of the grid elements with belt carried by its two adjacent walls [1. Zinkova V. A., Sokolov A. A. Nodal non-faceted connection of the tubular elements of the farm. Patent No. 2329361, 20.07.2008, bull. No. 20; 2. Sokolov A. A., Logachev K. I., Sinkova V. A. Numerical studies of the stress-strain state nodal non-faceted connections of tubular truss elements. - Industrial and civil engineering, 2007, No. 8. - Pp. 40-41; 3. Zinkova V. A. Solodov, N. In. Investigation of the stress-strain state of non-faceted nodes tubular fer�. - Modern problems of science and education. - Penza: Publishing house "Academy of natural Sciences", 2013, No. 6. - S. 205-212]. Similarly, in the axial plane of the farm of square pipes are located diagonally cross sections of all core elements (and the upper belt and lower belt, and lattice bracing between them) [1. Kuznetsov A. F., Kuznetsov V. A. Farm of square pipes. Patent No. 116877, 10.06.2012, bull. No. 16; 2. J. A. Packer, J. Wardenier, X.-L. Zhao, G. J. van der Vegte and Y. Kurobane. Construction with hollow steel sections. Design Guide for rectangular hollow section (RHS) joints under predominantly static loading. CIDECT, 2009. - P. 100-101].

A disadvantage of the known technical solution is the complexity of its application in farms besprovodnyh coatings, as a rib belt can crush the leaves of profiled flooring. In driving the coating itself a rib belt can be quashed by the run, so you need a device supporting tables under purlins, which negatively affects the consumption of materials of constructions, and also increases the complexity of their fabrication and installation. This disadvantage can be eliminated by ring elements pentagonal cross-section with a horizontal (shelf), two vertical and two inclined walls [Marutyan S. A., Kobalia T. L., Pavlenko, Y. I., S. A. Glukhov Nodal non-faceted connection of the tubular elements of the farm. Patent No. 116526, 27.05.2012, bull. No. 15].

A common shortcoming of the above technical �of eseni is of high hardness non-faceted nodal connections of tubular trusses [A. A. Pokrovsky The integration of the stiffness of the nodes in the calculations of farms with small elements of flexibility. - Structural mechanics and calculation of structures, 2011, No. 3. - P. 31-32]. To not take into account the additional bending moments from the stiffness of the nodes, building norms and rules are recommended to perform the calculation of tubular trusses articulated by the scheme provided that the ratio of the height of the cross section to the length of the truss elements does not exceed 1/15 1/10...[SNiP P-is at 23.81*. - M.: JSC "VSC", 2008. - Pp. 43-44]. It is obvious that the diagonal pivot of the square tubular sections, transforming them in a rhombic configuration, accompanied by increased stiffness of the non-faceted nodes, and this happens for two reasons. The first reason is the increase in the height of the cross section of the beam elements. The second reason is the direct coupling of the walls and edges between them are the core elements of the lattice with the same walls and edges between belt elements. In addition, through cuts V-shaped at the junction of the braces to belts, repeats the geometry of these junctions, require to observe the improved accuracy of manufacture and Assembly, which increases the complexity of the designs.

The closest technical solution to the proposed supporting structure with the lattice oval pipe is a metal structure with the lattice of closed rhombic bend�weld profiles. Design includes belt tubular rectangular (including square) cross-section and is rigidly attached to the bars, made with the flattened ends of the curved elements of the V - or W-shaped (zigzag) shape. Core grid elements have a tubular cross section rhombic shape with respect to the diagonals 1/2, where the larger screen is located in the plane of the structure, and lower out-of-plane [A. Marutyan, S. I. ECB Metal construction with a lattice of rhombic closed gotowanych profiles. Patent No. 2500863, 10.12.2013, bull. No. 34].

This technical solution, the inherent disadvantage of the known tubular trusses from rectangular, square, pentagonal, pentagonal, rhombic profile, reduce the resource bearing capacity of the structure and increases its consumption of materials due to the angularity of the listed forms of cross sections involving high stress concentration.

The technical result of the proposed solutions is to increase the bearing capacity of the structure with the reduction of its structural material.

Said technical result is achieved in that the supporting structure including belts and rigidly attached to the bars, made with the flattened ends of the curved elements zigzag shape, rod-like elements R�lattice have an oval cross-section with the ratio of size 1/2,5, where greater clearance is located in the plane of the structure, and less from the plane.

The proposed supporting structure of the upper and lower belts, as well as triangular or diagonal bars between them are made of tubular profiles. For immediate contiguity to the zones with the formation of non-faceted oval pipe nodes of the lattice in specified project areas tapers and double bends give it a zigzag shape. The length of the strip (tape) billet oval profile, you can choose based on the entire length of a structure and its postal stamps. Flattening and double bends oval profile provide non-faceted layout of joints without structural eccentricities characteristic of tubular trusses from a rectangular (or square) gotowanych profiles, which eliminates the occurrence of bending moments and positively affects the consumption of structural material. Flattening protects the wall of the ring elements from the thrust and reduces its thickness. Along the lines of the oval bends of the profile in the plane of the structure formed of sheet joints, which correspond to the hinge-rod design scheme (s) and eliminate the need to take into account the stiffness of the nodes, which also contributes to the decrease of metal. From the plane of the same design zag�be tapered sections of oval profile have the greatest stiffness, approximating the stiffness of the mounting frame, which in the supporting structures can be shortened and braced elements, as is done, for example, in the constructions of coverings of the type "Tagil" [Metal structures. In 3 V. V. 2. Steel frame buildings and structures. (Designer's manual). / Under the editorship of V. V. Kuznetsov (Tsniiproekstalkonstruktsiya them. N. P. Melnikov). - M.: Publishing house of the DIA, 1998. - Pp. 235-236]. When the hinge pins in the plane of the structure and rigid (frame) from the plane of the calculated length of the truss elements of the lattice in the plane design is two times more than the estimated length of the plane [Metal structures. 3 T. T. 1. Elements of structures: a Textbook for high schools. / Under the editorship of V. V. Gorev. - M.: Higher school, 2004. - P. 332, Fig. 6.11]. On this basis, the core elements of the lattice in-plane and out-plane design had the same flexibility, suitable such cross-sectional profile, in which the radii of inertia along the principal Central axes differ in two times. This condition corresponds to a thin-walled tubular cross-section of oval shape with respect to size 1/2,5 where greater clearance is located in the plane of the structure, and the smaller of the plane. Moreover, the value of the radius of gyration larger envelope exceeds the sum of the radius of gyration is similar to a round profile that Oprah�specific way contributes to the further reduction of the material of load-bearing structures. In addition, the oval profile of the proposed supporting structure with respect to size 1/2,5 differ from oval pipes according to GOST R 54157-2010 [GOST R 54157-2010. Shaped steel tubes for structural steelwork. Specifications - M: standartenfuhrer, 2011. - S. 55-61]. They are also distinguished from the other known technical solutions, whereby to increase the carrying capacity of a cylindrical pipe on a bend it is crimped by deforming into an oval profile with respect to the dimensions 1/3 [1. Nezhdanov K. K., Kuzmeski A. A., Ruble, S. G. New effective profiles. - Izvestiya vuzov. Construction, 2005, No. 10. - Pp. 117-120; 2. Nezhdanov K. K., V. A. Tumanov, Nezhdanov A. K., Ruble, S. G. Method of increasing the bearing capacity of cylindrical pipe bending. Patent No. 2304479, 20.08.2007, bull. No. 23].

The proposed technical solution is illustrated graphic material, where Fig. 1 shows a portion of the supporting structure with the lattice oval pipe; Fig. 2 is a cross section of the supporting structure; Fig. 3 shows the block diagram of the cross section of the oval tube; Fig. 4 - General view of the oval profiles.

The proposed technical solution supporting structure includes upper (compressed) zone 1, the bottom (stretched) belt 2, and the connecting bars 3 zigzag shape from oval tube. The oval cross section of the pipe is picked up with respect to dim�tov 1/2,5, where greater clearance is located in the plane of the structure, and the smaller of the plane. In places provided for the project under the non-faceted hub connection zones with the lattice, the oval profile of lattice elements tapers with the formation of the grounds, is necessary and sufficient for easy placement, alignment and secure fastening of all converging at each node of elements (including details of false ceilings, suspended cranes, utilities, process equipment, etc.). The oval profile of the truss elements of the lattice after the flattening in the right places double bends attach zigzag shape.

The formation of the transitional and tapered portions of the rod elements of the tubular section of the grating is recommended with the provision of the sloped transition piece 1/6 1/4...[1. Trofimov, V. I., A. M. Kaminsky Light metal structures of buildings and structures: textbook. - M.: Publishing house of the DIA, 2002. - P. 152; 2. J. A. Packer, J. Wardenier, X.-L. Zhao, G. J. van der Vegte and Y. Kurobane. Construction with hollow steel sections. Design Guide for rectangular hollow section (RHS) joints under predominantly static loading. CIDECT, 2009. - P. 102]. Along the lines of the double bends are formed of leaf hinges, the distance between which you can pick up from the condition of absolute non-faceted alignment of the nodes of the supporting structure (farm), with a triangular lattice and diagonal. Between these hinges Splus�nny oval profile plot grid shelf supports ring element, at the same time providing the necessary and sufficient weld placement. The latter should be calculated only on the difference of effort in the adjacent rods, and they can be made in the most convenient (down) position.

To output these relations and quantitative resource assessment of bearing capacity, it is advisable to use a calculation formula of the axial moments of inertia (I0Xand I0Yand cross-sectional area A0oval tubular profile [Guide designer industrial, residential and public buildings and structures. Computational and theoretical. Is 2 kN. KN. 1. Ed. by A. A. Uman. - M.: Stroiizdat, Moscow (1972). - S. 364]:

I0X=(π/32)b2t(3a+b);

I0Y=(π/32)a2t(3b+a);

A0=(π/2)t(a+b),

whereand- smaller cross-sectional dimensions of the oval pipe;

b - larger cross-sectional dimensions of the oval pipe;

t - wall thickness oval pipe.

To the radii of inertia along the principal Central axes differed between each other twice (i0X=2i0Y) corresponding to the moments of inertia must differ by four times, i.e., I0X=4I0Y.

If we substitute the values of moments of inertia, the relationship of smaller size to a larger (n=a/b) can be obtained cubic equation

4n3+12n2-3n-1=0

with roots

n1=-3,209416; n 2=-0,193385; n3=0,402801.

From these roots is of practical interest to the latter, the value of which 100(0,402801-0,4)/(0,402801...0,4)=0,695...0,700-protsentnoy error can be rounded to n3=0,4=1/2,5, thereby obtaining a given ratio.

Further the calculated results more visible when using a tubular profile of circular cross-section [Handbook on strength of materials. / ANS. edited by G. S. Pisarenko - Kiev: Nauk. Dumka, 1988. - P. 60-61]:

d=a=b(n=1);

AO=πdt=3,14 dt;

IOX=IOY=πd3t/8=0,3925 d3t;

iOX=iOY=0,3536 d,

where d is the diameter of a round pipe.

The length of the oval L can be calculated by the formula [Korn G., Korn T., Properties of circles, ellipses, hyperbolas and parabolas. / The Handbook of mathematics. - M.: Nauka, 1978. - S. 70-73]:

L=π(3(a+b)-((3a+b)(a+3b))1/2)=3,14(3(a+b)-((3a+b)(a+3b))1/2).

When n=0,4 (a=0,4 b or 2,5a=(b) L=11,50aor L=4,60 b, and for n=1 (d=(a=b) L=2πd=6,28 (d, thena=0,5461 d and b=1,356 d.

Thus, for oval pipe with respect to the dimensions of its cross section 0,5461/1,365=1/2,5 can be written:

I0X=(π/32)b2t(3a+b)=(3,14/32)(1,356 (d)2t(3·0,5461 d+1,365 (d)=0,5491 d3t;

I0Y=(π/32)a2t(3b+and)=(3,14/32)(0,5461 d)2t(3·1,365 d+0,5461 d)=0,13582 d3t;

A0=(π/2)t(a+b)=(3,14/2)t(0,5461 d+1,365 (d)=3,000427 dt,

i0X=0,4278 d;

i0Y=0,2128 d,

where

I0X/I0Y=0,5491/0,13582=4,249≈4, with error 0,619...0,623%;

i0X/i0Y=0,4278/0,2128=2,0103≈2, with error 0,512...0,515%,

where the inaccuracy of calculating the area of cross-sections oval and round pipe of the same conditional slab amounted to A0/AO=3,000427/3,14=0,956, and the radius of gyration in the plane of the supporting structure has increased in the i0X/iOX=0,4278/0,3536=1.21 times.

If you enter the parameters of tonkostennoy round tubes t/d=1/100 1/10..., the ratio of calculated values of space sections and the increase of the radius of gyration should be modified accordingly to these parameters, i.e.

A0/AO=0,956(1/(1-(1/100...1/10)))=0,966...1,062;

i0X/iOX=1,21(1/(1-(1/100...1/10)))=1,222...1,344.

Thus, the resource carrying capacity (sustainability) of the truss elements of the lattice of oval pipe ceteris paribus increases of at least 1.2...1.3 times.

The correctness of the calculation of the provisions is confirmed by the example using round tubes of the beam elements from the range of structural systems in architecture "Kislovodsk" [Studs and hub system elements MARCHI / TU 5285-001-47543297-09. - M., 2009]. Settings 11 calibers tubular sections (round and derived oval), collected in table 1 clearly illustrate the applicability and usability of all of the calculations.

For comparison of the proposed (new) technical solutions with known as the base object� taken three variants of steel truss industrial building with a span of 18 m from closed gotowanych profiles.

1. Rafter farm gotowanych profiles of rectangular (square) cross section [Kuzin N. I. Design and calculation of steel trusses coatings industrial buildings: a tutorial. - M.: Publishing house of the DIA, 1998. - S. 157-172].

2. Farm with orthorhombic lattice of pipes [Marutyan A. C, S. I. ECB Metal construction with a lattice of rhombic closed gotowanych profiles. Patent No. 2500863, 10.12.2013; bul. No. 34].

3. Farm with a lattice of round tubes.

The material consumption of the compared variants are shown in table 2, which shows that the new decision it has the minimum value.

Thus, the proposed technical solution allows depending on certain design decisions in the selection of the relationship of the dimensions of the oval cross section of the pipes and the location of these dimensions in the axial plane structures (farm) to regulate the stress-strain state of the structure. Such regulation ensures optimization of physico-mechanical properties and techno-economic characteristics of load-bearing structures of buildings and structures. This allows you as a source of blanks for oval profiles to apply the corresponding in caliber round pipe, which can lead to additional positive effect. As factory compounds such preparations is quite applicable welded with�ice with longitudinal slits [Marutyan S. A., Kobalia T. L., Pavlenko, Y. I. Welded butt joint of tubular rods. Patent No. 2429329, 20.09.2011, bull. No. 26], which are easier to place in areas free from the flattening.

The supporting structure with the lattice oval pipe, including belt and rigidly attached to the bars, made with the flattened ends of the curved elements zigzag shape, characterized in that the core elements of the lattice are oval in cross-section with the ratio of size 1/2,5 where greater clearance is located in the plane of the structure, and the smaller of the plane.



 

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