Crushing of refrigerators
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to crushing of refrigerators. Refrigerators 12 are loaded into grinding chamber 16 via loading opening 14 and continuously crushed. Crushed material 24 is discharged via unloading opening 26. At grinding process gases originate to contaminate the chamber air. Grinding chamber is purged with air contained therein. For this, preset air volume L1 is forced per unit time via gas line 32 into gas processing device 34. Air volume L4 equal to volume L1 is continuously forced via loading opening 14 into grinding chamber 16. Sid gas line 32 is aligned with discharge opening 26 and gas processing device 34 and coupled therewith. Pressure of preset air volume L1 in grinding chamber 16 and gas lines 30, 40 connected therewith is kept lower than ambient pressure.
EFFECT: nonpolluting process of crushing of refrigerators.
10 cl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to a method of grinding refrigeration apparatus.
Process gases released during the grinding of the refrigeration apparatus, such as refrigeration cabinets, chests, etc., represent an important boundary condition of the method of grinding.
First of foaming of the insulating foam in the walls of the refrigerating apparatus used perchloroethene (FCKW), which is known to destroy the ozone layer. Therefore, the release of free cooling during grinding machines must not be allowed. Consequently, the refrigeration unit must be crushed in closed devices. Later FCKW was replaced by harmless hydrocarbons, such as cyclopentane, isobutane, etc. To simplify terminology, the invention is explained below on the example cyclopentane, briefly called pentane.
However, these hydrocarbons are in most cases the disadvantage that above a given concentration in the air are potentially explosive. So, pentane explosive in concentrations above 40 g per 1 m3air. Because as a refrigeration unit older models with FCKW and newer models with pentane for economic reasons it is necessary to grind in the same device, danger of explosion, accompanying the concentration of pentane in a confined space is a problem.
Method and�of melcene refrigeration apparatus in accordance with the restrictive part p. 1 formula known from DE 3911596 A1.
In another known method applies a periodic process. The specified number of refrigeration apparatus is loaded into the grinding chamber. It then closes to prevent the escape of the released during the grinding of refrigerating machines older models-free process gas. Further grinding chamber is purged with nitrogen to eliminate the risk of explosion process gas pentane released during the grinding of refrigeration newer models. After that, the chopper is switched on for a predetermined length of time for grinding refrigeration apparatus to the extent necessary. Finally, the fragmented mass refrigeration apparatus is discharged from the milling chamber, and the process could start again with a new batch of refrigeration.
The disadvantage of this periodic method of grinding with nitrogen inerting in that it requires high production costs. The reasons for this are, first, the periodic mode of operation, and, secondly, the costs of the preparation necessary for passivation of nitrogen.
From DE 10228471 A1 known chopper periodic action, and the conditions of flow and pressure in the grinding chamber is mounted so that it prevents the suction of air into it.
In DE 10105995 A1 �of escrit method of continuous grinding refrigeration apparatus, in which is contained inside the chopper foaming gas can be sucked via the air duct in the collector.
In EP 0442113 A2 discloses a method and a device for grinding the refrigeration apparatus, and the grinding chamber of the grinder is not blown separately the air, and the chopper is located in a hermetically closed shop.
In DE 3915400 A1 discloses a method and apparatus for recycling contaminated foam FCKW, and the shredder is sealed via two gateways, so there may be a continuous supply and removal of air.
The object of the invention is the creation of cost-effective and environmentally friendly method of grinding refrigeration apparatus.
This problem is solved according to the invention by means of a method of grinding a refrigeration apparatus in which they are loaded into the grinding chamber through the feed opening therein, a continuously milled in the milling chamber, and the shredded material refrigeration apparatus is discharged from the milling chamber through the discharge hole, the grinding chamber is blown by the air due to the fact that from the existing contaminated arise during the grinding of refrigeration process gas of air per unit time by being in gotaplatsen connection with the discharge� hole and gas processing plant device azonaphthalene pipeline to the gas processing plant device is fed a predetermined volume, and through the loading hole in a milling chamber volume of air is supplied corresponding to the given volume, wherein the method is characterized in that corresponding to the given volume volume of air is continuously fed into the grinding chamber through the feed opening, a predetermined volume of air is set so that, despite a continuous supply of air through the inlet opening, prevailing in the grinding chamber, which is connected gutenprintui the pipeline pressure is maintained at a value below the ambient pressure.
Due to the fact that prevailing in the grinding chamber, which is connected gutenprintui the pipeline pressure is maintained at a value below the ambient pressure, it is possible to further reduce the risk of an uncontrolled discharge from the grinding chamber, which is connected gutenprintui pipelines occur when grinding refrigeration process gases, in particular FKCW and pentane. For further account of this measure is possible through existing leak from the milling chamber and gutenprintui pipelines can not enter the contaminated process gas air. On the contrary, through these air leaks can be absorbed from the external surrounding space will shred in�optimum camera. This is also true due to system leaks, such as adjacent to the discharge hole to the discharge of the ground material refrigeration apparatus. Here, however, used sluice system, for example a rotary drum-type shutter, but they are never fully sealed, and always lead to the ingress of air that cannot be prevented. However, penetrating through it in unit time the volume of air compared to the volume coming through the feed opening to purge shredding chamber, it is possible to neglect in connection with the explanation of the basic principle of the invention, this volume can be considered as leakage.
In this regard, it should be noted, however, that the conditions of pressure in the grinding chamber, which is connected gutenprintui pipelines because of the grinding process are not homogeneous. Therefore, the above condition of rarefaction refers to the volume average of the milling chamber to the pressure value.
A significant advantage of the proposed method that avoids the process gas coming from pentane explosion hazard not necessary to inarticulate prevailing in the grinding chamber to the atmosphere, and you can also blow through the grinding chamber in conventional air. As the necessary Koli�the Swedish air easily can be absorbed through the loading hole of the shredding chamber, the method is also not required in periodic mode, and it can be carried out continuously. First, no requirement training special inertising gas, for example nitrogen, and, secondly, the implementation of the method in a continuous mode boost efficiency and thus profitability.
In the proposed improvement of the invention that are just emerging from the discharge openings of the air volume in the gas processing plant device serves only its specified percentage, while the rest of the air discharged through the outlet of the grinding chamber and polluted arising during grinding refrigeration process gas, is returned to the grinding chamber for further azonaphthalene pipeline in gotaplatsen connection with unloading and loading holes.
The return air has the following advantage. There are grinders, such as rotary shredders company BHS, acting through its design as a blower which sucks air through the inlet opening and again expels it through the outlet. Design and operation of the rotary shredder company BHS described for example in WO 2004/024331 A1. As will be shown in the example explained below, the resulting �effektom blower air flow above, than the volume of air that is necessary to apply per unit time in a gas processing plant the device, the concentration of pentane in the grinding chamber does not exceed the critical explosion value. Therefore, the presence of the return duct has the advantage that the excess volume of air can create a supervised mode of the stream.
So you can remove the dust discharged from the milling chamber, the crushed material of the refrigeration apparatus and/or at least to reduce the risk of a possible explosion of dust in the grinding chamber, it is proposed to apply at least a portion emerging from the discharge openings of the air volume, mainly just coming out of the discharge openings of the volume of air to the dust filter.
Later in gotaplatsen the pipeline, which at least partially directs emerging from the discharge openings of the air volume can be mounted blower. Through this kind of blower can be compensated, for example, formed over the dust collecting filter pressure drop. However, you can also use the blower only to regulate the return air quantity. Blower and/or the dust filter can be installed, for example, in the return pipeline.
For further �improving operational reliability is proposed to control the concentration of process gases in the grinding chamber. Thus when the concentration of process gases in the grinding chamber exceeds a given limit value, it is possible to reduce the number of refrigeration devices that are loaded in it per unit time.
In principle, it is possible to to purge shredding chamber was absorbed exclusively fresh air from the surrounding space. However, since the apparatus for crushing of refrigeration units usually there are other places where it is necessary to prevent the release of process gas in the surrounding air, in the improvement of the invention proposed that fed into the grinding chamber for purging quantity of air is absorbed at least partially in these places and fed into the grinding chamber.
As mentioned above, for the continuous grinding of the refrigeration apparatus can be used, for example, rotary shredder company BHS. In General, for continuous size reduction of the refrigeration apparatus are particularly well-suited shock shredders. They are usually operated with a high rotational speed to a grinding elements in contact with a refrigerated Cabinet or its fragment had sufficient scope for his grinding. Due to the high speeds these impact crushers produce a large flow of air from the loading port to the RA�bootable. The rotary shredder company BHS this air flow occurs, for example, due to the fact that the air under the action of centrifugal force together with the crushed mass of the refrigeration apparatus is displaced radially outward through the peripheral wall of the grinding chamber lattice and flows down from there to the outlet.
As it is customary also in the proposed method can remove the specified components of the refrigeration apparatus, before the last will be loaded through the loading opening into the grinding chamber. The specified components can be, for example, glass, mercury switches, capacitors, cables, refrigerant and oil, compressors and the door seals.
It should be added that gas processing plant device can be, for example, an incinerator, and released during combustion thermal energy can be used, for example, to generate current, heat for district heating systems, etc. However, alternatively also possible to chemically decompose the process gas in a gas processing plant device.
The invention is explained in more detail below on the example of its implementation with reference to the sole Fig.1, which roughly schematically shows the design of the device for the grinding of refrigeration apt�ratov.
Device for the continuous grinding of the refrigeration apparatus 12 is designated POS. 10. At the station prior disassembly (not shown) of the refrigeration apparatus are exempt from specific components, for example glass, mercury switches, capacitors, cables, oil and refrigerant, compressors and seals of the doors before they get through the loading hole 14 are loaded into the grinding chamber 16 of the shredder 18.
The chopper 18 can be impact crusher, such as rotary shredder company BHS described in WO 2004/024331 A1. This shredder 18 comprises a vertical, driven shaft 18a, which from all sides movably connected several grinding elements 18b. The peripheral wall of the grinding chamber 16, at least partially implemented in the form of a lattice 20. In the grinding chamber 16 and the grinding elements 18b affect the refrigeration apparatus 12 or fragments thereof 22 as long as their ground material 24 will not reach a size at which it will pass through the grate 20 and fall to the outlet 26.
When chopping, the refrigeration apparatus 12, in particular of the insulating foams of their side walls, inevitable process gases are released. This of particular importance are used in refrigeration machines older models perchloromethane� (FKCW) and used in refrigeration devices newer models as replacements pentane. Because of its ecologicaly FKCW should not uncontrollably released into the environment. In addition, you should ensure that the concentration of pentane in the grinding chamber 16 is not increased so much that could cause explosions. Risk of explosion of pentane-air mixture occurs, starting with concentrations of 40 g of pentane for 1 m3air.
To prevent the uncontrolled release of FKCW, the shredder 10 is closed on the output side. In particular, issue 28, through which the shredded material 24 leaves the shredder 10 configured with rotary device 30, for example a rotary valve drum. To prevent too strong a concentration of pentane in the grinding chamber 16, connected through the discharge mouth 26 gutenprintui tubing 32 of the grinding chamber 16 to the gas processing plant device 34 (not shown) per unit time is a predetermined volume of contaminated process gas air. Consumption of L1air through the conduit 32 may be, for example, 5000 m3/h, i.e. significantly greater than 1 m3/C. the flow Value L1air can be adjusted, for example by means of a blower or, as is schematically shown, by means of the limiter 36 of the flow.
In this example, in which the grinding chamber has a volume of about 20 m3n�ions concentration of pentane in pentane-air mixture may be maintained at the expense of suction quantity L 1air below a predetermined limit value, for example below 10 g/m3, i.e. approximately 25% of critical for the explosion.
Mentioned limit value is observed even in the case, assuming that the grinding chamber 16 is loaded solely refrigeration apparatus 12 with pentane, i.e. in the grinding chamber 16 min uploaded one of the refrigeration apparatus with the amount of 250 g of pentane, which is fully released it, and it's within the first 10-15 seconds of grinding. If we imagine that a significant proportion of pentane remain bound in an insulating material and is removed from it only in the later stages, when you also consider that not everyone is loaded into the grinding chamber 16 of the refrigeration apparatus 12 includes pentane, it is easy to see that in a minute, you can also grind more than one refrigeration unit 12.
In practice, for example, registered by the sensor 38, the value of the concentration of pentane can be fed to the control unit (not shown) which controls the speed of movement of the conveyor to load the refrigeration apparatus 12 in the grinding chamber 16. If the value of the concentration of pentane increases, then the control unit may reduce the speed and thus the number loaded per time unit of the refrigeration apparatus. If the value of conc�AI pentane decreases, the control unit can increase the speed and thus the number loaded per time unit of the refrigeration apparatus.
As already mentioned, Schroeder 18 acts as a blower which sucks air through the inlet opening 14 and again expels it through the discharge opening 26. In this example, the flow rate of L2air may be about 24000 m3/h, i.e. about 5 times the flow rate of air that needs to otkazyvatsa from shredding chamber 16 to maintain the concentration of pentane in pentane-air mixture in it at a safe value.
To ensure streamlined the airflow in the shredder 10 can, for different values of cost L1, L2air is primarily to provide return line 40, which returns forced out of the discharge aperture 26 excess air L3again to the loading hole 14.
As already mentioned, the air outlet of the shredder 10 by conduit 32 may be, for example, 5000 m3/h This amount of air, with the exception of leakage, can be absorbed solely through the loading hole 14 (L4=L1). In particular, the number of L5of air that can enter the shredder 10 via the gateway device 30, much less than this value and under the belt�in termination of the invention may be considered as leakage.
Regarding the fact that the intake air flow L4is about 5000 m3/h, it is easy to see that the download does not require any gateway device, and it is enough to choose as small as possible cross-section of the inlet 46 with regard to the size of the largest crushed refrigeration apparatus 12. In addition, at least a portion of the intake air flow L4can be fed from the ground (not shown) of the entire installation, where there is also a risk of the release process gas, for example from the device, in which powdered insulating foams are compressed with contained therein a blowing gas to obtain pellets and the foaming gas is displaced from the pores of the foam.
So you can remove the dust discharged from the grinding chamber 16 of the material of the refrigeration apparatus and/or reduce the concentration of dust circulating in the return duct 40, the air and thereby reduce the risk of dust explosion from the return pipe 40, preferably before the branch leading to the gas processing plant device 34 of the conduit 32 may be located the dust filter 42. If the pressure drop over them is too great, then the return conduit 40 may be optionally provided by the blower 44.
It should be added that in �zmelchitelnogo the camera 16 may be a pressure sensor 50, by a suitable control, for example by means of a blower 44 and/or limiter 36 of the flow, it was possible to ensure that prevailing in the grinding chamber pressure is below the pressure in the surrounding shredder 10 space.
In conclusion, it should be noted that the proposed concept is not tied to the use of high-speed grinders such as drums, and can also be used in combination with a slow-acting shredders, such as cutting.
1. The method of grinding the refrigeration apparatus (12), wherein the refrigeration apparatus (12) is loaded into the grinding chamber (16) via its inlet opening (14), continuously crushed them into the grinding chamber (16), and the ground material (24) of the refrigeration apparatus is discharged from the grinding chamber (16) through its discharge opening (26), grinding chamber (16) purged due to the fact that from the existing contaminated arise during the grinding of the refrigeration apparatus (12) process gas of air per unit time by being in gotaplatsen conjunction with a discharge orifice (26) and a gas processing plant device (34) azonaphthalene conduit (32) to the gas processing plant device (34) is fed a predetermined volume (L1), and through the inlet opening (14) in grinding �the Amer (16) serves volume (L 4the air that equals the given volume (L1), characterized in that corresponding to the given volume (L1) volume (L4air continuously served in the grinding chamber (16) through the loading opening (14), wherein a predetermined volume (L1air is set so that, despite a continuous supply of air through the inlet opening (14), prevailing in the grinding chamber (16) which is connected gutenprintui pipelines (32, 40) the pressure is maintained at a value below the ambient pressure.
2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that from just coming out of the discharge openings (26) volume (L2) air in gas processing plant device (34) serves only a given proportion, while the rest of the air discharged through the outlet (26) of the grinding chamber (16) and polluted arising during the grinding of the refrigeration apparatus (12) process gas is recycled into the grinding chamber (16) for additional azonaphthalene conduit (40) located in gotaplatsen connection with discharge and filling openings (26, 14).
3. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that at least a portion emerging from the discharge openings (26) volume (L2air, preferably the entire effluent from the discharge hole�Tiya (26) volume (L 2air serves to dry dust collection filter (42).
4. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that in gotaplatsen the pipeline (40) that at least partially directs emerging from the discharge openings (26) volume (L2air blower installed (44).
5. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the control of the concentration of process gases in the grinding chamber (16).
6. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that when the concentration of process gases in the grinding chamber (16) exceeds a given limit value, reduce the number of refrigeration apparatus (12) uploaded to it per unit time.
7. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the feed through the feed opening (14) in the grinding chamber (16) number (L4) of the air supplied at least partially from the places of installation for grinding, which is also released from the process gas.
8. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that for the continuous grinding of the refrigeration apparatus (12) using impact crusher (18), preferably a rotary shredder.
9. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the refrigeration apparatus (12) remove the specified components before refrigerating apparatus (12) are loaded through the loading opening (14) in the grinding chamber (16).
10. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that z�this volume (L 1) is mounted so that the concentration in the grinding chamber reaches and/or exceeds the critical explosion limits.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing of electrochemical cells and storage batteries. Proposed method comprises mincing of storage battery, removal of case materials, suspending of produced battery suspension in water in foam flotation tank. Foam flotation agent is added to said suspension to bubble said tank by air to produce foam. This allows hydrophobic materials to be trapped by air bubbles and trapped materials to afloat with said trapped materials. Compounds Pb (IV) are separated from compounds Pb (II) in battery suspension in foam flotation tank. Method of separation of materials in wastes of lead-acid batteries comprises extraction of pasted from used battery, suspending of extracted paste in water, addition of foam flotation agent to said suspension including paste and water, bubbling of said tank by gas to get the foam, separation of (PbO2) from other lead-bearing compounds of suspension is said tank.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of separation.
14 cl, 6 tbl, 10 ex
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: for solid wastes thermal neutralisation the solid wastes are loaded in drum drier, solid wastes are dried in the drum dryer, the solid wastes are moved from the drum dryer in the drum furnace, they are baked in the drum furnace, gases generated during neutralisation are exhausted, the neutralised solid wastes are unloaded from the drum dryer and drum furnace. The solid wastes are dried and baked by means of heat transfer to them from casings of the drum dryer and drum furnace, respectively. At that the casings are heated in the external heating chambers surrounding the casing of the drum dryer and drum furnace from outside. The suggested device of thermal neutralisation of the solid wastes contains the drum dryer and drum furnace connected by means of the transportation device, each of them has casing and is equipped with the loading chamber, unloading chamber and gas duct to exhaust gases generated during neutralisation. The device is additionally equipped with the external heating chambers surrounding the casing of the drum dryer and drum furnace from outside with possibility of heat exchange.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of neutralisation, reduced quantity of caught sludges or dust in gas cleaning system generated during dust removal of the neutralised gases, reduced power and material consumptions for neutralisation, and overall dimensions and weight of equipment installed in gas cleaning system.
8 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises grinding slaughter tankage, rotary subsurface mechanical treatment using the ripper with cutters on a horizontal shaft 5 and its mechanical drive in the form of a rotary milling chisel plough 6, the distribution of pulp from slaughter tankage and water in the soil in the process of its rotary subsurface loosening. For disposal of slaughter tankage, it is ground to a particle size of 2-5 mm, mixed with water or water containing disinfectant, in the ratio of 1:3-1:5. Then the formed pulp is applied in the soil to a depth of 30-80 cm. The soil is ground to a particle size of 1-25 mm and mixed with the pulp in a ratio of 1:6-1:20. Then the upper layer of soil is treated on the trace of passing of the rotary milling chisel plough 6 with the disinfectant.
EFFECT: increase in the degree of processing of slaughter tankage, accelerated decomposition of disposed biological material in the soil, improvement of soil fertility.
SUBSTANCE: for collection, temporary storage and recycling, class B medical waste are collected at sites of waste production into a storage container and transported to a recycling site. The waste is collected in a storage bin and conveyed to a waste combustor. In the storage container, the waste is cooled down and exposed to ultraviolet light. After the transportation the waste is reduced in size, whereas the reduced waste is conveyed into the storage bin and combustor in air flow.
EFFECT: higher ecological compatibility and economical efficiency of the waste recycling process.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ecology. For disposal of metallurgical wastes including heavy metals, slime is carried and sorted out with separation of uncomposted fractions and biochemical enrichment of residual fraction to get biomineral fertiliser. Slime solid fractions are minced by dispersion in fluid to get the pulp to be subjected to ultrasound processing for at least 3 hours at 20-30°C and, additionally, biochemically processed organic mass is added thereto. For compost fermentation, air heated to 35°C to 45°C is fed. Formed sediment with radio nuclides and heavy metals are separated, dewatered and directed for further processing or burial.
EFFECT: simplified process.
2 cl, 9 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: proposed insulating material comprises clay, calcitic material, oil sludge, and drill cuttings with the following component content, parts by weight: clay 1.0; calcitic material 0.5-5.0; drill cuttings 0.5-3.0; oil sludge 0.5-7.0.
EFFECT: reduction of consumption of natural clays, reduction of wastes of production in construction of motor roads and solid domestic waste landfills, improves the quality of final product.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 8 tbl
SUBSTANCE: collection and high-temperature disinfection of medical waste at source is ensured by dividing into three A, B, C streams in each section of healthcare facility; the medical waste is collected into disposable waste collectors, which are placed on vertical trolleys; the collected waste in the hermetically sealed collectors is transported to a point of high-temperature disinfection and destruction. The above procedures of disinfection and destruction of the medical waste are performed in a disinfection and destruction device at a temperature not less than 180°C for 15-60 min. The procedures of disinfection and destruction are controlled according to a heat indication label marked on the collector. The processed waste is placed into case-to-case containers to be transported to a residential solid waste ground.
EFFECT: higher safety of medical waste transportation to the residential solid waste ground.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for processing combustible carbon- and/or hydrocarbon-containing products involves sequential layered furnace-charge processing in a reactor in the presence of a catalyst. In the reactor, the furnace charge drives top down through heating zones of refinement (9), pyrolysis (8), carbonisation (7), burning (6) products to generate a solid residue unloaded from a solid residue unload zone (2) with an unload window (3) from a working chamber of the reactor in cycles paying attention to keep it sealed. The sealed working chamber (1) of the reactor comprises a supply zone of wet fine particles of waste solid fuel including pyrolysis and carbonisation (14) integrated with oxygen agent supply (4) and heating (5) zones. An oxygen agent supply channel (15) is coupled with a dosage tank (16) of wet fine particles of waste solid fuel, which are used to generate a fluid flow in the zone (14) of the reactor. An additional amount of the oxygen agent is additionally supply into the reactor as a part of the basic flow; the amount is expected to be adequate to make fine particles of waste solid fuel burn in the following after the pyrolysis (8) and carbonisation (7) zones and transform their moisture into overheated vapour.
EFFECT: inventions provide the complete recycling of fine fractions of processing products, enable producing high-calorie gas and increasing yield and quality of the finished products.
6 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: method of flash-pyrolysis of hydrocarbon materials using induction heating involves introduction of hydrocarbon materials into cylindrical reactor, located in electromagnetic field of inductor connected to balanced output generator, flash-pyrolysis of hydrocarbon materials during its movement along reactor housing using screw conveyor under impact of heat emitted by reactor housing, separation and collection of liquid, gaseous and solid products of pyrolysis. The device includes a loading unit, cylindrical pyrolised reactor with screw conveyor located inside coil inductor coils, units of separation, cooling and collection of pyrolysis products. Loading unit is designed with possibility of its connection to pyrolised reactor in alignment with or perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of reactor, housing of pyrolised reactor is made conductive with Curie-point above 450°C. As an inductor there used is a zoned inductor, and dimensions of reactor housing and screw conveyor is selected to perform the following ratios: K1=(D-d)/2=(0.5÷2) mm; K2=h/L=0.1÷0.2; K3=L/d=2.4÷0.8, where D is the internal diameter of reactor, d is the diameter of screw, h is the height of cam screw, L is the pitch of screw.
EFFECT: minimising energy consumption during treatment of low-value natural and human-made refuse.
9 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: oily wastes are premised at heating up to 60-70°C during 5-10 minutes with wastes of oil and fat production with the ratio of 1:(0.05-0.2). The neutralising compound is obtained by mixing of unhydrated lime and waste sorbent ODM-2F with introduction of designed quantity of water to the compound. The neutralising compound is introduced by mixing and by portions in to the mixture of disposed wastes with the ratio of 1:(0.67-1,14).
EFFECT: improved hydrophobic property of the disposed product and reduced concentration of harmful substances in aqueous extract of the disposed product.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 7 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dressing of minerals, particularly, to self-grinding of kimberlites. Proposed method comprises selective grinding of kimberlites by drum mill spinning about horizontal axis. Grinding is executed with ore loading under water conditions. Drum mill rpm is selected from the relationship 0.635ncr<n”опт”<0.655ncr, where
EFFECT: reduced impact loads destructing the diamond crystals.
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the food industry field. One proposes a UHF bakery yeast activator. The UHF bakery yeast activator contains an operation cylinder of non-ferromagnetic material; a screw of non-ferromagnetic material is positioned inside the cylinder along the central axis. The screw shaft rests on the retaining unit and is actuated by means of a motor-reducer. A UHF generator block is mounted on the operation cylinder surface so that a magnetron is attached to the hole of the operation cylinder surface. The cylinder operation zone and the screw coils form UHF generator resonating chambers; the chambers quantity depends on the screw coils pitch. The screw coil diameter is different from the operation cylinder inner diameter by no more than a quarter of the electromagnetic radiation wave length. The discharge nipple and the retaining unit with a pressure-exerting device ensure screening.
EFFECT: proposed invention ensures fermentation process acceleration.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: rotary swirling pulverising mill is intended for pulverising of hard material to preset dispersity. Its can be used in food and chemical industry, etc. Mill comprises vortex grinding chamber with cooling water jacket and shaped side surface. The latter has grooves shaped to rectangular trapezoid, with blind bottom and classifying cover. Coaxial swirling chamber is arranged above grinding chamber and confined from below by sais classifying cover. Two hollow rotors are fitted one into the other and provided with variable-section vanes secured between discs of one rotor. Ring with at least 8 bores arranged tangentially to peripheral circle is fitted in second rotor with blind top and bottom discs. Feed pipe lower edge height relative to rotor bottom disc can be adjusted while second outer rotor OD makes at least 0.71 of vortex chamber ID.
EFFECT: grinding of material highly sensitive to heating, required ground particle size.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: material crushing is performed in a rotary drum partially filled with ferromagnetic grinding bodies. Magnetic force of at least one electromagnet fixed on the drum acts on the grinding bodies, and a magnetic field is formed in the form of separate pulses in the quantity of at least two; besides, the first pulse is divided into a number of shorter pulses. The first pulse characterised by an alternating-sign magnetic field is started to be supplied at an angular position of the electromagnet of -60° to -30°, with a central angle starting from the vector directed from the rotation axis of the housing in a downward vertical direction. The second pulse characterised by a constant magnetic field is started to be supplied at an angular position of the electromagnet of 0° to +30°, and stopped to be supplied at an angular position of the electromagnet of 130° to 165°.
EFFECT: increasing energy efficiency of a crushing process of materials in ball mills.
5 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to grinding-sorting equipment to be used at production of construction materials for application in mining, construction of roads, utility plants at treatment of wastes. Grinder comprises housing and rotor running in top and bottom bearings on common load-bearing shaft. Load-bearing shaft is rigidly fitted by bottom end in the support while top end is secured to the frame. Note here that said rotor is articulated with drive motor shaft bottom end while housing is articulated with its top end.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, lower electric power input.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to grinding of ferromagnetics and can be used in processing of magnetite and sulphide ores containing magnetite, pyrrotine, that is, minerals with high magnetic susceptibility. This method consists in application of at least one electromagnetic system S configured in circuit "electromagnet-diametrically located electromagnet". At use of several electromagnetic systems S (at S>1), these are arranged in helical line with the shift over drum cylindrical surface. Said drum rotates at n=20D-1/2, where n is mill drum rpm, D is drum diameter, m, drum electromagnets excite magnetic pulses there inside. Note here that at displacement of electromagnets from 0° making the origin of angular coordinates at intersection of horizontal diameter left end with the drum to 30-50° to ensure increase in fall speed of ferromagnetic lumps at acceleration a, to be summed with gravity acceleration g. Magnetic pulses in the drum are eliminated in sector from 30-50° to 70-110° to resume the motion of balls and stock grinding by abrasion and crushing. Magnetic pulses are excited in section from 70-110° to 180° to trap ferromagnetic stock to be lifted to 180°. Magnetic pulses in the drum are eliminated in sector from 180-0° to deliver stock by friction and inertia to coordinate 225-226°. Another portion of stock is accelerated by magnetic pulses in sector of electromagnets of 0° to 30-50°, electromagnets being transferred the mill right to left. Horizontal components h of acceleration make ferromagnetic lumps crush the stock at <90° and move over lining of the pole and stock layer formed earlier.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of grinding.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to grinders to be used in construction, mining, food or chemical industry. Proposed mill comprises grinding tube 1 with grinding bodies 2 fitted with the help of resilient elements 3 at fixed bed 4 and equipped with two unbalanced vibration generators 5. Every generator 5 comprises drive shaft 6 with separate rotary drive to vary angular velocity and sign of rotation of shaft 6 and unbalances 8 fitted on drive shaft 6. Note here that said unbalanced vibration generators 5 are fitted diametrically opposite the sidewalls of grinding tube 1 in plane 9 of transverse symmetry of grinding tube 1. Rotational axes of unbalances 8 are located perpendicular to the plane of transverse symmetry of grinding tube 1.
EFFECT: higher grinding efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: method for extracting gold from pyrite concentrate involves crushing of a concentrate and its pulse impact loading for separation of gold from concentrate particles. Crushing and impact loading is combined by performing the movement of the concentrate particles with fineness of 0.5-2.0 mm at the speed of 80-100 m/s with further collision of particles with an obstacle. Obstacle plane is located at the distance of 0.4-0.6 m from the accelerating device perpendicular to particle movement direction.
EFFECT: improving gold extraction from pyrite concentrate.
5 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fine grinding of various materials. In compliance with first version, proposed method comprises grinding the stock, sizing the product and regrinding of underground product. Said underground product is sized to, at least, two size fractions. Fractions are sent back in separate flows. Coarse fraction 11 is carried by mechanical means 13 while fine fraction 12 is transferred by either hydraulic and/or hydropneumatic means 14. In compliance with second version, fine fraction 12 is additionally subjected to dehydration before recycling. Device, in compliance with first version, comprises hydroelectric grinder 3 including discharge grate 4, sorting means and recycling means. Note here that sorting means allow sizing underground product to, at least, two fractions while recycling means allow separate recycling of every fraction. Coarse fraction 11 is carried by mechanical means 13 while fine fraction 12 is transferred by either hydraulic and/or hydropneumatic means 14. In compliance with second version, proposed device comprises dehydration means. In compliance with third version, at least, portion of working electrodes is mounted above grinding chamber bottom solid part.
EFFECT: electric power savings.
11 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises ice mincing at negative temperature. Prior to mincing, hydrophobised nanosilica aerosol is added to ice. Ice mincing is made by whatever suitable mill at the temperature not higher than -10°C. Fractionation of dispersed ice is performed by sieving.
EFFECT: higher rate of dispersion, degassing of minced particles.
FIELD: utilization engineering.
SUBSTANCE: line comprises article receiver for preliminary disintegrating the article and draining acid, mechanism for transporting the disintegrated articles to the grinder made of a transporter with article separators made of a magnetic steel, grinder, and plant for hydrodynamic separation of the fraction of the article to be utilized made of washing chamber with nozzles for supplying washing fluid under pressure, and grate-vibration transporter that is secured to the frame, separates the lead paste from the solid inclusions, and moves the latters. The article receiver is made of a funnel-shaped hopper with converging throat that receives rotating saw disks mounted at a distance one from the other and from the walls of the throat, which is less than the minimum size of the article. The shaft and drive of the disks are mounted outside of the throat. The mechanisms for transporting the articles to the grinder made of a granulator is provided with vibration loader that moves the articles to the transporter and separates the members made of magnetic steels. The plant for the hydrodynamic separation mounted on the frame of the grate is additionally provided with the chute inclined to the side and the table inclined to the top and to the side. The chute and table are interconnected through the common vibration actuator. The table is provided with washing chamber and parallel planks secured longitudinally and defining ducts for transporting heavy fractions for permitting separation of light fractions at the inlet of the ducts with the use of fluid jets from the nozzles to the tank for water separation. The lead is removed at the end of the ducts by means of the vibration transport to the collector of pure metal. The tank is provided with the mechanism for removing floating light fractions to one tank, and the sinking light fractions, to the other.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and improved environmental protection.
3 cl, 5 dwg