SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a fuel emulsion for Diesels based on Diesel fuel with the addition of an alcohol, an emulsifier, a mixture of diethanolamine soaps and oleic acid and water, with the fuel composition additionally containing the lubricating additive DPA-Lubricor with the following component ratio, %: ethanol 5.0-50.0; water 0.5-5.0, alkenylsuccinimide 0.25-1.0; mixture of soaps of diethanolamine and oleic acid 0.2; lubricating additive 0.02; Diesel fuel - to 100.
EFFECT: application of the fuel emulsion makes it possible to reduce the rigidity of the burning process, reduce wear in fuel equipment and cylinder-piston group, and thus increase the Diesel reliability and service term.
2 tbl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to fuels, in particular for fuel emulsions for diesel engines.
Known fuel emulsion diesel fuel containing, %: alcohol 5,0-40,0; water 0,5-5,0; alkenylamine, 0,25-0,5; potassium stearate and 0.25-0.5; diesel fuel - up to 100 .
The disadvantage of this fuel emulsion is the increased rigidity of the combustion process in a diesel engine in production on the emulsion, reduce the reliability and durability of diesel.
Closest to the technical essence and the achieved result to the proposed is a fuel emulsion diesel fuel containing, %: alcohol 5,0-40,0; water 0,5-5,0; alkenylamine 0,25-1,0; the mixture was washed diethanolamine and oleic acid - 0,2; diesel fuel - up to 100 .
As a disadvantage of this fuel emulsion can note the increased wear of the fuel system and the cylinder group, which reduces the reliability and durability of the diesel.
The aim of the invention is to increase the lubricating properties of the fuel emulsion and reducing the stiffness of the combustion process, thereby increasing the reliability and durability of the diesel.
Essential difference of the proposed fuel emulsion from all previously known solutions is the introduction into the emulsion and lubricating additives ADP-Lubricon, which contains a mixture of carboxylic acids, inhibitor� oxidation and destruction of the emulsion in an aromatic solvent in the amount of - 0,02%.
The advantages of the proposed fuel emulsion are caused by the following circumstances.
Diesel fuel (up to 100%) is of lighter phase (oil), plays the role of the dispersion medium.
Ethanol (5,0...50%) is used to replace diesel fuel alternative, plays the role of the continuous phase.
Water (0,5...5,0%) can improve the stability of the fuel emulsion and (or) use for its preparation the raw alcohol (raw).
Alkenylamine (0,25...1%) plays the role of an emulsifier to ensure stable fuel emulsion.
The mixture was washed diethanolamine and oleic acid (0.2%) can improve dispersing and lubricating properties of the emulsion and to reduce the rigidity of the combustion process of a diesel engine.
Additive ADP-Lubricon consisting of a mixture of carboxylic acids, oxidation inhibitors and the destroyers emulsion in an aromatic solvent in the amount of 0.02% of the volume of fuel can increase lubricity fuel emulsion and simultaneously reduce the rigidity of the combustion process as a result of the action of oxidation inhibitors, which slows the chemical reactions of the combustion process.
Thus the corrected wear scar diameter of drops to 350-400 μm when the value 530-550 µm for pure diesel fuel (see tab. 1)
�yet, the combustion process in a diesel engine is estimated on the indicator diagram, the numerical values of the maximum combustion pressure ΡZand of pressure rise per degree of rotation of the crankshaft (stiffness) process (dP/dφ)max. Thus, the smaller the value of the rigidity of the process of combustion and the maximum pressure in the same conditions, the more effective, more economical and durable operation of a diesel engine .
Fig. 1 shows an indicator diagram of a diesel engine during its operation in the nominal mode.
Line 1 characterizes the operation of the diesel fuel emulsions with a content of up to 40% ethanol and 1% emulsifier - alkenylsilanes and potassium stearate and 0.25%.
Line 2 represents the change in pressure in the cylinder of a diesel engine in production on fuel emulsion with a content of up to 40% ethanol and 1% emulsifier - alkenylamine, mixtures of Soaps of diethanolamine and oleic acid in the amount of 0.2%.
Line 3 - fuel emulsion with a content of up to 40% ethanol and 1% emulsifier - alkanolamine and mixtures of Soaps of diethanolamine and oleic acid in the amount of 0.2% and an additional introduction into the emulsion additive ADP-Lubricon in the amount of 0.02%.
Point (A) characterizes the moment of the beginning of fuel injection, point (B) - the moment of ignition, the point PZ- the maximum value of the combustion process, and the angle of inclination to the horizontal curve on�Astana pressure - the rigidity of the combustion process.
The work of a diesel engine is characterized as follows.
When serving in diesel fuel emulsions with a content of up to 40% ethanol and 1% emulsifier - alkenylsilanes and potassium stearate and 0.25% causes a change in the ignition, resulting in increased stiffness of the combustion process is the buildup of pressure in the cylinder of a diesel engine occurs intensively - line 1.
Work on diesel fuel emulsions with a content of up to 40% ethanol and 1% emulsifier - alkanolamine and mixtures of Soaps of diethanolamine and oleic acid in the amount of 0.2% leads to a decrease of stiffness of the combustion process is the buildup of pressure in the cylinder of a diesel engine occurs more smoothly - line 2.
The additional introduction of lubricity additives ADP-Lubricon in fuel emulsion leads to a further decrease in the stiffness of the combustion process - the rate of pressure rise in the cylinder of a diesel engine even more reduced and the combustion proceeds very smoothly - line 3.
Digital values of the combustion process in a diesel engine during its operation are shown in table 2 limits.
The emulsion is prepared as follows.
Prepare a number that is a multiple of 100 g. this requires the amount of water dissolved in ethanol, and the right amount of alkanolamine and mixtures of Soaps of diethanolamine and oleic acid�you dissolve in diesel fuel, then dissolve the additive ADP-Lubricon consisting of a mixture of carboxylic acids, oxidation inhibitors and the destroyers emulsion in an aromatic solvent with diesel fuel in a ratio of 1:5. All phases in the aforementioned proportions are mixed and subjected to dispersion.
Feasibility study of the proposed invention lies in the possibility of reducing the wear of the cylinder group, fuel equipment and rigidity of the combustion process, thereby increasing the reliability and durability of diesel.
1. Copyright certificate of the USSR No. 1728290, C10L 1/32, 1989
2. RF patent №2221839, 2004 - prototype.
3. Arkhangelskaya, V. M., etc. in Automobile engines. Under. edited by M. S. Hoveka. M.: Mashinostroenie, 1977. - 591 p., ill.
Fuel emulsion for diesel engines based on diesel fuel with addition of alcohol, an emulsifier, a mixture of Soaps of diethanolamine and oleic acid and water, characterized in that it further comprises a lubricity additive ADP-Lubricon in the following ratio of components, %: ethanol 5,0-50,0; water 0,5-5,0; alkenylamine 0,25-1,0; the mixture was washed diethanolamine and oleic acid 0.2; the lubricating additive of 0.02; diesel fuel - up to 100.
SUBSTANCE: fuel gel contains a surfactant that is a processing product of a mixture of mono- and dialkylphenols in ethylene oxide - and kerosene in the following proportions, vol %: Surfactant 0.05; Hydrogen peroxide 0.95; Kerosene - the rest up to 100.
EFFECT: gel possess high frost resistance and storage stability.
SUBSTANCE: method of producing liquid coal fuel includes homogenisation of coal thermal processing products; carrying out combined homogenisation of semicoke, a tar fraction and tar water such that semicoke with particle size of 3-5 mcm is suspended in microdroplets of the tar fraction, which are the dispersion phase of the emulsion with a dispersion medium in the form of tar water, and the obtained fuel acquires kinematic viscosity of 10-40 cSt at 50°C.
EFFECT: obtaining medium-calorie, low-viscosity and low-abrasive liquid coal fuel.
SUBSTANCE: invention describes a liquid coal fuel which consists of a finely dispersed mixture of a solid part in the form of semicoke/coke microparticles and a liquid part in the form of a tar fraction, obtained after thermal processing of raw coal, where the finely dispersed mixture is a double suspension-emulsion system, wherein the solid part used is a combination of microparticles of raw coal and the product of thermal processing thereof in the form of semicoke/coke microparticles, and the liquid part used is liquid products of thermal processing of the same raw coal, wherein the tar fraction is used to encapsulate groups of solid microparticles of raw coal and semicoke/coke in emulsion microdroplets, and the tar water is used as the dispersion medium.
EFFECT: obtaining liquid coal fuel with low viscosity and abrasiveness, which provides prolonged use of the burner, enables to obtain a flame with good atomisation and avoids the use of second lifting pumps and additional fuel heaters in the fuel circuit.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an emulsifying composition intended to homogenise and re-emulsify a fuel, comprising by weight, with respect to the total weight of the said composition, the following mixture i), comprising a) from 5% to 40% of N-oleyl-1,3-propylenediamine, b) from 60% to 95%, by weight, of N,N′,N′-polyoxyethylene-N-tallowpropylenediamine and ii) from 5% to 40% of isopropylbenzene or kerosene, added to the initial mixture. The invention also relates to a fuel, containing the above composition and a process of the fuel manufacture. The present invention also relates to the process of preparation and to the use of the (re)emulsifying composition.
EFFECT: improved fuel performance, the fuel is stable over time.
12 cl, 4 dwg, 5 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the application of, at least, one alcohol (C6-C15)ethoxylate and, at least, one (C8-C24)alkylamido (C1-C6)alkylbetaine in liquid hydrocarbon fuel, which contains less than 50 ppm of water, to reduce or essensially eliminate the formation of ice particles with the weight average particle size larger than 1 mcm, in the said liquid hydrocarbon fuel, when the said liquid hydrocarbon fuel is cooled to temperatures, which are in the range from 0 to -50°C, where the quantity of the said, at least, one alcohol (C6-C15)ethoxylate in the said fuel constitutes from 45 to 4575 ppm by weight, and the quantity of the said, at least, one (C8-C24)alkylamido (C1-C6)alkylbetaine constitutes from 5 to 425 ppm by weight. Described is aviation fuel, which has lower tendency to ice particles formation. The invention also relates to a method of reducing or elimination of the formation of ice particles in the liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Also described is a method of an aircraft refuelling with the liquid hydrocarbon fuel, which has lower tendency to ice particle formation.
EFFECT: reduction or elimination of formation of ice plugs in fuel and fuel tanks of an aircraft with gas turbine engines.
13 cl, 4 dwg, 11 ex
SUBSTANCE: starting hydrocarbon motor fuel is mixed with distilled water in equal weight proportions; the water-fuel mixture obtained in a tubular flow reactor is exposed to microwaves with frequency of 10-30 GHz and then treated in a vortex tubular reactor at excess pressure of 0.5-3.5 MPa and temperature of 10-30°C in the presence of Cr, Ni, Fe metal alloys, from which swirl vanes of the vortex tubular reactor are made.
EFFECT: simple process of producing hydrocarbon motor fuel by exposing a water-fuel mixture in a vortex tubular reactor to microwaves at excess pressure, reduced usage of fossil material - oil - to produce motor fuel.
2 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: proposed process comprises oil slime heating and cleaning. Cleaned and heated mix of hydrocarbons with water is fed into working vessel and separated into at least two flows. Separated flows are fed for their homogenisation into vibratory cavitation homogeniser at different flow rate magnitude of at least 1.5. Homogenisation is executed in vibratory cavitation homogeniser with spinning rotor with perforated surface and stationary stator at the mix specific flow rate not over 2.5 g/cm2 of rotor working surface per second and peripheral speed not over 20 m/s. Processing is conducted three times: primary processing is performed unless hydrated fuel emulsion with water drop sixe not over 15 mcm, subsequent processing is conducted unless water drop size does not exceed 5 mcm.
EFFECT: higher stability.
4 cl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: additive for low-sulphur diesel fuel based on carboxylic acids contains polyethylene polyamine, and the carboxylic acids used are commercial-grade alkyl(C16-C18)salicylic acids with weight ratio of polyethylene polyamine to commercial-grade alkyl(C16-C18)salicylic acids of 0.007-0.035:1.0.
EFFECT: improved lubrication properties of low-sulphur diesel fuel; the additive also meets emulsion property requirements, does not promote formation of a fuel-water emulsion and provides compatibility with cetan number enhancing additives.
9 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dissolution of solid organic materials. The invention relates to a method of solubilising solid organic materials, which comprises reacting a solid organic material with an oxidising agent in superheated water in order to form a solubilised organic soluble substance. The oxidising agent acts on the solid organic material in a reactor which does not have a free space over the superheated water, and temperature of the superheated water ranges from 100°C to 374°C.
EFFECT: efficient method of solubilising solid organic materials, which ensures high output and minimal environmental impact.
18 cl, 13 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of air-coal fuel (ACF). Proposed method comprises the use of the device including mining machines of coal plants (CP) with cutter-crusher-sucker working tool (WT) to produce coal powder with localisation of methane gas and coal dust, air transfer units (ATU), final terminal of thermal electric power station (TEPS) to combust ACF as coal powder. Note here that ACF is produced at CP and combusted at TEPS at continuous transfer of ACF from CP work face to TEPS terminal (heat carrier) via series of hollow intake-force ATU parts.
EFFECT: simplified production of air-coal fuel, continuous feed of heat carrier.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: alternative fuels.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water-fuel emulsions useful in power engineering, petroleum processing, chemical, and other industries utilizing combustion of liquid fuel in various-structure and various-size furnaces and boilers. Process comprises dispersing liquid fuel with water in flow-type static disperser by forming a multitude of new interfaces between liquid fuel and water flows with their recombination in axial and radial directions with the aid of special dispersing elements, which are, in particular, perforated disk diaphragms secured on a rod at an angle 30о to each other, end surfaces and perforations in the disks being made with narrowing and dilating regions on the sides of inlet and outlet of liquid flows, whereas limiting insertions provided with two flow-twisting plates are mounted between diaphragms.
EFFECT: enhanced process efficiency due to improved structure of flow-type static disperser.
2 dwg, 1 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: fuel industry, in particular engine and furnace fuels with improved operational and ecological characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: method for production of liquid modified hydrocarbon fuel includes blending of hydrocarbon components with water in volume ratio of 60:40-98:2 in rotating magnetic field of velocity layer apparatus. To increase octane number before blending oxygenates are additionally introduced in amount of 1-10 % calculated as hydrocarbon component.
EFFECT: fuel with essentially complete combustion and improved technical and economical characteristics.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: alternate fuels.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fuel power engineering, in particular to methods for production of coal and water-based fuels, to which other components are added, which fuel is appropriate to be directly combusted in boilers, furnaces, and various power installations instead of dry coal and mazut, and which fuel is also appropriate for pipeline transportation. Method comprises crushing coal in hammer crusher into fraction 0-10 mm, coarsely grinding resulting solid constituent in cavitation mixer, while simultaneously demineralizing it, and finely grinding for example solid fuel product in cavitation mixer with water. Into coarse-grinding cavitation mixer are added 0.005% of alkali reagent, up to 3.5% of coal-stabilizing additive, and water to maintain pulp in fluidized state. Suspension thus obtained is sent to hydroclassifier to separate coal particles larger than 800 μm in size and mineral particles. Separated mineral and coal particles are loaded into hydrocyclone to separate coal particles recycled into mixer, while minerals are discarded. Suspension freed from coarse coal fraction and minerals is loaded into fine-grinding disperser to produce solid phase particles up to 250 μm in size, wherein suspension components are subjected to second simultaneous after-disintegration and stirring, after which mixture is sent to accumulation and storage tank, wherefrom it is supplied to boiler burners. Proportion of coarse-grinding solid constituent in cavitation mixer is 60-75%. Invention also discloses production line comprising mainly coarse- and fine-grinding cavitation mixers, which have bodies, rotors provided with rotor rings and stator rings, aspiration pipes, and pressure conduits, holes in rotors being made in the form of round-cylindrical Venturi nozzles and those in stators in the form of suddenly expanding nozzles. Cavitation grinding of coal, as well as other hydrocarbon substances, by coarse- and fine-grinding dispersers in aqueous medium favors evolution of gaseous (methane, 9%) and liquid phases, which improves rheological properties of suspension and reduces inflammation temperature thereof.
EFFECT: enhanced process efficiency, reduced power consumption, enabled production of high-calorific fuel employing simplified technology.
3 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises direct visualization of image, which is formed in microscopic observation, processing the images, and determining the quality of the emulsion from the histogram of the water drop distribution in the fuel, mean size of drops, and dispersion of the results. The fuel sample of high viscosity is heated up to 50-60°С.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of determining.
1 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: petrochemical industry; fuel compositions and methods of their production on the basis of petroleum heavy fractions.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to fuel compositions and methods of their production on the basis of petroleum heavy fractions, and also to utilization of oily wastes and by-products of petrochemical industry. The fuel composition contains 1-7 % of recovered oil products, 3-9 % of the heavy gas oil of a catalytic cracking or the heavy gas oil of the time-lagged carbonization, or the heavy pyrolized resin, or a vat residue of production of butyl alcohols, and the rest - the residual fuel oil. The composition is produced by a premixing of 10-70 % of recovered oil products with 30-90 % of the heavy gas oil of the catalytic cracking or heavy gas oil of a time-lagged carbonization, or the heavy resin, or the vat residue of production of butyl alcohols at the temperature of 20-70°C. The received mix is then commixed with the residual fuel oil at the temperature of 25-50°C with production of a quantitative structure of the above-stated fuel composition. Realization of the given invention allows to produce a stable fuel composition, to effectively utilize the recovered oil products, to use as stabilizers of the fuel mixture the available products of a petroleum and petrochemical rerefining, to reduce power inputs, to improve an air medium ecology, to obtain an economic effect at the expense of utilization of the oily wastes and by-products of oil refining and petrochemical industry and production of additional volumes of the residual fuel oil.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of a stable fuel composition, effective utilization of the recovered oil products, use of the available products of a petroleum and petrochemical rerefining as stabilizers of the fuel mixture, reduced power inputs, improved ecology, an economic efficiency.
2 cl, 2 ex, 5 tbl
FIELD: alternate fuels.
SUBSTANCE: fuel emulsion comprises 0.08-0.09 vol % of surfactant, in particular product obtained by treatment of mono- and dialkylphenol mixture with ethylene0,91-0,92% water oxide, and liquefied propane/butane gas - the rest. Emulsion shows high octane number and stability on storage.
EFFECT: allowed loss of volatile hydrocarbons and associated gases during oil production and processing to be diminished.
1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: alternate fuels.
SUBSTANCE: invention aims at transferring gas-mazut boilers consuming natural gas or mazut to combustion of water-coal fuel prepared from fuel. Process of invention comprises gravitational concentration of coal, crushing and wet grinding of coal to average surface area of particles belonging to disperse phase not higher than 3 μm. Preliminarily, moisture content, ash level, chemical analysis of ashes, slag-forming temperature of ashes, and combustion heat of water-coal fuel are determined from condition (i) that such amount of combustion products is formed in boiler, which provides achievement of a combustion products' velocity in furnace space of boiler exceeding critical velocity, at which ash particles precipitate, and (ii) that temperature of the water-coal fuel combustion products in boiler furnace outlet is not above slag-forming temperature of ashes. Gravitational concentration of coal is performed before grinding thereof and moisture content, ash level, chemical analysis of ashes, slag-forming temperature of ashes, and combustion heat of water-coal fuel are controlled according to preliminarily made computations.
EFFECT: simplified and reduced in price fuel production process, eliminated precipitation of ashes in furnace space of boiler, and lack of elevated pollution of heating surfaces.
2 cl, 3 ex
FIELD: alternate hydrocarbon-based fuels.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of various-destination water-fuel emulsions involving utilization of industrial wastes as well as oil residues, hydrocarbon components, and water-containing components (mazut-polluted water, worked out lubrication fluids, and the like) for use in processing and application of liquid and thickened hydrocarbons (petroleum, mazut, diesel fuel, vegetable and mineral oils, oil slimes, mazut slimes, paraffins, asphaltenes, and so on). Production of fuels from oil residues and hydrocarbon component involves preheating thereof, removal of suspended impurities and mixing under turbulent conditions to distribute hydrocarbon component throughout the bulk of oil residue with homogeneity factor at least 0.5, while mixing temperature for oil residue and hydrocarbon component differ from each other no more than by 10°C. Mixed product is then homogenized on rotary mechanical disperser such that maximum size of dispersed phase particles does not exceed 50 μm at average size 1-15 μm. Thereafter water or water-containing component is added to homogenized mixture in rotary mechanical disperser operated under turbulent conditions to distribute water or water-containing component in the bulk of mixture with homogeneity factor at least 0.5 and at temperature difference of streams not exceeding 10°C. Thus prepared fuel is characterized by average particle size 1-15 μm with no particles greater than 50 μm and summary water content from 5 to 60%. Water component is, in particular, selected from mazut-polluted waters, spent lubrication fluids, and low-grade water. Invention further provides a similar method for producing fuel from distillate fractions boiling up to 180°C and higher characterized by that homogenized mixture is charged with water and surfactant under turbulent conditions to distribute water throughout the bulk of mixture with homogeneity factor at least 0.5 and at temperature difference of streams not exceeding 100°C. Mixture is then homogenized on rotary mechanical disperser such that maximum size of water particles in finished fuel does not exceed 50 μm at average size 1-10 μm. In this case, as water component with surfactant, spent lubrication fluid is used.
EFFECT: enabled preparation of stable water fuels containing up to 70% of finally dispersed water.
9 cl, 4 ex
FIELD: alternate hydrocarbon-based fuels.
SUBSTANCE: object of invention is production both fuel emulsions and fuels in the form of blended different hydrocarbon fractions and wastes containing hydrocarbon components. Process according to invention comprises feeding fuel into apparatus being a body constituted by expanding hollow cone-shaped portion to receive feed and narrowing cone-shaped portion to discharge product, solid angles of cones being 30-120°, and cylindrical portion between cones, wherein perforated plates are disposed perpendicularly to feed stream. Equivalent diameters of perforations decrease in each next plate in downstream direction and distance between adjacent plates is less than equivalent diameter of perforations in upstream plate for each plate pair but larger than that in downstream plate in the same pair. Diameter of feed cone for additional component (Dfc) is found from relationship: Dfc =k·Dc, where k is coefficient determining volume ratio of blended components at k<1 and Dc diameter of cylindrical portion. Advantageously, 2-4 plates are used having angle between perforation axes between 0 and 70°. Dispersing operation is carried out under conditions satisfying relationship: L > πd, where L denotes length of cylindrically stretched drop and d diameter of this stretched drop.
EFFECT: enabled preparation of stable finely-dispersed fuel emulsions.
4 cl, 3 ex
FIELD: petroleum chemistry.
SUBSTANCE: waste water from Fisher-Tropsh synthesis reactor is mixed with carbon for obtaining carbon-water suspension which is directed to gasifier and is subjected to reaction with water steam and oxygen at high temperature and pressure for obtaining synthesis-gas. Waste water may be returned to suspension preparation stage where carbon is ground and is mixed with process water and waste water for forming the suspension, after which this suspension is delivered to gasifier where it is subjected to reaction with water steam at high temperature and pressure for obtaining synthesis-gas. Method of obtaining the hydrocarbons is described when synthesis-gas is brought in contact with catalyst for synthesis of hydrocarbon for forming reaction products and waste water which is separated from reaction products and is returned to recycle for mixing with carbon and forming the suspension.
EFFECT: possibility of obtaining closed recirculation cycle of waste water from Fisher-Tropsh reactor; reduction of operational expenses.
10 cl, 1 dwg