SUBSTANCE: at a core (1) made of a steel wire layers of current-conducting wires of two types are wound - aluminium wire (2) and nanocomposite wire (3). The layers of wire (3) are alternated with the layers of wire (2). The layer of wire (3) is wound to the core (1). The wire (3) is formed of a wire stock (wire rod) produced of a nanocomposite material based on aluminium with a nanoparticle filler made as multilayer carbon nanotubes and reinforced in the process of multiple cold drawing of the wire stock up to the preset diameter.
EFFECT: increased capacity, mechanical strength and resistivity to sagging without an increase in its weight.
2 cl, 1 dwg
Area of technology
The invention relates to power engineering and can be used in stranded wires for overhead power lines. The level of technology
Known wire containing a carrier core coated with a metallic conductive material of high conductivity. The core is made of a composite material with a matrix of synthetic resin modified carbon clusters fulleroid type (fullerenes and/or nanotubes, and/or astralene) [patent RU No. 23 87035]. The coated core is made of a metallic material of high conductivity (copper and/or aluminum, or steel, or their alloys with other metals).
It does not allow the simultaneous optimization of mechanical and electrical characteristics of the wire, since the mechanical characteristics of the wire are determined by the properties of the carrier core and the coating is involved only in providing bandwidth of the wire.
Known electrical wire aluminum alloy (patent RU №2422223, IPC B21C 1/00, 2010), which contains the core and located around the surface layer increased microplanet obtained by drawing wire rod, tensile strength and electrical conductivity which is greater than that of the core. Aluminum alloy, made of Provo�of an eye, contains (in wt.%): iron of 0.5-0.7; silicon 0,2-0,4; cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium in the amount of 6,0-10,0; admixture 0.1 to 0.3; the rest is aluminum.
The disadvantage of this solution is the need to use the aluminium alloy, which manufactured wire, special materials (expensive rare earth elements), and the reduced strength of the inner regions (core) wire.
Known selected as a prototype "Wire for transmission lines" according to the patent RU No. 2063080. The wire contains a steel core and multiple conductive layers of aluminum wires. The core is made of a nitrogen-containing non-magnetic austenitic steel with low magnetic permeability and high strength. Aluminum braids made of wires of different diameters (the largest is the diameter of the wires of the outer layer) and provide high-throughput wire current.
The disadvantage of the prototype is that the mechanical stress on the wire is perceived almost exclusively steel core, resulting in reduced mechanical strength of the wire and its resistance to sagging in long-term effects of mechanical loading.
The disclosure of the essence of the invention
The subject invention is a wire for the transmission line containing steel CE�the core and the layers of aluminum wire, alternating with layers of nanocomposite wire aluminum base filled with multi-walled carbon nanotubes, multiple hardened by cold drawing to the specified diameter.
This allows to increase the mechanical strength and resistance to sagging wires without increasing its weight and reduce the bandwidth for the current.
The invention involves clarifying the development, consisting in the fact that the steel core wound Powel of nanocomposite wire. The implementation of the invention with regard to its development
The figure illustrates the inventive design of the core wire 1 made of steel wire, which is wound a helix of conductive wire - aluminum wire 2 and nanocomposite wire 3. The wire braids 2 layers alternate with layers of wire 3. The core 1 is wound Powel wire 3.
The wire 3 is formed of wire rod (wire rod), obtained from the nanocomposite material, comprising a base (aluminum) and a filler in the form of multiwall carbon nanotubes (nanoparticles). The use of aluminum-based material provides high conductive, and a core of nanoparticles (multiwall carbon nanotubes) - high mechanical strength.
In re the cold veloce�Oia wire stock (i.e. successive cold drawing of wire rod through a series of dies with decreasing hole diameter) nanocomposite wire is hardened due to plastic deformation, which increases the degree of interaction between the base and filler.
In the manufacture of steel wire on a core of alternating layers is wound a helix of conductive wire 3 and 2.
Increased mechanical strength of the wires of the claimed design is achieved due to the fact that the mechanical stress on the wire is perceived not only its steel core 1, but braids conductive nanocomposite wire 3.
It was established experimentally that the layer-by-layer alternating layers of nanocomposite wire with 3 layers of aluminum wire 2 provides the optimal combination of mechanical strength and resistance to sagging wires with high bandwidth current.
An example of a specific implementation of the inventive wire. Wire, the design of which is shown in the figure, has a core of steel wire 1 with the index of the temporary tensile strength of 1400 MPa and a helix of conductive wire 3 and 2 arranged alternating layers around the core 1. In this example, the first layer (closest to the core 1) form 6 nanocomposite wires 3, �Torah layer 12 aluminum wires 2, the third layer 18 of nanocomposite wires 3. For wires figure 3 temporary tensile strength is 150 MPa.
Electric wire resistance DC at 20°C-0,1179 Ohm/km Weight wire - 756 kg/km. the breaking Force for such a cable is 73513 N, which is 53% higher than that of steel-aluminum wire suitable weight.
1. Wire for electrical transmission lines, containing a steel core and the layers of aluminum wire, alternating with layers of nanocomposite wire aluminum base filled with multi-walled carbon nanotubes, multiple hardened by cold drawing to the specified diameter.
2. The wire according to claim 1, wherein the steel core wound Powel of nanocomposite wire.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of cables and can be used for production of naked conductors of higher flexibility and conductivity for application as conductors of choke, interchoke, intertrack jumpers and electric traction connectors of rail circuits and as connectors in electric power engineering. In production of steel-copper conductors with conductivity of 50-60% of copper conductors of the same cross-section are subjected before twisting to annealing in noncorrosive atmosphere at 630-700°C while twisting is executed under conditions that rule out twisting of steel-copper wired about their axes.
EFFECT: higher resilience at cyclic flexure and twisting in operation.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: manufacturing method of composite cores for wires of overhead transmission lines is distinguished by the fact that before wire bundle treatment by polymer heat-resistant binder wire bundle is sent to oven to remove moisture from reinforcing fibre. Thereafter wire bundle is treated by polymer heat-resistant binder, excess of binder is removed by wet bundle drawing through calibration hole and then core profile is shaped in the form of long rod. Core profile shaping is performed by spiral winding of heat-resistant thread to bundle of reinforcing fibre saturated with binder.
EFFECT: method allows provision of high-quality composite cores; production of high-temperature aluminium wires for overhead transmission lines on the basis of such cores having improved mechanical strength, flexibility, twisting; increase of operating temperature for overhead transmission lines; 2-3 times increase of capacity for overhead transmission lines, minimum sagging of transmission lines.
25 cl, 6 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: electric engineering.
SUBSTANCE: composite core is arranged in the form of one or multiple-strand structure, which represents a lengthy rod or twisted lengthy rods of high-strength hear resistant of continuously reinforced composite material. Composite material consists of high-strength reinforcing fiber of one composition with filling extent of 30-85 wt % and thermosetting heat resistant polymer binder with content of 15-70 wt %. Core for protection against damages at the stage of winding of current-conducting layer and under conditions of operation against effect of active factors of environment comprises external metal or heat resistant varnish-cloth shell. In process of core manufacturing, shaping of core profile is carried out by means of cord pulling through heated draw plate or by means of core profile shaping directly in protective external metal shell.
EFFECT: core makes it possible to improve throughput capacity, to provide for minimum sagging of overhead wire of power transmission line and to reduce loads at power transmission line supports.
18 cl, 5 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: electric engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electric engineering. The overhead ground wire cable consists of central steel wire (1) having D1 diametre. The first layer in the cable consists of seven wires (2) having D2 diametre, while the second layer is composed of interchanging seven steel wires (3) of D3 diametre and seven steel wires (4) of D4 diametre. The third layer of fourteen steel wires (5) of D5 diametre is implemented so that the first, second and third layers have similar lays in one direction and linear contact with the first, second and third layers. The diametres ratio is as follows D1 : D2 : D3 : D4 : D5 = (1.81-1.9):(1.3-1.36):(1.3-1.36):1:(1.6-1.67). The external surfaces of the third layer wires are laid with a gap sized as 3-5% from nominal wire diametre. They are plastically deformed, and contact surface area between the third layer wires is increased as well as the contact surface between the first and second layer wires. Generally, the overhead ground wire cable is tightened.
EFFECT: increased stability of overhead ground wire cable to lightning, vibration impacts and to short circuit impacts and etc.
FIELD: railway transport; conductors for choke , choke-to-choke, track, track-to-track jumpers and electric-traction connectors of rail circuits in electrified railways using direct- and alternating-current traction.
SUBSTANCE: proposed steel-core copper wires whose electric conductivity amounts to 50-60% of that of copper wires of same sectional area are twisted to form stranded conductor incorporating definite number of wires; stranded conductor is subjected to flexible plastic bend at least in two relatively perpendicular planes through at least size of conductor diameter and to heat treatment by way of annealing in acid-free atmosphere at temperature of 720-820 °C for 4-6 h followed by cooling down to 180-200 °C in same atmosphere, and final cooling in the open. Stranded conductor is twisted in at least four lays applied sequentially in alternating directions of lays , pitch ratio of external lays being 1.3 to 1.5 fold lower than that of internal ones, Stranded-conductor jumpers and connectors are flexible and reliably function under cyclic bend and twist conditions at heavy load currents of DC and AC traction circuits.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and service life of jumpers and connectors made of proposed conductors.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: uninsulated (bare) wires and current-conducting bodies consisting of several wires twisted in the form of a rope.
SUBSTANCE: bimetallic wire forming the conductor is replaced by a bimetallic structure of wire. The wire consists of seven copper and twelve steel conductors, the first and the six subsequent conductors are copper ones, the rest twelve conductors are steel ones, the copper conductors have a lay of a strand within 100 to 150 mm, and the rest conductor - 150 to 200 mm, the steel conductor may have a zinc-coated surface.
EFFECT: enhanced service life of wire and reduced cost of wire.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a microbubble generator and to a device for microbubble generation. One of the aspects of the claimed invention is represented by the microbubble generator, containing a vortex chamber, an opening for the supply of a fluid medium, connected to the vortex chamber, with the opening for the fluid medium supply being intended for the supply of the fluid medium along the line, which is tangent to the internal surface of the vortex chamber, and an output pipe, intended for directing the fluid medium in the direction, in fact, perpendicular to the direction of the fluid medium introduction. The output pipe passes through the surface of the vortex chamber wall and projects into the internal space of the vortex chamber. In accordance with the said configuration, it is possible to reduce the loss of kinetic energy of the vortex flow of the fluid medium by the isolation of the introduced fluid medium trajectory.
EFFECT: invention provides obtaining the microbubble generator, in which the size of the formed microbubbles can be reduced, that provides effective formation of the bubbles with a nanometric range size.
5 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: light-emitting diode (LED) comprises a base, a light-emitting structure, a first electrode and a second electrode. An U-shaped electroconductive suspension for the light-emitting structure, which is transparent for the emitted light, is made on the base. The suspension lies on the base with one arm and is rigidly connected to the base. There is a series of elements rigidly connected to the arms between the arms in the direction from the base. The elements comprise an insulating layer, a first electrode, a layer which acts a mirror and a heatsink and a light-emitting structure. The LED is made as follows. A multilayer film element is formed on the base. The materials used are such that the layer geometry and intrinsic mechanical stress thereof enable to obtain a light-emitting structure and U-shaped suspension which is electroconductive and transparent for the emitted light. The step of forming the film element includes successively making a set of layers with intrinsic mechanical stress and a set of layers of the light-emitting structure. For the latter, two areas are formed, which are arranged with a gap with a depth to the last set of layers with intrinsic mechanical stress. Areas of the film element are obtained - an area which corresponds to the arm lying on the base, an area which corresponds to the arm connected to the light-emitting structure and an area corresponding to a loop. An insulating layer, on which the first electrode is made, is formed on the area of the film element which corresponds to the arm lying on the base. A layer which acts the mirror and heatsink is formed on the area of the film element which corresponds to the arm connected to the light-emitting structure. The film element is then partially separated from the base, leaving it connected on the area which corresponds to the arm lying on the base. The set of layers with intrinsic mechanical stress is transformed under the action of the intrinsic mechanical stress into U-shaped suspension with a loop and the obtained light-emitting structure between the arms. During separation, the set of layers of the light-emitting structure with the layer which acts as a mirror and a heatsink is turned over and the latter is brought into contact with the first electrode to form a rigid connection.
EFFECT: high efficiency of converting electrical energy into light energy and heat removal, reducing the dimensions of LEDs and integration with other optoelectronic devices on a single base.
21 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder metallurgy, in particular to powder production for application of wear- and corrosion-resistant coatings with high adhesive and cohesive strength by method of cold gas-dynamic spattering. The composite nanostructured powder for coatings application by the method of cold gas-dynamic spattering comprises particles containing metal core out of Hadfield steel, clad layer with thickness 4-8 mcm out of aluminium powder, diffusion layer out of intermetallic compounds with thickness 0.6-1.2 mcm created at border of the core and clad layer during annealing, and reinforced surface layer created during interaction of the clad layer and oxide reinforcing agent comprising nanoparticles 10-100 nm, at that the volume share of the oxide reinforcing agent in the clad layer is 30-40%.
EFFECT: coatings made from the suggested composite nanostructured powder have high adhesive and cohesive strength, uniform hardness distribution through the coating cross-section.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides, namely to a material of a carrier for the catalyst, used in the said process. The claimed carrier material represents particles of anatase titanium dioxide, including ≥85% by dry weight of TiO2 and ≤10% by dry weight of SiO2, with (i) SiO2 being mainly in the form, selected from the group, consisting of forms with the low molecular weight, nanoparticles and their combinations; and (ii) at least 50% of silicon atoms being in states Q3, Q2, Q1 and Q0 of the coordination environment. The invention also relates to a catalytic device for the neutralisation of Diesel exhaust, including such particles, a system for Diesel exhaust regulation, including the said catalytic device, a method in which the conversion of nitrogen oxides is catalysed in the presence of the claimed particles of anatase titanium dioxide, as well as to methods of obtaining the said particles.
EFFECT: claimed particles make it possible to increase the thermal stability of the final catalyst with the preservation or increase of the catalytic activity for the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides from mobile devices, operating on lean mixtures.
44 cl, 18 dwg, 15 tbl, 18 ex
SUBSTANCE: electrode coating contains the following components, wt %: ferrochrome - 58.0-60.0, ferroboron - 14.0-16.0, marble - 5.0-7.0, ferrosilicon - 3.5-4.5, fluorspar - 3.5-4.5, ferromanganese - 1.5-3.5, graphite - 5.5-6.5, potash - 0.5-1.5 and nanopowder of titanium carbonitride - 1.5-3.0. The electrode coating can be applied to metal rods from steel grade Sv-08A.
EFFECT: composition of the coating allows obtaining electrode paste with high plasticity, and electrodes with such coating provide for obtainment of deposited metal with hardness of up to 66 HRC, increased wear resistance and continued operating stability of reworked parts.
4 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: physics, robotics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to military robotics and can be used for proportional increase in force of combatant and at cargo handling. This exoskeleton comprises carcass system, drives, electronic control system and power supply battery. Said carcass system consists of black-reinforced plastic panel following the trunk rear shape and articulated leverage of reinforced-black tubes. Note here that carcass leverage drives are made of solid aerogel composed of carbon nanotubes with admixture of rubber shaped to 40-120 mm diameter cylinders with conical sharpening on ends. Said drives are attached to the levers by clamping of conical ends with the help of synthetic fabric bands impregnated with epoxy resin and tied by steel rivets.
EFFECT: electric power saving, increase in force and self-contained operation time, maximised combat efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: uniform, continuous and dense layer of pyrolytic carbon has width of carbon coating, close to monolayer coating, equal 0.4-0.5 nm, density of precipitated carbon coating, equal ρC = 2.0-2.1 g/cm3, specific surface SBET = 90-200 m2/g, cumulative volume of pores ΣVpore≤0.4 cm3/g, average size of pores DBET≤10 nm, most probable size of pores DBJH = 5-7 nm with absence of micro pores. Invention also relates to method of production of such mesoporous composite material.
EFFECT: claimed mesoporous composite material has high-quality thin carbon coating, which totally and uniformly covers external surface and walls of pores of said material.
4 cl, 3 dwg, 3 tbl, 10 ex
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: solar element includes cathode and anode, each having external and internal flexible layers, at that these cathode and anode are located such that their internal layers are opposite each other with clearance filled by the electrolyte, at that the external layer of the cathode is made out of transparent polymer material, and its internal layer is made out of carbon nanotubes, the external layer of the anode is made out of conducting material, and its internal layer is made out of nanoparticles of solid state material, dye-sensitised.
EFFECT: simplified process of solar elements manufacturing, reduced price, and increased flexibility.
11 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: object is positioned on porous substrate, fixed to the substrate surface and scanned by probe microscopy method. Substrate with through pores of smaller size than the diameter of a study object is used, and an object is fixated by laminar flow of liquid or gas supplied to the substrate from the side of scanning, with clamping force exerted by the flow on an object within 10-12-10-3 N range.
EFFECT: possible study of structures and mechanical properties of organic and inorganic objects, enhanced information content of nano and micro object studies by probe microscopy.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to magnetophotonics. A method of amplifying the magneto-optic Kerr effect by forming a magnetic photonic crystal with a periodically structured magnetic surface, wherein the surface morphology of the magnetic photonic crystal is determined by the level of the section of the densest face-centred cubic arrangement of microspheres in the <111> plane within a layer of a colloidal crystal.
EFFECT: amplifying meridian magneto-optic effect.
10 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: magnetic materials whose axial symmetry is used for imparting magnetic properties to materials.
SUBSTANCE: memory element has nanomagnetic materials whose axial symmetry is chosen to obtain high residual magnetic induction and respective coercive force. This enlarges body of information stored on information media.
EFFECT: enhanced speed of nonvolatile memory integrated circuits for computers of low power requirement.
4 cl, 8 dwg