Azimuthal brittleness logging systems and methods

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: methods and systems for gathering, deriving and displaying the azimuthal brittleness index of a borehole are disclosed. Certain embodiments include various methods for calculating and displaying borehole measurements in real-time for geosteering and drilling operations. One embodiment of the disclosed method for calculating and displaying azimuthal brittleness includes a step of taking measurements of compressional and shear wave velocities as a function of position and orientation from inside the borehole. These velocity measurements are taken by an azimuthal acoustic device. Azimuthal brittleness is then derived based on the compressional and shear wave velocities.

EFFECT: high reliability of data of planning geological survey operations.

19 cl, 6 dwg

 

The LEVEL of TECHNOLOGY

Useful to know certain characteristics of a borehole for conducting drilling operations. In order to gather information about a borehole, drillers often use the device on the cable or device logging while drilling (LWD) that can extract the data and do the logging chart or even image representing characteristics of the formations crossed by drilling well. An example of one such device is an acoustic logging tool, which operate by generating acoustic pulses and measuring the time it takes for these pulses to propagate along the borehole. Using such measurements drillers are able to measure the diversity of geological characteristics, including the density and porosity of the formation.

One of the properties that drillers can find important, is a measure of the fragility of the formation. You can expect moderately fragile layers rupture easily and therefore more permeable to fluid flows. Ideally, the driller wishes to place the drill hole in the area where this permeability provides access to the reservoir-the reservoir of hydrocarbons. On the other hand, one can expect that highly fragile layers of unstable and prone to slumping and collapse of a borehole, Sith�tion, which can cause economic and environmental damage, and even lead to liquidation of the well. Apparently, there are no available systems and methods of logging to ensure drillers appropriate measurements of the azimuthal brittleness of the formation during the drilling process.

BRIEF description of the DRAWINGS

A better understanding of the various disclosed embodiments can be obtained when the following detailed description is considered in conjunction with the following drawings, in which:

Fig. 1 shows an illustrative environment drilling, which uses geological support for drilling wells,

Fig. 2 shows an illustrative environment of drilling with the use of cable,

Fig. 3 shows an illustrative acoustic logging tool,

Fig. 4 shows an illustrative graph of the dependence of young's modulus and Poisson's ratio,

Fig. 5 is an illustrative image for the azimuthal brittleness; and

Fig. 6 is an illustrative flow chart for calculating and displaying the azimuthal brittleness.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The problems identified in the prior art, at least in part addressed by the disclosed methods and systems to collect, retrieve and display the azimuthal index of the fragility of the drill hole. According to møn�Shea least some implementation options include various methods for the calculation and display of measurements of a borehole in real time for geological support of drilling operations and drilling. At least one embodiment of the disclosed method for calculating and displaying the azimuthal brittleness comprises a stage on which to make measurements of the velocities of longitudinal and transverse waves as a function of position and orientation from the inside of a borehole. These measurements of the velocities produced by the acoustic device. Azimuthal brittleness then get at least partly on the basis of velocities of longitudinal and transverse waves and display the driller, which can then adjust the direction of drilling based on the information azimuthal brittleness. System logging for the implementation of the above methods includes the azimuthal acoustic device and a processor that retrieves measurements from the acoustic device to generate a graphical well log chart fragility and in the application of geological support of drilling optional drill guide column based at least partially graphical logging charts fragility.

To further assist the reader's understanding of the disclosed systems and methods, describes an environment suitable for their use and operation. Illustrative environment for geological support of drilling is shown in Fig. 1. A drilling platform 2 supports a derrick 4 having the hoist block 6 DL� raising and lowering a drill string 8. Top drive 10 supports and rotates the drill column 8 as they are lowered through the mouth 12 of the bore. Drill bit 14 is driven by a downhole motor and/or rotation of the drill string 8. As the rotation of crown 14, it creates a borehole 16 that passes through the different layers. Drill bit 14 is only one element of the layout of the bottom-hole Assembly, which typically includes one or more heavy-weight drill pipes (steel pipe with thick wall) to provide weight and rigidity to facilitate the drilling process. Some of these drill collar may include logging tools to collect measurements of various drilling parameters, such as orientation, the load on the crown, the diameter of the drill hole, etc. the orientation of the device can be precisely defined in terms of the angle of the end face of the device (angular orientation), tilt angle (slope) and azimuth angle, each of which can be obtained from measurements by magnetometers, inclinometers or accelerometers, although alternatively can be used other types of sensors, such as gyroscopes. The system further includes a device 26 for collecting the measurement properties of the formation from which the boundary layer can be identified, as discussed below. Used�using these measurements in combination with measurements of the orientation of the device, the driller to guide the drill bit along the desired path 18 using any suitable systems, directional drilling, including directing blades curve sub and rotary-steerable system. A pump 20 circulates drilling fluid through a feed pipe 22 to the upper actuator 10, downhole through the interior of drill string 8, through openings in the drill crown 14, back to the surface through the annular space around the drill string 8, and into the tank 24 for storage. The drilling mud carries the cuttings from the borehole to the reservoir 24 and helps to preserve the integrity of the drill hole. Moreover, sub 28 telemetry, coupled with downhole devices 26 can transmit telemetry data to the surface through the channel hydro-pulse telemetry. The transmitter in the sub 28 telemetry modulates the flow resistance of drilling fluid to generate pressure pulses that propagate along the fluid flow at the speed of sound to the surface. One or more transducers 30, 32 pressure, convert the pressure signal into an electrical signal(s) to digital signal Converter 34. It should be noted that other types of telemetry exist and can be used for communication of signals �of the downhole digital Converter. This can use telemetry, acoustic telemetry, electromagnetic telemetry or telemetry signal on the drill pipe.

Digital Converter 34 supplies pressure signals in digital form on-line connection 36 to a computer 38 or the data processing device of some other type. The computer 38 operates in accordance with software (which may be stored on media 40 storing information) and user input and decodes the received signals. The resulting telemetry data can be further analyzed and processed by the computer 38 to generate the display of useful information on the monitor 44 of the computer or the display device of some other type. For example, a driller could employ this system to obtain and monitor drilling parameters, properties of the formation, including logging chart azimuthal brittleness, and the path of a borehole relative to detected boundaries 46 and 48 of the reservoir.

Fig. 2 shows an illustrative environment of a wireline logging cable. At various points during the process of drilling, the drill string 8 is removed from the drill hole to allow the use of the logging device 134 on the cable. A logging tool on the cable is a sensitive probe of the tool, machined parts�enny via cable 142, having conductors for transporting power to the device and the telemetry from the instrument to the surface. A logging tool on the cable 134 can have spacers 136, which centering device within the borehole or, if required, press the device against the wall of the bore hole. Borehole crosses the different layers 121. Logging complex 144 collects measurements from the logging device 134 and includes computing systems for processing and storing the measurements collected by the logging device.

Fig. 3 shows an illustrative acoustic logging tool for use in the environment of a logging while drilling. Similar to the configuration of the device is available for use in a wireline logging cable. Shows a logging tool has 4 azimuth transmitter 303, which can be operated as a monopoly, dipole, cross dipole or quadrupole radiator. A logging tool also has an acoustic cavernomas 304 and group 306 azimuthally sensitive receivers. Acoustic cavernomas 304 combined with groups of receivers 306 for accurate measurement of the bore size, shape and position of the device. As rotation of the logging instrument within the borehole it collects information by measuring the velocities of longitudinal and transverse waves. Each transmitter 302 with�special run positive or negative wave and work together, to create sound waves that propagate in a non-exclusive, dipole, quadrupole modes and fashions of crossed dipoles. Illustrated the device has four azimuthally spaced groups of receivers 306 with 6 receivers in each group. Each group has its nearest receiver located at 5 ft from the transmitter with 6 inches between each subsequent receiver. Each receiver is sensitive in a wide frequency range and is isolated from heavy-weight drill pipe in such a way as to eliminate noise crowns and noise pumping mud. The processor collects the measurements from each response of the receiver to the transmitter starts to measure the velocity of propagation of the different modes of waves and to extract the azimuthally sensitive measurements of velocities of longitudinal and transverse waves.

In the analysis of acoustic data, an accurate knowledge of the size of the drill hole and forms, as well as the position of the device in the borehole, can be used to increase the accuracy and improve the azimuthal resolution of the image. In the environment on the mechanical cable cavernomas with lots of spacers usually operate in conjunction with acoustic device to obtain this information, while the illustrated apparatus uses four ultrasonic caverna�RA (one combined with each group of receivers). Every time gather acoustic data, four ultrasonic cavernomas do nearly simultaneous measurement of the distances to the walls of a borehole. Measure four cavernomas can be used to determine the bore size and the position of the device in the borehole. The device can be programmed to receive the image data in the resolution 1-, 2-, 4-, 8- or 16 sectors or even higher if required. In practice, data often get with azimuth resolution in 16 sectors.

For each sector around the borehole at a given depth, and make measurements of the velocities of longitudinal and transverse waves. From these raw measurements can be obtained young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, and having a true density estimate, or from another logging device, or from the data logging on the next hole. Alternatively, the density estimation can be obtained from measurements of acoustic well logging device in accordance with the methods disclosed in jointly considering the application U.S. No. 13/003609, "Systems and Methods for Acoustically Measuring Bulk Density", filed January 11, 2011, M. Oraby. Poisson's ratio can be expressed in terms of the longitudinal wave speed (Vp) and the shear wave speed (Vs), as follows

The young's modulus �can then be calculated from the density (ρ), Poisson's ratio (ν) and the shear wave speed (Vs)

Due to the azimuthal dependence of measurements of velocity of longitudinal and transverse waves (and possibly measure the density of wells) values of young's modulus and Poisson's ratio can be obtained as a function of the position of a borehole and the azimuth to provide a graphical well log chart with these values. These graphic logs of the diagram can then be combined in accordance with the teachings of Rickman and others. "A Practical Use of Shale Petrophysics for Stimulation Design Optimization: All Shale Plays Are Not Clones of the Barnett Shale" [SPE 115258] (2008) to obtain the index of fragility for each sector. Can be used various measures of fragility, including the fragility index, expressed as

where c1and c2are the factors that equalize the importance of each factor as a pointer to the fragility.

Fig. 4 shows an illustrative graph of the dependence of young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, as determined from diagrams of acoustic logging of the test wall. In this figure, shown as a less fragile area 402, and a more fragile area of a borehole 404. The components of the young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are combined to reflect the ability of the rock to collapse under load and store RA�gap after the rupture of the breed. Plastic clay (which originated in the zone 402) is not a good formation for access to the reservoir-the reservoir, since the reservoir will have a tendency to heal any natural and hydraulic fractures. However, plastic clay creates a good seal, holding hydrocarbons by displacement of the more fragile clay below. Fragile clay (which would occur near the zone 404) should, in all probability, to be broken in a natural way and will also, in all likelihood, respond well to hydraulic fracturing. Thus, it is desirable to quantify the multiplier fragility in a way that combines both the mechanical properties of rocks in the clay. Fig. 4 is a graphical representation of this concept. In terms of Poisson's ratio, the smaller the value, the more brittle the rock, and the larger values of young's modulus, the more fragile will breed. As units of Poisson's ratio and young's modulus are very different, fragility, caused by each component, unify and then averaged out to give a factor of fragility in the form of a percentage.

Fig. 5 shows an illustrative graphical representation of the logging chart for the azimuthal brittleness, which can be calculated and displayed during the drilling operations. Graphical well log chart DL� fragility index can be useful during geological support of drilling. This technology takes advantage of the fact that LWD-instruments rotate during data acquisition to create images of the velocity of acoustic logging around the drill hole. Along the horizontal axis of the logging chart shows the dependence of the fragility index from depth or the position of the device in the borehole. Along the vertical axis of the logging chart shows the dependence of the fragility index of azimuth or angle of rotation of the device. Usually the top and left edges of the logging charts represent the upper part of the borehole, while the middle represents the lower part. One can observe that the logging chart shows the index change of the fragility of formations intersected by a drill hole, allowing the driller to identify the desired layers and guide the drill hole to maximize the impacts on these layers.

For example, assume that the driller considers the formation is represented by the area 502, as having the desired index of fragility. As soon as the drilling Assembly is faced with a connecting layer having less than the desired brittleness index (as presented to area 504), driller produces corrective action and directs the bore back to the desired layer (represented again by a zone 506). Perhaps due to over-correction brown�the first bore passes completely through the desired layer, and require additional steering correction. The information displayed by the graphical logging charts fragility, can contribute to the driller in the geological support for drilling wells for drilling wells in the economically desired formation. These images can also be used, how the data is used crossed dipoles obtained by traditional wireline logging cable (for analysis of the load characteristics of the discontinuity and a 3-dimensional mechanics of the breed), as well as to provide additional services, such as geological support of drilling.

In addition to formation permeability of the stability of a borehole is also affected during the drilling operations. For example, certain zones of a borehole may be too brittle to drill. If you are drilling a very fragile area, it is likely to collapse throughout the borehole, creating a catastrophic loss of materials and resources. On the other hand, a fragile zone of a borehole may also be more permeable zone of a borehole. More gas, probably flows through the more permeable zone of a borehole. Thus, there is a tradeoff, and for the driller, it is desirable to quickly find the index of the fragility of a borehole during the operas�functions of drilling.

Fig. 6 shows an illustrative method for calculating and displaying the azimuthal brittleness. In blocks 602 and 604 acoustic logging tool obtains measurements for velocities of both longitudinal and shear waves in the borehole. In block 606, the processing system calculates the surface azimuthal brittleness and ties her to the position and orientation of an acoustic well logging device for the formation graphic log charts azimuthal brittleness. In block 608, the processing system surface displays the logging chart to the engineer, for example, for use in evaluating the stability of a borehole and determining the appropriate procedure known as hydraulic fracturing. Optional logging chart can be obtained during the drilling process and displayed in real time to the driller. In block 610, the driller controls the direction of drilling based on wireline logs azimuthal brittleness.

Presents various embodiments of methods and systems for determining the azimuthal brittleness and its optional use as a guide during the drilling operations. Embodiment of the disclosed method for calculating and displaying the azimuthal brittleness, includes a stage on which to make measurements of the velocities of longitudinal and transverse waves as a function of gender�tion and orientation from the inside of a borehole. Azimuthal brittleness then receive, at least partially based on these speeds.

Another embodiment of a method for the operation of geological support of drilling a well includes the steps, which determine the azimuthal brittleness of a borehole and automatically adjust the direction of drilling based at least partially determine the azimuthal brittleness. System logging for implementing the foregoing methods, includes azimuthal acoustic device and a processor that retrieves measurements from an acoustic instrument. The system may also include a layout for geological support of drilling and used in the operations on the cable and LWD operations.

It is assumed that the logging chart azimuthal brittleness could be used to control the guns and jets for intensification for increased penetration. These and other variations and modifications will become apparent to experts in the art once the above disclosure will be fully understood. It is assumed that the following claims are intended to cover all such variations and modifications.

1. Method of logging fragility, which contains the stages on the cat�ryh:
produce a measurement of the velocity of longitudinal waves as a function of position and orientation from the inside of a borehole;
produce measure the speed of transverse waves as a function of position and orientation from the inside above the borehole;
receive the fragility, at least in part based on the above velocities of longitudinal and transverse waves; and
display azimuthal brittleness in the form of a graphic log of the chart.

2. A method according to claim 1, additionally containing phase, which use the above azimuthal brittleness for direction during geological support of drilling.

3. A method according to claim 1, in which the above phase, comprising obtaining fragility, includes the determination of the azimuthal-dependent values of Poisson's ratio.

4. A method according to claim 3, in which the above phase, comprising obtaining fragility, further includes determining the azimuthal-dependent values of young's modulus.

5. A method according to claim 4, in which the above phase, comprising obtaining fragility, includes a weighted average of the specified values of young's modulus with a value of Poisson's ratio.

6. A method according to claim 1, in which the above measurements obtained by acoustic well logging device on the cable.

7. Method of geological support of drilling a well, which contains the stages on which:
determine the azimuthal brittleness of a borehole; and
adjust the direction of drilling based at least in part the above definitions.

8. A method according to claim 7, in which the above phase in which determine the azimuthal brittleness, includes obtaining measurements of the velocities of longitudinal and transverse waves from above the drill hole.

9. A method according to claim 7, additionally containing phase, which displays the azimuthal brittleness in the form of a graphic log of the diagram from above of the drill hole.

10. A method according to claim 7, in which the above stage at which regulate the direction of drilling, includes providing a graphic display of the logging chart azimuthal brittleness of the driller.

11. A method according to claim 7, in which the above stage at which regulate the direction of drilling, is performed automatically based at least partially above the azimuthal measurements.

12. A method according to claim 7, in which the above phase, comprising receiving, includes the determination of the azimuthal-dependent values of Poisson's ratio.

13. A method according to claim 12, in which the above phase, comprising receiving, in addition �concludes the determination of the azimuthal-dependent values of young's modulus.

14. System logging, which contains:
azimuthal acoustic device; and
a processor that determines the logging chart azimuthal brittleness based at least partially on the measurement of the above acoustic instrument.

15. A system according to claim 14, wherein the above-mentioned system further comprises a layout for geological support of drilling.

16. A system according to claim 14, in which the above-mentioned azimuthal acoustic device is used during wireline logging cable.

17. A system according to claim 14, in which the above-mentioned azimuthal acoustic device is used during logging while drilling (LWD).

18. A system according to claim 14, in which, as part of determining the azimuthal brittleness, the processor receives the azimuthal-dependent value of Poisson's ratio.

19. A system according to claim 18, in which, as part of determining the azimuthal brittleness, the processor receives the azimuthal-dependent value of young's modulus.



 

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FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: peaks of tolerable load at welded part under appropriate destruction from load destruction, moment destruction and internal destruction of welded point core are defined from at least one sheet thickness t, tensile strength TS, elongation E1 and chemical composition of said core at every point-welded steel sheet, core diameter d efficient thickness B of welded part defined via distance between adjacent welded parts, ribs or crest lines and cross-section height H. Then, in compliance with said destruction modes, tolerable load at every moment after reaching of the peak of tolerable load and defined is shift or time whereat tolerable load is zero, that is, time whereat complete destruction occurs.

EFFECT: possibility to define tolerable load before complete destruction.

8 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: testing equipment.

SUBSTANCE: with the help of an air fuel mixture under pressure they generate fine-dispersed aerosol areas in several coaxially arranged soft stable shells in the form of a cylinder. To generate an air impact wave the detonation is initiated by means of serial burst of a charge of a TNT primer under statically stable soft shells. The device that realises the method comprises a tight chamber with liquid fuel and a powder charge, channels of fuel supply, an additional chamber, sprayers with jets and possibility of their regulation with a sharpened screw arranged inside the sprayer, a charge of a TNT primer, statically stable soft shells for creation of fine-dispersed aerosols in them.

EFFECT: provision of possibility of structure testing in impact pipes at action of an air impact wave of high duration with increased efficiency of formation of a fine-dispersed aerosol area.

4 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method is proposed to determine geometric characteristics of a hydraulic fracturing crack: seismic sensors are placed on the day surface, microseismic signals are recorded, the recorded signals are processed. Seismic sensors are installed on the day surface in the area of a hydraulic fracturing well, in which the ratio "intensity of a seismic signal of hydraulic fracturing crack formation" / "intensity of seismic noise" is the maximum, distances between the sensors are chosen from a set of values L=λ(n+1/2), where L - distance between the sensors, λ - Rayleigh wave length of the working frequency, n - non-negative integer number, therefore, with the number of sensors used in monitoring of hydraulic fracturing they produce a ring around the well with an external radius of the order of the depth of carried out hydraulic fracturing, the working frequency is chosen from capabilities of measurement equipment, as well as suggested dominant frequency of pulses from the hydraulic fracturing crack. The value of energy of the seismic signal of the hydraulic fracturing crack formation in the surveillance station is calculated by numerical modelling of the propagation of seismic waves from a source in the centre of a potential area of propagation of hydraulic fracturing cracks. The value of energy of background noise is measured in the area of performance of works by the seismic sensors to the start of hydraulic fracturing works performance in a point most remote from sources of noise. The value of energy of noise from the hydraulic fracturing fleet and other surface sources of seismic noise is calculated on the basis of measurements of the noise energy dependence on the distance or on the basis of previous measurements of noise energy for the conditions similar to the investigated area. Microseismic data is recorded during hydraulic fracturing. Recovery of the spatial position, time and intensity of seismic events that accompany the formation of the hydraulic fracturing crack is carried out using the method of the maximum likelihood for the recovery of signal characteristics during multi-channel reception, for which purpose using the numerical modelling method they calculate the shape of the signal from microseismic events in points of suggested area of hydraulic fracturing, arranged according to a discrete mesh, with discrecity determined by the working frequency, in units of the numerical model, corresponding to the points of the sensors installation, counting each component of the sensor as a separate channel. Noise distribution probability density is restored for each channel by the approximation of the observed variational series. For each discrete moment of time of hydraulic fracturing performance for each point of the signal recovery they restore the most likely amplitude of seismic emission. Final filtration of time rows is carried out in the points of the signal recovery, as well as spatial interpolation of the accumulated energy of restored seismic emission with the production of final charts of the hydraulic fracturing crack propagation.

EFFECT: increased accuracy of determination of geometric characteristics of a hydraulic fracturing crack.

7 dwg

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