Destruction of ice cover

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ice destruction for making passages in ice fields. Proposed process is based on two effects to be brought on ice fields: irradiation with high-power laser radiation and straining of ice by ice breaker hull. Laser units are installed at ice breaker with their focusing devices are directed downward, onto ice cover. To make the cutouts in ice field it is irradiated starting from the field edge and proceeded in lines parallel with ice breaker heading. The destruction of ice cover is performed in said lines of cutouts at strain developed by ice breaker hull in motion.

EFFECT: accelerated process, lower strain at ice breaker hull.

2 cl, 8 dwg

 

1. Area of technology

The invention relates to methods of destruction of ice cover for opening the passage through the ice field, marine equipment and icebreaker for implementing the method.

2. The level of technology

The known method of destruction of ice cover using devices patent №RU 2245275 VW 35/08, which uses a laser device located on the bottom of the vessel with airbag for applying a transverse direction of the vessel notches on the ice to create svetogorskogo impact on the ice and the destruction of his resonance method. Effect: increased efficiency of destruction of ice.

The disadvantage is the applicability of the method only for the hovercraft and the need to create Flexural-gravity waves.

Also known method of destruction of ice resonance method with transmission of laser radiation power in the sub-ice layer (V. V. Bogorodsky, V. P. Gavrilo, O. And Nedoshivin. The destruction of ice. Methods, equipment. Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1983).

The disadvantage is the limitation of application of the method only in a thin layer of ice in the presence of resonant waves.

It is known to use laser radiation for cracking of ice on the surfaces of aircraft - U.S. patent No. 4900891, NKI 219/121.6, 1990 and U.S. patent No. 5823474, NKI 244/A, 1998 In the known patent USA No. 6206325, NC� 244/A, 2001 and Canada No. 2222881, MKI H02G 7/16, 1998 with the aim of using laser radiation with a wavelength in the range of 10-11 μm, the corresponding region of radiation absorption by ice and chipping ice.

The disadvantage is the use on aircraft surfaces and local action on thin layers, which does not allow for the destruction of ice on large arrays.

The known method of destruction of ice cover patent №KR 20090094924 (A) "ICE BREAKER WITH A HIGH POWER LASER" on 09.09.2009, B63B 35/08, which for destruction ice is used located on the bow of the icebreaker a high power laser, crushing ice, making the cracks in the ice during irradiation of ice with a laser beam, thereby reducing the impact on the nose and increasing the speed of movement of the icebreaker.

The disadvantage of this technical solution is that it is impossible to provide an icebreaker for wide channels for the transaction of large vessels and to destroy thick massive ice field.

Known "Method of destruction of ice cover" patent №2463200 EN of 15.04.2011, which uses irradiation of the ice cover powerful laser radiation along the lines of stress concentration created by the icebreaker, nathusii on the whole ice field. This method involves operations such as the loading of the ice cover nathusii the icebreaker's hull,the definition of the lines of stress concentration in the ice cover, the focusing of laser radiation on the lines of stress concentration, evaporation focused laser radiation of ice on these lines, evaporation of ice at depth, the splitting of the ice cover.

"Method of destruction of ice cover" patent №2463200 of 15.04.2011 EN adopted as a prototype method as closest in its technical essence to the essence of the invention.

The disadvantage of this method of destruction of ice cover is:

- necessity of creation of special equipment for carrying out operations on the continuous determination of the line of stress concentration in the ice cover, the continuous aiming a laser beam on these lines and the scanning of the focused laser radiation along these lines,

- the long lines of stress concentration superior to that of the path length of the vessel, whereby the scanning of these lines by the laser beam should be at a rate significantly greater than the speed of movement of the icebreaker that at a fixed laser power leads to a reduction in the linear density of the energy distribution of the laser radiation along the line of scan.

3. Disclosure of the invention

The aim of the invention is the reduction of operations structure of the action of powerful laser radiation on ice to reduce leavingroom on the icebreaker's hull as it moves in a continuous ice field and channel formation for pilotage, as well as the increase in linear density of the energy distribution of the laser radiation along the line of irradiation of the ice cover, by reducing the lengths of these lines and the speed of moving them to the path length of the icebreaker, and the speed of its movement, respectively.

This goal is achieved by modifying the sequence of operations impact on the ice cover mechanical load netaudio on ice icebreaker and energy of high power laser radiation.

The essence of the invention lies in the fact that unlike the prototype in this way on the ice cover initially exposed to laser radiation, and then load its mechanical load netaudio icebreaker.

Moreover, the icebreaker is placed (Fig. 1) three laser system, a focusing device which focuses on ice sheet down. Moreover, one device is disposed in the diametrical plane of the bow of the icebreaker, second and third - symmetrically to the center plane of the icebreaker at a distance of 1.3 ice thickness from the waterline of the breaker at its widest part and on the line running perpendicular to the center plane between the ice breaker bow and his bow.

Moreover, the linear density of the energy distribution of the laser radiation along the line of irradiation of the ice cover is controlled by speed �Edna.

Moreover, the speed of the vessel is chosen depending on the thickness of the ice.

Moreover, the motion of the icebreaker begin clean water while moving the laser beams along three parallel lines with the selected sorostitute of the vessel and parallel to the vessel direction and not along the lines of stress concentration.

Moreover, the influence of laser radiation on the edge of the ice cover and the vessel to evaporate the ice on the lines parallel to the direction of movement of the icebreaker to the depth of cracking.

And load the ice cover nathusii on the edge of the ice breaker and split the ice field along the lines of the incisions, forming a channel whose width exceeds the maximum width of the icebreaker 2.6 ice thickness.

The technical result is to reduce the number of operations and the composition of the equipment necessary for implementing the method, in reducing the length of exposure and the rate of movement of the laser beam on these lines up to the speed of movement of the icebreaker, the increase due to this, the linear density of the energy distribution of the laser radiation along the line of irradiation of the ice cover, in reducing ice loads on the hull, in the formation of the channel for pilotage regular shape whose width exceeds the maximum width of the icebreaker 2.6 ice thickness.

4. Drawings

Net�suggested technical solution is illustrated with diagrams and photographs of experiments to test the technologies of destruction of ice shown in Fig. 1-8.

Fig. 1 shows the Scheme of an arrangement of laser machines on the ship and interaction system of the Laser system is a ice breaker" ice field". The scheme in Fig. 1 discloses the basic principles of location of the focusing devices of laser machines on the ship and the sequence of operations of interaction with the ice field system of the Laser system - the icebreaker.

Fig. 1 marked the following positions:

- position 1, 2, 3 - focusing of the laser device installations

positions 4, 5, 6 - line exposure (line of cuts ice cover,

- position of the 7 - beam laser setup No. 1,

- position 8 - beams of the laser units No. 2, 3,

- position 9 - Central incision of the ice-field,

- position 10 - lateral incisions of the ice-field,

- position 11 - edge of the ice-field,

- position 12 - icebreaker

position 13 - diametral plane of the vessel,

- position 14 - waterline of a ship,

- the position 15 to the direction of movement of the icebreaker at a speed V,

- position 16 - ice field.

The pictures presented in Fig. 2 and 4 show separate experiments on cutting large masses of ice by the laser beam, in which first confirmed the principle possibility of cutting power laser thick of solid ice.

Fig. 2 shows photographs illustrating "the Influence�e of the laser radiation with a capacity of 30 kW at a large array of ice of size 1000×500.500 mm 3".

Fig. 3 presents the Scheme of the experiment on cutting of solid ice 1000×500.500 mm3radiation of the laser power of 30 kW, λ = 1,07 µm, F = 550 mm, ω0= 25 µm, which shows the kinematics of the interaction of laser beam with solid ice when conducting field experiments on cutting ice powerful laser radiation.

Fig. 4 shows photographs illustrating "Cutting the ice cube 500×500×500 mm3a) the laser beam in the vertical plane to the surface of the ice, b) the final phase of the cutting process".

Photos in Fig. 5-8 show the most characteristic episodes of model experiments to assess the influence of different cut ice fields on the magnitude of ice loads on the hull of the icebreaker.

Fig. 5 presents the Simulation cuts the ice cover on the entire thickness (1.5 m) on three lines parallel to the course of motion of the ship".

Fig. 6 presents the Shape of a channel in the absence of cuts".

Fig. 7 shows the Shape of a channel in the presence of lateral incisions".

Fig. 8 also presents the Shape of a channel in the presence of lateral incisions".

5. The implementation of the invention

The basis of application of laser radiation for destruction of ice is thermal absorption of laser radiation in the wavelength range of absorption of ice (Bogorodsky, V. V., V. P. Gavrilo, Nedosekin O. A. R�zrusenie ice. Methods, equipment. Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1983). When focusing the radiation with a density of 15-20 kW/cm2is melting of ice and evaporation of water formed, is the instantaneous phase transition of ice-water-vapor. The evaporation rate reaches 1 mm in 0.01 s. (Quantum electronics, 1994, Vol. 21, No. 2, Pp. 137-141). Exposure to radiation CO2laser on large drops of phosphoric acid, water, and ice crystals are spherical. V. K. Rudas). Thus, within a second hole is formed with a depth of 10 cm With further irradiation jet of steam expands the input hole in the ice.

JSC "research Institute "Course" together with JSC "NCLS "Astrophysics" conducted research (JSC "research Institute "Course", technical research report "Development of technologies for reducing ice loads on working on the continental shelf engineering structures through the application of high-power lasers", the number of trade registration No. 100862 from 27.05.2013) influence of continuous laser radiation (λ=1,07 µm) fiber laser power of 30 kW with an optical system that provides a focal length of 550 mm and the beam diameter in the focus of 250 μm, on large (1000×500×500 mm3) ice masses (Fig. 2).

The experiments showed that the influence of powerful laser radiation on the ice cover does not lead to the formation of cracks and rusk�livaniou ice.

When exposed to a stationary laser beam on the surface of the ice is formed the cavity, the input diameter of which is twice its depth. At the same time through "the burn" to a depth of 500 mm to tens of seconds.

When the orientation of the laser beam down to the surface of the ice and the movement of the beam, starting from the lateral surface of the body of ice, the evaporation of ice along the beam, the slit is formed (Fig. 3) for all thickness of the ice massif (Fig. 4A) and its collapse under its own weight (Fig. 4B).

In these experiments, for the first time confirmed the basic ability of powerful lasers to cut the ice thickness not less than 1 m.

The thickness of the ice is determined by the linear density distribution of the radiation energy along the line of movement of the laser beam on the irradiated surface of the ice and connected with the nonlinear characteristics of the focusing system of the laser. The value of the linear density of the distribution of energy depends linearly on laser power and inversely proportional to the velocity of the laser beam on the irradiated surface.

The results of the research determine the necessary order of impact on the ice cover of different loads: first, on the side surface of the edge of the ice fields act focused down by laser radiation, and then loaded up to�chopped ice field mechanical load netaudio icebreaker.

It is known that increasing the pressure on ice-cold plate increases the amplitude of deflection and the change in temperature and ice thickness leads to limit deflections and breaking ice (Hasin D. E., Dynamics of the ice cover. P.: Gidrometeoizdat, 1967, 216 p.).

Research carried out at JSC "research Institute "Course" together with FSUE "Krylovskiy state scientific center" (JSC "research Institute "Course", technical research report "Development of technologies for reducing ice loads on working on the continental shelf engineering structures through the application of high-power lasers", the number of trade registration No. 100862 from 27.05.2013), showed that predvaritelnyye ice field at full thickness (1.5 m in terms of the kind), straight ahead icebreaker on three lines (Fig. 5), two of which are located in the bow of the icebreaker with the left and right sides at a distance of 1-1,3 the thickness of the ice cover in the widest part of the hull of the icebreaker at the waterline, and one straight ahead icebreaker reduce ice loads on the casing from 33% to 40% over the entire range of the investigated speeds(1-3 node).

In this case, the channel has formed, unlike the conventional (Fig. 6.), the correct shape (Fig. 7 and 8), and its width exceeds the maximum width of the icebreaker.

Practical implementation of the method is as follows.

Depending�relation to class vessels have the selection of the desired laser power settings and parameters of the focusing system.

Depending on the shape of the forward end of the vessel determine the position of the focusing devices 1-3 of laser machines (Fig. 1) relative to the bow of the icebreaker and place them on the ice-breaker 12. The device 1 comprise the nose of the ship, device 2 and 3 on the port and starboard side symmetrically to the center plane 13 of the breaker 12.

Depending on the thickness of the ice cover 16 set the distance between the side focusing devices 2, 3 laser machines and diametrical plane 13, so that these devices lasers located at a distance of 1.3 the thickness of the ice from the water line 14 in the widest part of the hull of the icebreaker 12.

Focus of the focusing device 1-3 of laser machines, directing the Central 7 and side 8 laser beams down.

Depending on the thickness of the ice cover 16 and taking into account the characteristics of laser machines designate the movement speed of 15 sudna, defining, thus, the linear density of the energy distribution of the laser radiation along the scanning line by the laser beam.

Include laser systems.

Begin the movement of the breaker 12 in the direction of the ice-field 12, simultaneously moving the focusing device 1 -3 of laser machines and laser beams 7, 8 in the direction and speed of motion 15 of the breaker 12. It does not require the execution of�of arazi determine lines of stress concentration, guidance on these lines of the laser beam and scanning laser these lines and the creation of special equipment for their implementation. The length of lines 4, 5, 6, laser-driven, minimal and coincides with the length of the path of the icebreaker, and the scanning speed (the speed of movement of the laser beam coincides with the speed of a vessel.

Influence of laser radiation on the ice field 16, starting from its edges 11, lines 4-6, parallel to the direction of movement 15 of the vessel 12, first rays of the Central device 1, and the closer the breaker 12 to the edge of the ice field 11 - radiation 8 are two side of the focusing devices 2, 3.

Evaporate the ice and create the notches 9 (section a-a) and 10 (cross-section b-B) in an ice field 16 along lines 4, 5 and 6 to a depth of splitting ahead of the rate of movement of the icebreaker.

Icebreaker 12, approaching the edge of the notched 11 field 16, crossing it and creates a mechanical stress, which when reaching the tensile strength is the destruction of the ice cover 16 in which became thin layer along the lines of 4-6 notches 9 and 10, forms a channel of a width exceeding the width of the icebreaker.

Achieved when implementing the proposed invention the technical result consists in reducing the number of operations and the composition of the equipment necessary for implementing the method, in reducing the length of exposure and with�oresti laser on these lines up to the speed of movement of the icebreaker, to increase due to this, the linear density of raspredeleniye laser radiation along the line of irradiation of the ice cover, in reducing ice loads on the hull, in the formation of the channel for pilotage regular shape whose width exceeds the maximum width of the icebreaker.

The proposed method of destruction of ice cover has a large economy and defence. This invention is directed to solving one of the urgent problems of development of hydrocarbon deposits on the Arctic shelf - reduce ice loads on ships and engineering structures, working in conditions of the Arctic.

The proposed solution can be also applied to reduce ice loads on supports production systems of various types, working in conditions of the Arctic shelf and freezing seas.

Literature

1. Bogorodsky, V. V., V. P. Gavrilo, Nedosekin O. A. Destruction of ice. Methods, equipment. Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat.- 1983. - 232 p.

2. Quantum electronics, 1994, Vol. 21, No. 2, p. 137-141. Exposure to radiation CO2laser on large drops of phosphoric acid, water, and ice crystals are spherical. V. K. Rudas.

3. Hasin D. E. Dynamics of the ice cover. P.: Gidrometeoizdat, 1967, 216 S.

4. OJSC "CSRI "Kurs", technical research report "Development of technologies with�izheniya ice loads on working on the continental shelf engineering structures through the application of high-power lasers", room for trade registration No. 100862 from 27.05.2013

1. Method of destruction of ice cover based on the effects on the ice cover of an intense laser beam and loading icebreaker ice cover, characterized in that on the icebreaker places three laser units, one focusing device setup feature in the diametrical plane in front of the nose of the ship, second and third on the port and starboard side, symmetrically to the center plane of the icebreaker at a distance of 1.3 ice thickness from the waterline of the vessel at its widest part, depending on the thickness of the ice cover, and considering the characteristics of laser machines choose the speed of the vessel, include the laser system and start the movement of the vessel in pure water, moving laser beams along three parallel lines with a speed of movement and parallel to the direction of movement of the vessel is exposed to laser radiation at the edge of the ice cover and the vessel forward evaporate the ice along these lines to a depth of cracking, load incised ice nathusii on the edge of the ship and destroy the ice field along the lines of the incisions, forming a channel whose width is greater than the width of the vessel 2.6 ice thickness.

2. Method of destruction of ice cover according to claim 1, characterized in that the linear density of the energy distribution of the laser and�radiation along the line of irradiation of the ice cover regulates the speed of the vessel.



 

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