Tap changer

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: tap changer with semiconductor switching elements is intended for uninterrupted changing between winding taps of a step transformer; it is made as a hybrid switch comprising fixed mechanical contact fingers and opposed contacts installed at a movable contact bracket. Semiconductor switchover units are intended for load transfer, they are switched by means of contacts at the contact bracket when load is transferred in a specified switching sequence.

EFFECT: development of the tap changer featured by the simple design and high operational reliability, which can be used for switching of different step transformers without forced special-purpose matching to the transformer.

4 cl, 7 dwg

 

The invention relates to a tap changer with semiconductor switching elements for uninterrupted switching between the winding tap step transformer.

The tap changer with semiconductor switching elements formed as a hybrid switch, known from WO 01/22447. The tap changer comprises a hybrid switch mechanical and electrical parts. The mechanical part, is actually the subject of WO 01/22447, has a mechanical switching contacts; the Central part is a movable sliding contact that is moved by a motor along the contact of the guide bar, connected to the point "star", and commuting with the stationary contact elements. Itself load switching is achieved by two IGBT (bipolar transistors with insulated gates, each with four diodes connected in the circuit of Greek. This well-known concept of hybrid mechanical switch is pretentious to ensure the necessary precise shifting of the load during the passage of the load current through zero.

From WO 97/05536 know another distribution device IGBT, in which branch of the regulating winding si�new transformer are connected with the drain of the load by means of two series-connected IGBT. However, in this arrangement, the tap changer must specifically be agreed with the relevant step-in transformer that must be connected.

Object of the invention is to create a tap-changer of the above type of simple construction and has a high operational reliability. A further object of the invention is to provide such a tap changer, which can be used as standard device for various stepped transformers, without having special arrangements with the transformer.

These problems are solved with the help of the switch branches with signs of the first paragraph of the claims. The dependent claims disclose particularly preferred improved embodiments of the invention.

The invention uses two semiconductor switching unit, each switching unit contains two IGBT included antiparallel. Each individual IGBT correlated varistor connected in parallel. The varistor is designed so that the varistor voltage was less than the maximum locking voltage on the corresponding parallel-connected IGBT, but greater than the maximum instantaneous speed n�voltage.

As is customary in the case of switches of the branches of the hybrid type, the semiconductor switching blocks are connected or disconnected by means of mechanical contacts and connected to the drain of the load.

Below the invention is explained in even more detail based on the drawings on which is shown:

Fig.1 - schematic representation of the tap changer according to the invention,

Fig.1A is a detailed image of the semiconductor switching blocks shown in Fig.1, on an enlarged scale,

Fig.2 - schematic representation of the tap changer according to the invention with an alternative implementation of contacts

Fig.3 - switching sequence when switching from one branch of the n windings on a nearby branch n+1 winding,

Fig.4 is a schematic representation of a hardware implementation of the tap changer,

Fig.5 - constructive implementation of such a tap changer according to the invention in perspective,

Fig.6 is a side view in section,

Fig.7 - movable kontaktdaten such tap-changer in the future.

Fig.1 shows a tap changer according to the invention. In this case, shows two load branches A and b, connected with two branches of the stepped transformer by means of respectively one mechanical�about contact. Each of the two load branches A and b has a main mechanical contact the MCA or MCb conducting steady state current of the respectively connected load of branches and establishing a direct communication with the outlet LA load. In parallel, the relevant main contact MCA, MCb each load branch A and b comprises a series-connected additional mechanical contact TCA, TCb, and also the corresponding semiconductor block SCSa, SCSb switching. On the side opposite to the respective switching contacts of TCA, TCb, semiconductor blocks SCSa, SCSb switches are electrically connected with each other and lead to mechanical transient contact vehicle, the other side of which is connected to the drain LA load. Thus, during the switch, which in the following description are explained in more detail by means of a suitable actuation of the mechanical contacts TCA or TCb, as well as the transitional contact of the vehicle with the help of appropriate semiconductor blocks SCSa or SCSb switching it is possible to establish electrical connection from each of the two load branches And or with a branch In LA load.

Fig.1A in an enlarged scale again shows the electronic components, i.e. semiconductor blocks SCSa, SCSb switches shown in Fig.1, as well as the subsequent Fig.2. �ri this shows the four IGBT T1...T4, with one in two branches connected in series counter. Furthermore, in parallel to each IGBT T1...T4 is provided a diode D1...D4 and diodes (D1, D2; D3, D4) in each branch is connected to a counter. In turn, is connected parallel to them respectively varistor Var1...Var4.

Both semiconductor block SCSa, SCSb switches represent the actual semiconductor switch SCS. He is, as explained above, the following components: there are four IGBT T1...T4, of which in each chain two. IGBT T1...T4 are controlled in pairs. If the load branch, or chain, And is breaking party, first turn on the IGBT T1 and T2. Since the direction of the current during the switching is random, the IGBT is connected in series counter. While switching to another load branch, or chain, In the IGBT 1 and 2 off and the IGBT the other hand almost simultaneously. Parallel to each IGBT T1...T4 is provided by the diodes D1...D4. In turn, in parallel, they have included the appropriate varistor Var1...Var4. These varistors are used for discharging or charging the parasitic impedances (parasitic inductance) transformer stage. It is shown that the electrical circuit of semiconductor switches SCS in each branch A or b is made identical and contains opisan�e semiconductor blocks SCSa and SCSb switching. In the lower part of Fig.1A shows the electrical interconnects coupling, leading to a not shown in this case, the transitional contact of the vehicle, explained above.

Fig.2 shows the tap changer according to the invention with two load branches A and B. Explained above mechanical contacts TCA, TCb and CU in this case designed as a double-breaking contacts.

Fig.3 shows the switching sequence of the switching of the tap changer from n to n+1. In this case, we take the following steps:

Phase 1: Stationary regime on the branch A. the current flows through the closed contact of the ISA to the withdrawal of LA load. Semiconductor blocks SCSa, SCSb switching remains disabled, as other mechanical switches are open.

Phase 2: enabling the electronic unit. Mechanical contacts TCA, TCb and TC are activated almost simultaneously. Thus, the semiconductor switch SCS is supplied with electric power through the voltage steps.

Phase 3: Inclusion of semiconductor switching constructive node SCSa. Since the electrical resistance of the group of mechanical contacts compared with semiconductor components and other electronic components is low, the current initially flows �through mechanical contact of the ISA.

Phase 4: the Opening of the main contact of the ISA. The current in the result flows through the semiconductor block SCSa switching.

Phase 5: the Electronic unit switches. Semiconductor block SCSa switching off; a semiconductor unit SCSb switches on and takes over the function of conducting current.

Phase 6: Mechanical contact MCb other party on and after that takes on the function of conducting current.

Phase 7: Off semiconductor unit SCSb switching. As only mechanical contact MCb is closed, the electronic control unit turns off the semiconductor unit SCSb switching to this branch.

Phase 8: the Shutdown of the electronic unit. Besides mechanical contacts TCA, TCb and TC off almost simultaneously. All electronic components are disconnected from the grid, i.e., a stepped voltage. The load current through a closed mechanical main contact MCb served with side To right on LA diversion load. Switching over. Achieved new stationary state.

Fig.4 illustrates an embodiment of a tap changer according to the invention, schematically shown in Fig.1 or 2 respectively, which when the switch is operated by the switching sequence shown in Fig.3. This, in turn, shows the CTE�effect of the winding, in this case n, n+1, n+2, is electrically connected to the elongated, thin, calendarevent, stationary contact fingers...KF1 KF3. Opposite these contact fingers...KF1 KF3 provided, further, made the same way elongated contact fingers AF1 AF3...as giving fingers, connected by a conductive manner and form LA diversion load. Over arranged horizontally in one plane with the contact fingers...KF1 KF3 AF1 and AF3...both sides provided kontaktdaten CT, denoted in this case by a dotted line that is moved perpendicular to the longitudinal length of the contact fingers. The direction of travel, in turn, indicated with an arrow. On contacttitle CT from the side adjacent to the contact fingers...KF1 KF3; AF1 AF3..., installed contact elements fixed on contacttitle CT and moved with him in an unchanged geometry. This involves, on the one hand, of a contact element of MS, which is in a stationary mode, shown in Fig.4, connects directly relevant branch with opposite winding of the contact finger of allotment LA load. On the other hand, on each side of him and him symmetrically, there are two additional separate contact element TCA and TCb. The contact element TCA elek�rejeski is connected to the input of the first block SCSa switching. The second contact element TCb electrically connected to the input of the second semiconductor block SCSb switching. Finally, on the other hand on contacttitle CT provided additional contact element of the vehicle, electrically connected to the output of both the semiconductor blocks SCSa and SCSb switching. Additional explained above the contact elements along with the contact element MS geometrically placed so that the contact element TCA or TCb depending on the direction of switching when moving contact carrier CT momentary contact with one of the contact fingers...KF1 KF3. The contact element of the CU on the other side of geometrically positioned such that, during switching, i.e. when the actuation of the contact carrier CT, he briefly makes contact with one of the contact fingers AF1 AF3.... In stationary mode, all these contact elements TCA, TCb and TC is not connected; direct electrical connection respectively connected to the branch winding, in this case n+1, with outlet LA of the load is carried out exclusively through contact element MS, while all the electronics are disabled. The performance shown in this embodiment, narrow in the direction of movement of the contacts made in the form of contact fingers, in soch�Tanya wide in the direction of movement of the movable contacts, are respectively in the form of contact elements, provides in General particularly preferred electrically stable construction of the tap changer according to the invention. Designation of the contact elements is explained in this figure corresponds to the designation of the mechanical switches shown in Fig.1 and 2.

It should be noted that regardless of embodiment of the circuit of Fig.1 or 2 respectively, and the switching sequence in Fig.3 remain unchanged.

Fig.5 shows a schematic representation of a design in the future. Shows the housing 1 with the upper leg 2 of the housing. Linearly in the longitudinal direction of the housing 1 is movable depicts kontaktdaten 3, indicated in Fig.4 as CT. Detailed kontaktdaten 3 is disclosed in the following description. In the first horizontal plane E1, shown dash-dotted line, is provided with contact fingers 4, indicated in Fig.4 as KF. In front of them as giving the fingers are respectively additional contact fingers 5; Fig.4 they are marked as AF. All fingers outlet 5 by a connecting metal sheet 6 is electrically connected to each other and lead to the diversion load. Located in parallel to a second horizon�encourages creativity plane E2 on one side of the housing 1 are the contact fingers 7, in the centre, on a separate support - additional contact fingers 8, and on the other hand, also in the second horizontal plane E2 are additional contact fingers 9. It should be noted that all of the contact fingers 4, 5; 7, 8, 9 are located in a single vertical raster; accordingly, only one contact finger of each species is indicated for clarity. Kontaktdaten 3 in its lower region contains two parts the main contact 10, is designed as a contact element MS, electrically connecting the corresponding opposite contact finger 4 with the corresponding outlet of the finger 5 and thereby establishing in the stationary mode of direct communication with the outlet 5 of the load, as shown in Fig.1 and 2. The contact fingers 7, respectively, is electrically connected to the input of the first semiconductor SCSa block switching. The contact fingers 8, respectively, is electrically connected to the input of the second semiconductor block SCSb switching. Finally, the contact fingers 9 are electrically connected with the common output of both semiconductor blocks SCSa, SCSb switching. These electrical connections, although they are shown in Fig.4, however, in this case in Fig.5 for clarity, not shown, as not shown, the actuator of the contact carrier 3.

Fig.6 shows a side view �of the device in section. It is shown that the contact fingers 4 and 5 are located in a first horizontal plane E1 and the contact fingers 7, 8, 9 in the second horizontal plane E2. In addition, it is shown that kontaktdaten 3 along with the above-described main point of contact 10 includes the upper area of the contact elements 11, 12 and 13, correlated, respectively, with the contact fingers 7 or 8 or 9, that is connected with them. In its lower part, kontaktdaten 3 contains additional contact elements 14, 15. The contact element 14 may be switched corresponding contact finger 4; a contact element 15 to the appropriate contact finger 5. Important for the function is that the contact elements 11 and 12 are electrically connected with the contact element 14, while the contact element 13 is electrically connected to the contact element 15. Consequently, kontaktdaten 3 electrically connects the contact elements 11, 12, 13 upper plane E2 with the contact elements 14, 15 of the lower plane E1 in a very specific way. In this embodiment, the contact fingers 4, 5; 7, 8, 9, when viewed in the direction of movement of the contact carrier 3 is arranged in the form of narrow, Karandashev contact fingers attached only at one end, while the contact elements 11, 12, 13; 14, 15, as well as the main contact 10 in �the direction of movement of the contact carrier 3 have a significantly greater longitudinal length, preferably at least three times.

Fig.7 kontaktdaten 3 shows separately in perspective. In this case, first of all shown, on the one hand, the lateral contact elements 14, 15 located in the lower horizontal plane, and also the main contact 10. In the upper horizontal plane shows the contact elements 11, 12 and 13 are shifted in the direction in the direction of movement indicated by the arrow. The contact element 11 has the function corresponds to the contact TCA: it establishes communication with the input of the first semiconductor SCSa block switching. The contact element 12 corresponds to the contact TCb: it establishes communication with the inlet of the second semiconductor block SCSb switching. The contact element 13 corresponds to the contact TS: he establishes a relationship with the total yield of the two semiconductor blocks SCSa, SCSb switching. Thus, the accuracy of the implemented electrical and mechanical design, shown schematically in Fig.4.

When moving contact carrier 3 in a direction dependent switching of the first or second semiconductor block SCSa or SCSb switches supplied with electricity via the corresponding contact element 11, respectively, TCA, or a contact element 12, respectively, TCb, short electrically connected, �sootvetstvenno, with the fixed contact stage. In this case, the total output of the semiconductor blocks SCSa or SCSb switching through contact element 13, respectively, of the vehicle, again leads back to the fluid load.

In the exemplary embodiment describes the two horizontal plane; in the framework of the invention can also put both parallel to the plane vertically.

Thus, in the end, the function of the contact carrier 3 can be described as follows. In stationary mode, it establishes a direct link of one of the winding branches of the diversion load, for which the corresponding contact finger 4 through the main contact 10 is electrically connected to corresponding contact finger 5 and the discharge load. At the same time when you switch this direct contact is interrupted, and with the help of the contact elements 11 or 12 in another horizontal plane briefly turns on the corresponding semiconductor block SCS1 or SCS2 switches, and their (common) output with additional contact element 13 again leads back to the first horizontal plane to the contact element 15 and further to the contact finger 5 and the discharge 6 of the load. Characteristic to enable short-semiconductor blocks switching during switching are own�about switching plane, that is, a horizontal plane E1 and the auxiliary switching plane, i.e. the plane E2.

1. The tap changer with semiconductor switching elements for uninterrupted switching between the winding tap step transformer, and the two load branches (A, b) connected with the winding branches of the stepped transformer
each of the two load branches (A, b) has a main mechanical contact (MCA, MCb), which is in a stationary mode conducts current corresponding to the connected load branch (A or b) and establishes electrical connection with the challenge (LA) the load
and parallel to the corresponding main contact (MCA, MCb) each load branch (A, b) comprises a series-connected additional mechanical contact (TCA, TCb), and also the corresponding semiconductor block (SCSa, SCSb) switches, and on the side opposite to the corresponding contacts (TCA, TCb), semiconductor blocks (SCSa, SCSb) switches electrically connected together and lead to mechanical transitional contact (TC), the other side of which is connected to the outlet (LA) loads, and
moreover, by means of a movable contact carrier (CT) is the connection of main contacts (MCA, MCb), as well as additional mechanical�ski contacts (TCA, TCb, TC).

2. The tap changer according to claim 1, characterized in that
in the first plane (E1) is provided parallel with each other stationary contact fingers (4), United respectively with the branches (n, n+1, n+2) winding tap changer,
thus in the same plane provided opposite them additional performed similarly elongated contact fingers (5), connected to each other by a conductive manner and leading to the withdrawal of (LA, 6) load
and over the contact fingers (4, 5) on both sides, arranged in one plane, kontaktdaten (3) that is moved perpendicular to the longitudinal length of the contact fingers (4, 5),
contacttitle (3) on the side facing the contact fingers (4, 5), are provided with contact elements (10, 14, 15), commuting with the respective contact fingers,
moreover, the contact element (10) in a stationary mode establishes a direct electrical connection with the outlet (6) of the load
additional contact element (11) is electrically connected to the input of the first semiconductor block (SCSa) switches,
with the additional contact element (12) is electrically connected to the input of the second semiconductor block (SCSb) switches, and
while another additional to�stroke element (13) is electrically connected to the common output of both semiconductor blocks (SCSa, SCSb) switching.

3. The tap changer according to claim 2, wherein stovo second plane (E2) respectively on the same line there are several additional contact fingers (7, 8, 9),
the first series of contact fingers (7) electrically connected to the input of the first semiconductor block (SCSa) switches,
moreover, the second row of contact fingers (8) electrically connected to the input of the second semiconductor block (SCSb) switches,
thus the third row of contact fingers (9) is electrically connected to the common output of both semiconductor blocks (SCSa, SCSb) switches,
moreover, through the contact carrier (3) of the contact fingers (7, 8, 9) of the upper plane (E2) during the switching transient are electrically connected by means of additional contact elements (14, 15) with the respective contact fingers (4, 5) in the first plane (E1).

4. The tap changer according to claim 2 or 3, whereinwhat
the longitudinal length of the contact elements (MC, TCA, TCb, TC; 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15), when viewed in the direction of movement of the contact carrier (3), is at least equal to three times the thickness of the contact fingers (...KF1 KF3, AF1 AF3...; 4, 5, 7, 8, 9).



 

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15 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: high-voltage semiconducting switching device consists of selected by leakage current series connected unpackaged semiconducting elements that are centred and isolated by side surface with the help of fluoroplastic rings, housing, clamping system and current-carrying electrodes. The housing is made of isolating material with high mechanical and electrical strength. At both housing ends there are rigidly fixed metal flanges that are included in clamping system with threaded holes. At bolting of switching device cover to housing flanges with the help of clamping system elements located inside the cover there created is necessary compressive force of semiconducting devices and its transmission through the housing to semiconducting devices. Note that at the same time there performed is pressurisation of inner volume of switching unit housing by O-rings located between flanges and current-carrying electrodes.

EFFECT: increase of specific switching power of high-voltage semiconducting switching device current at simultaneous improvement of its switching characteristics.

5 cl, 1 dwg

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