Method and device for thermal neutralisation of solid wastes
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: for solid wastes thermal neutralisation the solid wastes are loaded in drum drier, solid wastes are dried in the drum dryer, the solid wastes are moved from the drum dryer in the drum furnace, they are baked in the drum furnace, gases generated during neutralisation are exhausted, the neutralised solid wastes are unloaded from the drum dryer and drum furnace. The solid wastes are dried and baked by means of heat transfer to them from casings of the drum dryer and drum furnace, respectively. At that the casings are heated in the external heating chambers surrounding the casing of the drum dryer and drum furnace from outside. The suggested device of thermal neutralisation of the solid wastes contains the drum dryer and drum furnace connected by means of the transportation device, each of them has casing and is equipped with the loading chamber, unloading chamber and gas duct to exhaust gases generated during neutralisation. The device is additionally equipped with the external heating chambers surrounding the casing of the drum dryer and drum furnace from outside with possibility of heat exchange.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of neutralisation, reduced quantity of caught sludges or dust in gas cleaning system generated during dust removal of the neutralised gases, reduced power and material consumptions for neutralisation, and overall dimensions and weight of equipment installed in gas cleaning system.
8 cl, 1 dwg
The claimed group the invention relates to the field of processing of solid waste and can be used for disposal of industrial and municipal solid waste thermal method.
From the prior art known method of thermal processing of industrial waste is the waste through dehydration step waste heat drying to the final moisture content of not more than 0.5%, and crushing them (waste) to the size of the granules is not more than 1.0 mm and thermal treatment of wastes by burning them in an environment of akshata at a temperature of 600-950°C followed by cooling the resulting press powder used in the production of building materials as the main raw environmentally friendly component [RU 93048199, IPC C02F 11/12, 14.10.1993].
Known installation for thermal processing of solid waste, including chamber furnace comprising a combustion chamber with a hopper for loading the waste and the outlet for removal of ash in slampiece, the afterburner with a flue for withdrawing exhaust gases, the scrubber and the gas filtration unit with a bin storage dust, and combustion chamber communicates with a vertically-placed above and coaxially with it the afterburning chamber through holes made in the intermediate set, flue, placed perpendicular to the wall of the afterburner, you�Olsen in the form of a slotted heat exchanger type pipe in pipe, one end of the inner tube of which freely enters the afterburning chamber in the upper part of its side wall, the other is communicated with the chamber of neutralization of harmful and toxic components of exhaust gases, the output of which is connected to the input of the scrubber is placed so that its vertical axis is parallel to the vertical axis of the furnace and the hopper dust reported by the chute with sliapianka, made in the form of melting furnace [RU 2137044, IPC F23G 5/14, 30.09.1998].
A device for thermal treatment of waste, in particular solid or liquid wastes by distillation and drying of waste, including waste loading chamber, a heating furnace, a heating means connected to the heating oven, drying chamber, located inside the heating furnace, a vehicle for continuous transport of waste through the drying chamber, the chamber of discharge of waste, and drying chamber is airtight and provided with means to prevent contact with atmospheric air, means for removing gases formed during the process of thermal waste treatment. The known device implements the method of thermal waste treatment, including the placement of waste in the loading chamber, the transport of waste through the drying chamber, where the waste is heated to a predetermined temperature�tours, unloading neutralized wastes and the removal of gases formed during the process of neutralization [WO 2000013811, IPC F23G 5/02, C02F 11/12, C02F 1/04, WV 3/00, F23G 5/04,07.09.1998].
As the closest technical solution was the installation for thermal disposal of solid waste chamber containing dry waste, equipped with loading device, drum rotary kiln incineration of waste and the afterburning chamber located in the lower part of the withdrawal of the coke residue, and between the drying chamber and drum rotary kiln incineration placed stationary intermediate chamber, the upper part of which is connected to the pipeline, directing the gaseous products of drying in the afterburning chamber, and in its lower part comprises a plasma torch and a channel for supplying combustion air in a rotating drum furnace combustion, which from the drying chamber equipped with a plasma torch, through the lined trench, located in a stationary intermediate chamber, served dried waste, and after combustion in a rotating drum furnace to the afterburner bottom receives hot products of combustion. The known device implements the method of thermal waste treatment, selected as a prototype and includes the placement of waste in the drying chamber, the drying of the waste in the drying chamber of the waste, burning of waste in a drum rotating �the wild horses, unloading neutralized wastes and the removal of gases formed during the process of neutralization [107842 EN, IPC F23G 5/00, F23G 5/14, 18.05.2011].
A common drawback of the known devices and methods is that the coolant is supplied in the same volume, where the evaporation of solid waste and vapors pollutants, which increases the volume of gases inside the devices, their speed and, as a consequence, the amount of dust (sludge) in the system of gas purification obtained in the process of pilichindi neutralized gases, which reduces the efficiency of neutralization of gases, therefore, and solid waste in General.
The technical problem to be solved by the claimed group of inventions, the efficiency of neutralization, reducing the amount of entrained fines (dust) in the gas cleaning system, obtained in the process for dedusting neutralized gases, reducing energy and material costs for neutralization, as well as the size and weight of the equipment installed in the gas cleaning system.
The essence of the claimed method is as follows.
Method for thermal disposal of solid waste shall include solid waste in a drum dryer, drying of solid waste in a drum dryer, the movement of solid waste from a drum dryer, rotary kiln, calcination in rotary kiln, from�edenia gases formed in the neutralization process of rotary drum dryer and rotary kiln and unloading neutralized solid waste. In contrast to the prior art drying and calcination of the solid waste produced by transferring heat from the housings of rotary drum dryer and rotary kiln, respectively, and the heating of buildings is carried out in an external heating chambers, covering the body of a drum dryer and rotary kiln with external parties.
The essence of the claimed device is as follows.
Device for thermal disposal of solid waste contains interconnected with a device for conveying drum dryer and drum kiln, each of which has a housing and is provided with a loading chamber, a discharge chamber and a flue gas outlet formed in the neutralization process. Thus unlike the prototype of the claimed device is further provided with external heating chambers, covering the body of a drum dryer and rotary kiln from the outside with the possibility of heat transfer.
The outer chamber heating is fixed.
External camera heated drum dryers can be a heat-insulated casing, covering the body of a drum dryer and having at least one pipe for supplying hot gases and two�and cooled gases into the atmosphere.
As external cameras for drum heating ovens can be used, at least one combustion chamber. Each combustion chamber may be thermally insulated housings, eccentric covering drum kiln and burner and having an outlet for removing the smoke.
Drum dryers and drum kiln is installed at an angle of 0.5-2° in such a manner as to ensure the movement of solid waste inside them as the rotation of rotary drum dryer and rotary kiln.
Additionally, the housing of the discharge chamber rotary kiln is connected to a refrigerating apparatus, which is used as a heat exchanger for cooling the neutralized solid waste and air heating. Moreover, the refrigerating apparatus can be connected via the duct with external heating chambers,
As a device for transportation can be used by the feeder.
The inventive method can be implemented using the inventive device.
The inventive device and method is illustrated by drawings, which shows a perspective view of the device for thermal disposal of solid waste.
Device for thermal disposal of solid waste contains interconnected by means of a feeder 1 drum dryer drum 2 and furnace 3, each of which has a housing 4, 5 and supplied zag�utcnow camera 6, 7, a discharge chamber 8, 9 and flue gas outlet 10, 11 formed in the neutralization process. Thus unlike the prototype of the claimed device is further provided with external heating chambers 12 and 13, covering the housing 4, and 5 drum dryers drum-type furnace 2 and 3 from the outside with the possibility of heat transfer.
Drum dryer 2 contains three equidistant from each other and arranged along the length of the housing 4 drum dryer 2 outside the heating chambers 12. External the heating chambers 12 are insulated shrouds covering the drum housing 4 of the dryer 2 and having branch pipes for supplying hot gases 15 and the nozzles for discharging the cooled gases 16.
As the outer camera 13 for heating the rotary kiln 3 used two furnace chamber 13 located in the first half of the rotary kiln 3, the second housing half 5 drum-type furnace 3 are insulated material 14. The combustion chamber 13 are thermally insulated housings, eccentric covering drum furnace 3 with the aim of creating a combustion chamber and having three burners 17 and one pipe for discharging smoke 18 through duct 19 in the two outer heating chamber 12 drum dryer 2 through the nozzles for supplying hot gases 15.
Tumble dryer drum 2 and p�e 3 is installed at an angle of 0.5-2° thus, to ensure the movement of solid waste inside them as rotation drum dryer drum-type furnace 2 and 3.
External heating chamber 12 and the combustion chamber 13 are stationary.
Additionally, the housing of the discharge chamber 9 is connected with the cooling device 20, which is used as a plate heat exchanger, for the purpose of cooling the neutralized solid waste. In turn the refrigeration unit 20 to transfer the heated air is connected by a duct 21 with the burners 17 combustion chambers 13 and a pipe for supplying hot gases 15 external of the heating chambers 12 drum dryer 2.
Unloading chamber 8 drum dryer 2 and the inlet chamber 7 of the drum-type furnace 3 is provided with flues for gas outlet 10 and 11 formed in the neutralization process.
The principle of operation of the claimed device is as follows.
In the loading chamber 6 drum dryer 2 receives solid wastes with a moisture content of 15%. In the combustion chamber 13 is the burning of natural gas with the formation of flue gas then enters the external heating chamber 12 drum dryer 2. In drum drying 2 drying of solid waste at a temperature of 100°C due to the heat transferred from the external heating chambers 12 through the drum housing 4 of the dryer 2, with the formation of gases in the form of evaporating ow�Ki solid waste and vapors pollutants.
Next, the dry solid waste by means of the feeder 1 through the loading chamber 7 are in a drum furnace 3, where the heat of combustion of natural gas in burners combustion chambers 17 13 dry solid waste is heated to a temperature of 650-700°C with the formation of gases in the form of evaporating moisture of solid waste and vapor contaminants and sludge.
Then the heat from the hot neutralized solid waste through the body 5 of the discharge chamber 9 drum furnace 3 is supplied to the cooling device 20, thus neutralized solid waste we chill with the purpose of further transportation, thus cooling the air in the cooling apparatus 20 is heated and is fed to the burner combustion chambers 17 13, and the external heating chamber 12 drum dryer 2.
The evaporated moisture pair of solid waste and pollutants through the flue 10 of the discharge chamber 8 drum dryer 2 and the flue gas duct 11 loading chamber rotary kiln 7 3 removed from the device for further processing.
Exhaust heated air and flue gas are also removed from the claimed device to the atmosphere through the nozzles for discharging the cooled gases 16 and the nozzles for discharging the smoke 18.
1. The method of thermal disposal of solid waste, including the room of solid waste in a drum dryer, drying of solid waste in a drum dryer EN�the amount of solid waste from a drum dryer, rotary kiln, their calcination in rotary kiln, the discharge gases generated in the neutralization process of rotary drum dryer and rotary kiln and unloading neutralized solid waste, characterized in that the drying and calcination of the solid waste produced by transferring heat from the housings of rotary drum dryer and rotary kiln, respectively, and the heating of buildings is carried out in an external heating chambers, covering the body of a drum dryer and rotary kiln with external parties.
2. Method for thermal disposal of solid waste according to claim 1, characterized in that the outer chambers of the heated drum dryers use heat-insulated casing, covering the body of a drum dryer and having at least one pipe for supplying hot gases and discharging the cooled gases into the atmosphere.
3. Method for thermal disposal of solid waste according to claim 1, characterized in that as an external camera for drum heating ovens use at least one combustion chamber.
4. Device for thermal disposal of solid waste, containing interconnected by a device for conveying drum dryer and drum kiln, each of which has a housing and is provided with a loading chamber, a discharge chamber and the gas duct for discharging the gases generated in the process�e clearance, characterized in that it further equipped with an external heating chambers, covering the body of a drum dryer and rotary kiln from the outside with the possibility of heat transfer.
5. Device for thermal disposal of solid waste according to claim 4, characterized in that the outer chamber of the heated drum dryers are insulated casing covering the body of a drum dryer and having at least one pipe for supplying hot gases and discharging the cooled gases into the atmosphere.
6. Device for thermal disposal of solid waste according to claim 4, characterized in that as an external camera for drum heating ovens are used, at least one combustion chamber.
7. Device for thermal disposal of solid waste according to claim 4, characterized in that the housing of the discharge chamber rotary kiln is connected to a refrigerating apparatus, which is used as a heat exchanger.
8. Device for thermal disposal of solid waste according to claim 4, characterized in that as the device used for the transportation of the feeder.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: non-waste thermal processing method of solid public wastes involves drying of the above wastes before they are supplied to melting furnace with gaseous nitrogen heated to 200-300°C with the heat accumulated with liquid-metal heat carrier at cooling of melting furnace housing, their loading at adjustable speed to melting furnace, combustion of organic components in oxygen atmosphere on surface of molten slag obtained from mineral components of waste and added fluxes in melting chamber. Formed gases are supplied via cooled connection pipe to power boiler where their afterburning and heat utilisation of obtained gases is performed. Continuous draining speed of excess slag from the chamber is maintained at the level providing the constant amount of slag available in the chamber. Device for implementation of the above method is described.
EFFECT: avoiding the formation of dioxins and furans due to maintaining reasonable ratio of weight of wastes loaded per unit of time to the weight of molten slag contained in melting furnace; increasing the utilisation degree of heat removed with nitrogen from metal heat carrier in secondary cooling system of melting chamber.
6 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method for non-waste processing of carbon-containing solid substances, such as waste wood, differing by the fact that wastes are dried at the temperature of not more than 160°C to the moisture of not more than 3%, at the same time the produced steam and air mixture is cleaned and discharged, dried waste wood is exposed to subsequent quick pyrolysis in a reactor without oxygen access at the temperature of 520-830°C for at least 5 sec, and the produced pyrolysis gas via a heat exchanger is sent to a system of condensation for separation into liquid fuel and synthesis gas, at the same time the heat exchanger serves to transfer a part of thermal energy of pyrolysis gas for drying process. Both versions of the method are characterised, used for processing of coals and wastes of coal production, slates, or domestic and industrial wastes, including agricultural wastes.
EFFECT: improved ecological cleanless of a processing method, reduced heat losses into environment.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 5 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: installation includes a vacuum mixer (M) containing a lockable charge hole for feeding organic masses and is located on the lower side or a lockable dried mass charge hole located on the lower side sidewise. There is at least one vacuum pump (VP) connected to at least one suction pipe located in the mixer housing (M) above the maximum innage, for pumping air out of the mixer to create vacuum, heating device (H) for heating the organic mass, at least one capacitor (K) with cooling unit (KA) connected in order to condensate pumped out air and which is coupled with the pipeline (AL) of vacuum pump (VP) that is designed for the evacuated air and discharge pipeline (AW) designed for the condensate obtained by cooling the pumped out air in the condenser (K). The external blades of the mixer are made at least partially hollow; the heating device is installed in the housing or into the housing and a heat-carrying agent can be supplied and drained in and out of it. The internal blades are made solid or in the form of at least one rotating cutoff knife.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of the drying process.
16 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power engineering, namely heat engineering, possibly boiler aggregates.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of supplying fuel to boiler 1 designed for burning dry fuel and having temperature pickup 16 mounted in its combustion chamber; directing heat energy of combustion gases from boiler 1 to heat exchanger 4 designed for heating air. Flow of heated air is controlled by means of shutters 12 and 14 depending upon temperature measured by temperature pickup 16 and related with moisture content of fuel. Shutters are arranged in respective air ducts 6 and 13 in such a way that the whole volume of air heated in heat exchanger 4 is supplied for drying fuel until predetermined moisture content or heated air is supplied for drying and into boiler 1 as air for fire box. It is possible to guide the whole volume of heated air into boiler 1 as air for fire box.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of method.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises grinding slaughter tankage, rotary subsurface mechanical treatment using the ripper with cutters on a horizontal shaft 5 and its mechanical drive in the form of a rotary milling chisel plough 6, the distribution of pulp from slaughter tankage and water in the soil in the process of its rotary subsurface loosening. For disposal of slaughter tankage, it is ground to a particle size of 2-5 mm, mixed with water or water containing disinfectant, in the ratio of 1:3-1:5. Then the formed pulp is applied in the soil to a depth of 30-80 cm. The soil is ground to a particle size of 1-25 mm and mixed with the pulp in a ratio of 1:6-1:20. Then the upper layer of soil is treated on the trace of passing of the rotary milling chisel plough 6 with the disinfectant.
EFFECT: increase in the degree of processing of slaughter tankage, accelerated decomposition of disposed biological material in the soil, improvement of soil fertility.
SUBSTANCE: for collection, temporary storage and recycling, class B medical waste are collected at sites of waste production into a storage container and transported to a recycling site. The waste is collected in a storage bin and conveyed to a waste combustor. In the storage container, the waste is cooled down and exposed to ultraviolet light. After the transportation the waste is reduced in size, whereas the reduced waste is conveyed into the storage bin and combustor in air flow.
EFFECT: higher ecological compatibility and economical efficiency of the waste recycling process.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ecology. For disposal of metallurgical wastes including heavy metals, slime is carried and sorted out with separation of uncomposted fractions and biochemical enrichment of residual fraction to get biomineral fertiliser. Slime solid fractions are minced by dispersion in fluid to get the pulp to be subjected to ultrasound processing for at least 3 hours at 20-30°C and, additionally, biochemically processed organic mass is added thereto. For compost fermentation, air heated to 35°C to 45°C is fed. Formed sediment with radio nuclides and heavy metals are separated, dewatered and directed for further processing or burial.
EFFECT: simplified process.
2 cl, 9 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: proposed insulating material comprises clay, calcitic material, oil sludge, and drill cuttings with the following component content, parts by weight: clay 1.0; calcitic material 0.5-5.0; drill cuttings 0.5-3.0; oil sludge 0.5-7.0.
EFFECT: reduction of consumption of natural clays, reduction of wastes of production in construction of motor roads and solid domestic waste landfills, improves the quality of final product.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 8 tbl
SUBSTANCE: collection and high-temperature disinfection of medical waste at source is ensured by dividing into three A, B, C streams in each section of healthcare facility; the medical waste is collected into disposable waste collectors, which are placed on vertical trolleys; the collected waste in the hermetically sealed collectors is transported to a point of high-temperature disinfection and destruction. The above procedures of disinfection and destruction of the medical waste are performed in a disinfection and destruction device at a temperature not less than 180°C for 15-60 min. The procedures of disinfection and destruction are controlled according to a heat indication label marked on the collector. The processed waste is placed into case-to-case containers to be transported to a residential solid waste ground.
EFFECT: higher safety of medical waste transportation to the residential solid waste ground.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for processing combustible carbon- and/or hydrocarbon-containing products involves sequential layered furnace-charge processing in a reactor in the presence of a catalyst. In the reactor, the furnace charge drives top down through heating zones of refinement (9), pyrolysis (8), carbonisation (7), burning (6) products to generate a solid residue unloaded from a solid residue unload zone (2) with an unload window (3) from a working chamber of the reactor in cycles paying attention to keep it sealed. The sealed working chamber (1) of the reactor comprises a supply zone of wet fine particles of waste solid fuel including pyrolysis and carbonisation (14) integrated with oxygen agent supply (4) and heating (5) zones. An oxygen agent supply channel (15) is coupled with a dosage tank (16) of wet fine particles of waste solid fuel, which are used to generate a fluid flow in the zone (14) of the reactor. An additional amount of the oxygen agent is additionally supply into the reactor as a part of the basic flow; the amount is expected to be adequate to make fine particles of waste solid fuel burn in the following after the pyrolysis (8) and carbonisation (7) zones and transform their moisture into overheated vapour.
EFFECT: inventions provide the complete recycling of fine fractions of processing products, enable producing high-calorie gas and increasing yield and quality of the finished products.
6 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: method of flash-pyrolysis of hydrocarbon materials using induction heating involves introduction of hydrocarbon materials into cylindrical reactor, located in electromagnetic field of inductor connected to balanced output generator, flash-pyrolysis of hydrocarbon materials during its movement along reactor housing using screw conveyor under impact of heat emitted by reactor housing, separation and collection of liquid, gaseous and solid products of pyrolysis. The device includes a loading unit, cylindrical pyrolised reactor with screw conveyor located inside coil inductor coils, units of separation, cooling and collection of pyrolysis products. Loading unit is designed with possibility of its connection to pyrolised reactor in alignment with or perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of reactor, housing of pyrolised reactor is made conductive with Curie-point above 450°C. As an inductor there used is a zoned inductor, and dimensions of reactor housing and screw conveyor is selected to perform the following ratios: K1=(D-d)/2=(0.5÷2) mm; K2=h/L=0.1÷0.2; K3=L/d=2.4÷0.8, where D is the internal diameter of reactor, d is the diameter of screw, h is the height of cam screw, L is the pitch of screw.
EFFECT: minimising energy consumption during treatment of low-value natural and human-made refuse.
9 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: oily wastes are premised at heating up to 60-70°C during 5-10 minutes with wastes of oil and fat production with the ratio of 1:(0.05-0.2). The neutralising compound is obtained by mixing of unhydrated lime and waste sorbent ODM-2F with introduction of designed quantity of water to the compound. The neutralising compound is introduced by mixing and by portions in to the mixture of disposed wastes with the ratio of 1:(0.67-1,14).
EFFECT: improved hydrophobic property of the disposed product and reduced concentration of harmful substances in aqueous extract of the disposed product.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: operating section of a coal bank is broken into service panels that are drilled in a certain sequence to the bottom of the coal bed with wells of mean and large diameters, and that are in-series developed through the same wells during underground coal gassing so that useful products such as combustible gas, process steam and electric power is obtained, and after coal degassing is completed, useful products such as metal of scandium are obtained from ash and bio gas out of solid domestic wastes buried in the worked-out volume of the panel.
EFFECT: improving development efficiency of an underground coal formation through process wells due to complex use of a heat resource of a coal combustion process, a mineral part of coal ash, and a degassed volume of an underground gas generator.
7 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes the mixing of oily wastes with the neutralizing composition containing the grinded to finely dispersed state caustic lime (calcium oxide) amounting 67-91 wt % and used silica gel - 9-33 wt %, that is waste from the unit for gas conditioning before transportation with the subsequent adding of calculated amount of water, reacting with quicklime, the required amount of which is identified in view of water contained in the oily waste, and water sorption of used silica gel. Before mixing the oily wastes while heating up to 60-70°C within 5-10 minutes are mixed with filtering and absorbing used masses formed at the stage of winterization of process of refining of vegetable oil in the ratio 1:(0.05-0.2), then into the obtained mixture a neutralizing composition is added by portions in the ratio 1:(0.67-1.14) with mixing using a mechanical agitator at a rate of 100-110 rpm and temperature increase from 99 up to 144°C within 10-15 minutes until forming of uniform hydrophobic free-flowing finely dispersed powder.
EFFECT: increase of hydrophobicity of the product of waste treatment and decrease of concentration of harmful matters in a water extraction from the product of treatment.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 7 ex
FIELD: processing materials, such as roofing bitumen-containing materials.
SUBSTANCE: waste are ground and loaded in bitumen melting boiler for separation of them from cardboard base in presence of liquid contact heat-transfer agent. During heating, flue gas is evacuated from furnace of boiler through box used for reduction of flue gas pressure via pipe line to gas separator for entrapping and settling of soot. Then gas directed to filtering unit where it is cleaned and is discharged into atmosphere in form of clean air. Molten bitumen and cardboard pulp are extracted from melting boiler and are cooled to temperature not above 140oC, after which cardboard pup is washed in bitumen-dissolving reagent and is used for manufacture of roofing materials and/or materials for furnaces; liquid phase remaining after washing is used as base for production of bitumen varnish; soot is used for manufacture of rubber articles or dye or pigment for paints and varnishes. Plant proposed for realization of this method is provided with gas separator, gas filtration unit and bitumen melting boiler.
EFFECT: optimization of process; enhanced ecological safety; increased productivity; reduced usage of materials.
22 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: Utilization of wastes containing mercury.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with utilization of wastes containing mercury, in particular, with the device for extraction of luminophore from fluorescent lamps and may be used in an industry where it is necessary to separate dust-like substances from subjects. The installation includes a container performing a function of a crusher with the support structure, made in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped and mounted with a capability of rotation around of its longitudinal axis inclined at an angle of 45°. In the upper plane of the container there is a window for loading lamps. The support structure of the container includes timbered a fixed sheet abutting without a spacing to the upper plane of the container made with an aperture above which a loading cylinder is fastened. The container is divided into three sections by transversal lattices, and on a lateral wall of the container in its upper and middle sections at a level of lattices there are opening hatches for unloading the lamps pedestals and glass breakage. At that in the middle section there are jets installed for feeding compressed air as the counter-current streams, and the lower section is connected to the system of evacuation of luminophore into the storage. The technical result is reduction of expenditures on realization of the process of utilization and on production of the installation, and also provision of the best protection of the atmosphere and employees from mercury pollutions.
EFFECT: the invention ensures reduced expenditures on realization of the process of utilization, on production of the installation, and the best protection of the atmosphere and employees from mercury pollutions.
FIELD: environmental pollution control.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industrial process of detoxifying sea and lagoon sediments or grounds polluted by stable organic trace pollutants (e.g., dioxins and furans, polychlorobiphenyls, aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons) and inorganic trace pollutants (e.g., Hg, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, etc.). Detoxification process comprises following stages: (i) thermal desorption of organic pollutants in trace amounts from mud or ground and removal of volatile metals from furnace operated at 300 to 700єC to form first gaseous stream containing removed organic pollutants and volatile metals and stream consisting of remaining solids; and (ii) extracting heavy metals from the stream of remaining solids with the aid of inorganic acids or chelating compounds, in one or more steps, to produce chemically dissolved above-indicated heavy metals and essentially detoxified mud or ground having characteristics allowing thus treated mud or ground to be returned to their original place.
EFFECT: achieved complete detoxification with minimum environmental harm.
16 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: transport engineering; railway transport.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to auxiliary devices arranged on railway platforms. Proposed complex for preliminary processing of solid garbage contains series connected unloading flat 1 and processing platform 2. complex is installed on railway platform body and is furnished additionally with series-connected catching belt conveyor 3 and cross belt conveyor 4. The latter interacts with unloading flat 1 made in form of apron feeder 5. Processing platform contains drum 6 to screen ash-and-slag and small-size components and deliver them into movable hoppers-accumulators. It contains also belt flat sortation conveyor 8 with working places 9 for workers and receiving funnels 10 installed under drum. Funnels are made in floor of processing platform and they interact with additional movable hoppers-accumulators delivering homogeneous wastes for further processing to zone of vertical presses 12 for briquetting. Processing platform contains, installed in series with belt flat sortation conveyor, electrodynamic separator 13 to separate non-ferrous metals and press for compacting wastes which cannot be reprocessed. Unloading flat is connected with processing platform through loader and catching slat bend conveyor 15.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of preliminary processing of solid garbage, reduced cost of transportation to place of preliminary processing.
FIELD: reworking 0f domestic and industrial wastes town dumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in profiling the dump territory in the course of accumulation, excavation and sorting-out of garbage at simultaneous separation of scrap metal, stones and incombustible building wastes. After profiling the territory, dump is divided into technological sites which are covered with peat (and sawdust if available). Sorting-out of garbage is performed by means of layer-by-layer cyclic surface reworking of technological sited by detents of rotary stump pullers and then by working members of stone-picking road-building machines at simultaneous mixing of peat (and sawdust if available) with garbage in depth of sites and shaking of coarse and then fine scrap metal, stones and incombustible building wastes in separators. Then garbage is loaded in bins of machines for removal from dump. Cleaned garbage is subjected to surface grinding by means of layer-by-layer milling with the aid of peat milling machines. Milled garbage crumb is subjected to drying together with peat and sawdust under action of solar radiation in summer or freezing-out in winter, after which it is stacked for storage and making briquettes used as domestic fuel. Device proposed for reworking garbage includes complex of profiling and hoisting machines, sorting-out site and briquetting presses. Sorting-out site is made in form of technological sites covered with peat and sawdust (if available). Technological base consists of peat machine complex cyclically working on technological site covered with peat (and sawdust if available); technological base is made from complex which includes rotary stump puller with separator and collecting bin for coarse scrap metal, stones and incombustible building wastes, stone picking machine with separator and collecting bin for fine scrap metal, stone and incombustible building materials, peat agitators, swath collectors and milled peat picking machines for regular gathering of dried crumb which is subjected to briquetting in peat presses.
EFFECT: possibility of removal of garbage accumulated in dumps during 10-15 years; enhanced ecological safety; low cost of method.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: municipal domestic cervices; treatment of household solid wastes.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of municipal domestic cervices, in particular, to; household solid wastes treatment. Purpose: equipment used for formation of bulky blocks from household solid wastes (HSW) for their further utilization. The invention allows to make the engineering process of production and utilization of the HSW blocks cheaper and to reduce its labor intensiveness. The device contains a pressing chamber with a loading hopper and a forming unit installed with a capability of a reciprocal motion, and also a counterpressure chamber connected to the pressing chamber. The area of the in-line cross-section of the pressing chamber is in 2.5-3 times less than the area of the in-line cross-section of the counterpressure chamber.
EFFECT: the invention allows to make the engineering process of production and utilization of the HSW blocks cheaper and to reduce its labor intensiveness.
5cl, 2 dwg