Method of welding parts with different thickness out of dissimilar metals

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: temporary beads 3 and 4 are made on thick 2 and thin 1 parts. The bead 3 height is by 3-4 times higher than thickness of part 1. Height of bead 4 is equal to height of bead 3. Bead 4 thickness is determined by equation S2=(1+Δ)·S1. Beads 3 and 4 contact surface is treated by ultrasound in ethyl alcohol. Parts 1 and 2 are secured in welding fixture. Butt joint gap and beads 3 and 4 shift at least 10% of part 1 thickness are ensured. Laser beam 5 is directed to butt joint of beads 3 and 4.

EFFECT: invention increases weld strength due to rational design of the temporary beads.

3 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of welding production, in particular to the technology of welding parts of different thickness, made of dissimilar metals. The invention can be used in machine building, aircraft engineering, instrument making, nuclear energy and other industries.

Prior art

The known method of laser welding of parts made of dissimilar metals (RF patent No. 2415739 on 10.04.2011, UK 26/40, UK 9/23, UK 33/00, the authors Zvezdin, V. V., Israfilov I. H., D. E. Veliev). The method consists in the fact that the plane of the butt joints of parts made of dissimilar metals perform inclined tangentially to the segment of the heat affected zone of the weld. Laser radiation is focused on a more refractory material at a distance from the butt of the plane. The angle of inclination of the plane of the butt joint and the focusing distance is calculated from the conditions of the absence of evaporation of the fusible material.

The disadvantage of this method due to the uneven heating of parts with different coefficient of thermal expansion is the tendency to accumulation of welding stresses and deformations. This can lead to reduction in the strength of welded joints.

As a prototype for the method was the selected method of arc welding with non-consumable electrode (patent RF №2458768 from 20.08.2012, VC/02, the authors Tregubov V. I., Zabolotiv V. M., Khabarov, A. N., Valery Gayevsky). In the method of manufacturing thin-walled axisymmetric welded construction with thick-walled hinged elements in a thick-walled tubular blanks of hinged elements in places of their welding technological form the ribs the thickness and width equal to the thickness of the tubular frame. Carry out preliminary Assembly, the assembled construction is fixed on the installation of welding in the welding fixture, fix each element of the potholder. Perform automatic welding in shielding gases.

The disadvantage of this method is the high probability of burn-through in thin-walled parts and rasplavlennyi with a thick-walled, which reduces the strength and violates the integrity of the weld. When welding workpieces of different thickness it occurs, as a rule, due to the greater thermal expansion of the metal thin edges, leading to local buckling and the emergence of a gap between the parts, a thin edge overheats burn-through is formed. In addition, the offset of the heat flux on the more massive the item is not always yields a high-quality weld as possible rasplavlennyi welded edges. Therefore, when welding raznoformnyh parts, to obtain a stable result, it is more expedient to consider �tykovoe flanged edges.

Disclosure of the invention

Task to be solved by the claimed invention is to provide a method of welding workpieces of different thickness made of dissimilar metals that produces a sealed permanent connections with a high quality weld.

Technical result achieved when solving this problem, is to increase the strength of the weld by performing rational design of technological clamps, ensuring uniform heating of the welded parts and the exception deformation of the weld.

For obtaining the specified technical result in the method of welding workpieces of different thickness in inert gases, including the formation of the technological pile on thick-walled parts, the Assembly of the parts in the welding fixture, tack, weld parts according to the invention form the technological pile on thin parts, with the height of the pile is 3-4 times greater than the thickness of the workpiece. Form the collar on thick pieces with a height equal to the height of the windrow thin-walled parts, thick-dependent reflection coefficient of the welded parts by the formula S2=(1+Δ)·S1where Δ=R2-R1, R1- the reflectance of a thick-walled parts, R2- reflectance thin-walled parts, S1- the thickness of the collar tone�istennoy details S2- thickness collar thick pieces. Weld parts made of dissimilar metals with a laser beam, wherein the laser beam is directed at the junction of clamps welded parts.

The totality of these essential features provides the technical result - uniform heating of welded parts and reduce overheating of thin-walled parts and deformation, as well as the exclusion of incomplete fusion and burn-through in the weld, thus enhancing the strength of the weld.

Before Assembly of the contact surface clamps can be subjected to ultrasonic treatment in ethanol. This clean weldable surface from contamination, and thus exclude the influence of adsorbed atoms of the external environment on the quality of the weld. Contaminant-free weld quality is improved.

The Assembly can run with the assumption of a gap in the junction and offsets the height of the welded clamps not exceeding 10% of the thickness of thin-walled parts. At the same time provide intimate contact of the welded clamps eliminates the formation of air cavities between the piles, which can cause burn-through of thin-walled collar detail. The absence of gaps improves the quality of the weld.

To ensure the possibility of welding of dissimilar metals, including in an inert environment, it is necessary to consider their thermophysical and physico-chemical�economic characteristics.

To connect thin-walled and thick-walled parts, it is advisable to use the method of welding with minimum heat input laser or pulsed laser welding.

This method allows to obtain a reliable connection of dissimilar metals only maintaining the specified parameters ledge. Moreover, the geometrical dimensions of the clamps matched with thermal properties of the connected metals.

Brief description of the drawing figures

Fig.1 shows a cross section of the welded parts made with technological piles.

Fig.2 shows the connection of the parts before welding.

Fig.3 shows a cross section of a welded joint M1+12X18H10T.

Fig.4 shows a cross section of a welded joint NP2+12X18H10T.

Embodiments of the invention

As a material of thin-walled parts used copper marks M1 GOST 1173-2006 and Nickel NP2 GOST 2170-73.

Material thick pieces - stainless steel 12X18H10T of GOST 4986-79.

Thus, in this paper, the authors examine the welding of parts of different thicknesses from dissimilar metals in the following combination: M1+12X18H10T and NP2+12X18H10T.

Fig.1 shows a thin-walled part 1 and the thick-walled part 2, which made technological piles 3 and 4. In this embodiment, the welding geometries�e the dimensions of the welded parts 1 and 2 are very small, a therefore, for experimental validation of the proposed welded structure as an example, consider the pulsed laser welding.

The thickness of the collar 4 of the workpiece 2 is determined by the formula: S2=(1+Δ)·S1where Δ=R2-R1, R1- reflectance parts 2, R2- reflectance parts 1, S1- the thickness of the collar 3 details 1, S2- the thickness of the collar 4 of the workpiece 2. The reflection coefficient of copper details 1 is R2=0,91, part of the energy of the laser beam 5 is reflected by the surface of the part 1. Thus less energy is absorbed laser beam 5 of the collar 3 and it is less heated. The reflection coefficient of stainless steel is less than copper, Therefore, the collar 4 absorbs more energy than the collar 3. Therefore, for uniform heating of the clamps 3 and 4, it is necessary that the thickness of the collar 4 was greater than the thickness of the collar 3. Therefore, in order to ensure uniform melting of the clamps 3 and 4 welded parts 1 and 2, consider the reflection coefficients of the welded parts 1 and 2.

Pulsed laser welding raznoformnyh parts 1 and 2 is as follows. Form technology the collar 3 with a height of 3-4 times greater than the thickness of the workpiece 1. Form the collar 4 by a height equal to the height of the collar 3, the thickness-dependent reflection coefficient of the welded parts 1 and 2 by the formula S2=(1+Δ)·S1.

�if the thickness of the S 2collar 4 details 2 less than the thickness S1collar 3 details 1, this leads to uneven heating of parts 1 and 2 during welding, therefore, the lack of mutual melting of the clamps 3 and 4 and the formation of weld seams 6 and 7 of unstable quality.

If the height of the collar 3 details 1 less than 3-4 thickness of the workpiece 1, the material of the cap 3 is insufficient to form a nominal weld section 6 and are formed by incomplete fusion or undercuts, which may degrade the quality of the weld 6. If the height of the collar 3 parts 1 more than 3-4 thickness of the workpiece 1, then there is an incomplete fusion of the collar 3 with the distortion of the shape of the weld seam 6, as formed by the excess material for forming a welded seam 6.

The shape of the collar 4 is because it is necessary to reduce thermal impact on the workpiece 2 during welding and to provide more uniform heating of the clamps 3 and 4.

Before assembling the surface of the contact clamps 3 and 4 is subjected to ultrasonic treatment in ethanol. Welded parts 1 and 2 installed in a special Assembly and welding fixture, provide tight contact surfaces of the clamps 3 and 4 thus, as shown in Fig.2. With the gap and the displacement of the welded clamps 3 and 4 does not exceed 10% of the thickness of the workpiece 1. Assembly and welding fixture provides unhindered access of the laser beam 5 and�itogo gas in the weld zone. For protection during welding of weld seams 6, 7 (Fig.3 and 4) by oxidation using an inert gas. Next, the laser beam 5 is directed to the junction of clamps 3, 4 and perform tack detail 1 detail 2 separate points in several places, equidistant from each other. Tack perform on the same mode, which then carry out the welding.

Welding is done on the joint parts 1 and 2. In the process of interaction of the laser beam 5 with welded clamps 3 and 4 produce heating thereof and further melting. The difference of thermophysical properties and reflection coefficients of the laser beam 5 is compensated by the form of the clamps 3, 4 and their geometric dimensions. As a result the weld seams 6 and 7 are formed with a uniform reflow of technological clamps 3 and 4 welded parts 1 and 2.

As shown in Fig.3, the weld metal 6 thick, free of defects. In the weld 6 is a mutual melting of the copper collar 3 and the stainless steel collar 4.

As shown in Fig.4, a more stable weld formation 7 is observed when connecting the Nickel collar 3 with stainless steel collar 4. A characteristic feature of the microstructure of the weld 7 is dendritic or, in other words, the cast structure. In the HAZ the compound has an austenitic structure. The boundaries of austenite grains coincide with the boundaries of the primary crystals. All� seam 7 due to the high stability of the austenitic structure of the secondary crystallization is not observed, after solidification of the weld bath is fixed to the primary structure. Consequently, the weld metal 7 has a more homogeneous structure, is not observed the appearance of internal stresses, which contribute to the development of microcracks and, as a rule, the air-tightness of the seam 7.

Practice has shown that, in compliance with the requirements for Assembly of parts 1, 2 and maintaining the necessary geometric dimensions of clamps 3, 4, welds 6, 7 are of the highest quality.

Thus, the implementation of the cap 3 on the parts 1 and implementation of the cap 4 for details 2 not only improves the stability of the quality of welding seams 6 and 7, but also to ensure the tightness. As a result of the experiments it was confirmed that during pulsed laser welding of parts 1 and 2 different thicknesses of different metals mutual melting of the clamps 3 and 4. With welded seams 6 and 7 are sealed, have no external and internal defects and defects of the microstructure.

Industrial applicability

Most effective looks using the proposed method in the power nodes of designs for critical applications where high demands are placed on the tightness of welded joints. That is, where the design there is a need to combine parts of different thickness, made �W of dissimilar metals, and increased requirements to the geometry of the product, in General, and to the quality of the welds, in particular.

The proposed design of the welded connection provides the technical effect consists in increasing the quality of welded joints.

In General, the considered embodiment of the invention can be implemented on current hardware using available materials. It shows that it works and confirms the industrial applicability.

1. The method of welding workpieces of different thicknesses of different metals in inert gases, including the formation of the technological pile on thick-walled parts, the Assembly of the parts in the welding fixture, tack and weld parts, characterized in that the technological form of a shoulder on thin-walled parts with a height of collar 3 - 4 times longer than its thickness, and the collar on thick pieces are formed with a height equal to the height of the windrow thin parts, and the thickness is selected depending on the reflection coefficient of the welded parts by the formula S2=(1+Δ)·S1where Δ=R2-R1, R1- the reflectance of a thick-walled parts, R2- reflectance thin-walled parts, S1- the thickness of the thin-walled collar detail, S2- thickness collar thick pieces, in this case, the�m parts are welded by a laser beam, which is sent to the junction mentioned ledge.

2. The method of welding parts according to claim 1, characterized in that before Assembly of the contact surface ledge is subjected to ultrasonic treatment in ethanol.

3. The method of welding parts according to claim 1, characterized in that the Assembly is performed with the gap in the joint and the relative displacement of the welded clamps for height not exceeding 10% of the thickness of thin-walled parts.



 

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