Method of ice cover destruction and device for ice cover destruction

FIELD: blasting operations.

SUBSTANCE: explosive charges are placed under the ice and undermined in sequence with the time interval equal to the time of passage of flexural-gravitation wave from the place of undermining the previous to the place of undermining the subsequent charges. Above the ice cover the explosive charges are placed and undermined simultaneously with undermining the charges placed under the ice cover. At that, before the placement of the explosive charges the speed and direction of wind, undercurrents and drifts of ice fields is measured, the thickness of ice is determined. The explosive charges are placed with the formation of the direction of propagation of the blast wave in the opposite directions from the location of marine object of economic activity. The watercraft influencing the ice cover is equipped with a source of gas and a system of its supply with a collector and comprises a cable-rope, the other end of which is connected through the electromagnetic breaker with the ballast. The charges are placed in watertight casings made in the form of a ball. The cable-rope is connected to the balls by the fuse lighter. The charges are made in the form of the volume-detonating mixture.

EFFECT: increase in reliability of protection of marine objects of economic activity.

2 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to icebreaking fleet.

The known method of destruction of ice cover for sea-breakers, based on the use of buoyant force, is that we take an Autonomous underwater vehicle, consisting of empty bottles of 100 m3, hollow triangular cross-section of garrote volume 20 m3and er, which is associated with the icebreaker electrical power cable. Lowered under the ice machine and using the remote control located on Board the icebreaker, jet engine fail him to the place of destruction of ice. Opening the gate, fill the container with sea water. The fairing provides the buoyancy of the entire apparatus, based fairing on the lower edge of the ice, the air from garrote when filling the tank with water discharged through the check valve. Pump through the pipe and check valve pump out the water from the tank and create arhimedova force of 100 tons, which at the place of contact of the sharp edges of garrote iced exceed the tensile strength of ice shear equal to 30 kg/cm2almost in 5 times. The pressure in the fairing reduces to 0.2 ATM. After the formation of ice cracked ice breaker and the apparatus further forward.

The device consists of a container, garrote, engine room, electrical power cable, a water-jet engine with a twist�first nozzle, water pump with electric drive, the check valve, only having the ability to release water from the tank, intake pipe, damper, having the ability to fill the container with sea water, and the check valve having the opportunity to release the air from garrote when filling with sea water. Breaks the ice cover with a thickness of 2.5 meters or more (patent RU №2326785 C1, 20.06.2008 [1]). Also known a method of destruction of ice cover, and attachment to the vessel for its implementation (patent RU №2213675 C2, 10.10.2003 [2]).

The destruction of the ice cover by notching a limited area of ice cover is carried out by jets of water, steam-water mixture or steam that is heated in the heat source. Jet directed at an angle to the surface of the water, so that when nakazanie formed ice cubes with sides at an angle to the surface of the water, and the jets impart a rotary motion. Under the ice cover is supplied with compressed air intended for pre-stress of the ice cover before the destruction. After nadrezki ice cover through the ice in the cracks nadrezki electric current is passed into the water. Icebreaking attachment to the vessel contains a wedge-shaped frame, the covering of which forms a concave cheekbones in the form of a two-way plow with top nedorazvedany comb. It is equipped with one connected through the heat source collecto�ohms with nozzles. One of the nozzles has a swirl ring, designed to make the flow of the working fluid to rotational motion. The console is supplied to the vessel is included in the electric circuit of a sliding contact under the manifold with nozzles designed for destruction of ice cover, the influence of electric current through the ice cover and water. Attachment to the vessel is equipped with mechanical or hydraulic drive, designed for lifting and lowering. Is achieved reducing the cost of power, energy and funds for the delivery of goods by water in the ice-covered sea water surface.

Also known method of destruction of ice cover for surfacing submarine (patent RU №2085432 C1, 27.07.1997 [3]). The inventive method of destruction of ice to float a submarine (PL), including the jet of heated fluid to the surface of the ice. The process of destruction of ice occurs in surfacing a SUBMARINE to periscope depth and adjusting its provisions. With the help of the booms with nozzles with minimum clearance between them and the bottom surface of the ice served warm water and thus melt the ice around the perimeter of the SQUARE, forming the slits. Then down under the PL area heated in ice slots, create positive buoyancy, breaking into a body weakened by slits ice and sply�up in a surfaced position. As the heated fluid is used the water from circulating tracks emitted at regular modes overboard, which eliminates the need of placing on PL cumbersome equipment (heat exchangers, pumps, etc.) and additional energy costs for heating and pumping water.

There are also known methods of destruction of ice cover by performing explosions. The known method of destruction of ice cover includes the installation under the ice at a distance from each other of explosives and their detonation. To increase the efficiency of destruction of ice explosions undermining charges produce alternately, each of the following charges erode with time interval equal to the transit time of peaks of Flexural-gravity waves (VVM) from the explosion of the previous charge (inventor's certificate SU # 1820188 [4]).

The disadvantage of this method is that when blasting operations to increase ledarray ability VVM accumulates only the direct energy of water movement and ice cover, i.e. the oscillatory motion upward against the force of gravity. The accumulation of energy return downward movement in the direction of gravity when the conventional method does not occur, i.e. the possibility of increasing energy VVM is not fully exploited. In addition, after the explosion form�I'm small and medium-sized icy fields, which under appropriate meteorological conditions will continue for the offshore oil and gas terminal, posing a threat of damage or destruction.

Also known method of destruction of ice cover, which is that the ice set a few charges that erode with time interval equal to the time of the passage of Flexural-gravity waves from the place of detonation previous to the destruction site subsequent charges. Additionally on the ice set the explosives that undermine simultaneously with the detonation of the charges established under ice cover. With each charge, located above the ice cover is installed at the distance from each charge is located under ice half the length of the Flexural-gravity waves, which allows to increase the amplitude of the Flexural-gravity waves and thereby increase the efficiency of destruction of ice cover explosions (patent RU №2124178 [5]). The invention consists in increasing the efficiency of destruction of ice cover explosions.

The technical result obtained by carrying out the invention, is to increase the amplitude of the VVM, ignited by detonation of explosives.

A significant disadvantage of the known� ways, they allow you to achieve a technical effect in the water areas free of objects of economic activity located on the waters of the seas, and is not suitable in areas of these objects of economic activity, as marine mining oil and gas complexes.

Widely known methods of breaking the ice, based on the hydraulic and thermal methods, is also not found wide industrial application because of their significant shortcomings.

Hydraulic method of breaking the ice in a practice known for a long time. In particular, such a method is used in hydraulic engineering, when in the winter time, prepare the scope of work for dredgers. They use powerful water jets, water jet under high pressure destroys the ice. The application of this method requires a large pressure of water. To provide high pressure water jets powerful installation that is not economically justified.

The heat method includes the cutting of ice from a gas, gasoline or other burners (gasoline cutter). At the initial time the ice begins to melt quickly, but then the water formed by the melting of the upper ice layer, prevents intensive melting of the lower layers of ice. The process of ice melting is slowing sharply. The results ol�led work did not confirm an opinion on the feasibility of using this method.

As you know, the main dynamic factors shaping the ice cover, are wind, currents and fluctuations. Significant impact on the nature of the processes ridging are also shallow, the sinuosity of the coastline and quite complex bottom topography with a large number of cans, spits and Islands. All this determines the dynamics of an ice occurring in the Arctic seas of Russia. In the initial period of ice cover formation in shallow marine when the boundary of young ice extends from the shore to depths of 2-3 m, along with the typical for all of the Arctic seas scalloped-layered ice during the progress and ridging of ice hummocks are formed, sitting on the rocks, - stamukhas. These factors significantly affect the size and their location, therefore, distinguish stamukhas time and place of their occurrence, as well as by the form of ice from which they are formed. A characteristic feature of still stamukhas to differentiate them from moving together with the drifting ice hummocks, is the formation of so-called "water shadow" with their downwind during ice advances. Due to the fact that in the winter along with the processes of ice generation is constantly undergoing the opposite process of destruction of ice, to the contact zone of landfast ice with drift ice is characterized by its seasonal shift�Oia. The formation of hummocks on the border of fast ice and drifting ice in addition to the tangential stress of the wind contribute to the raising of the level in the surge. In this form the powerful ridge several kilometers long and a height of 2 m and more, located perpendicular to the direction of the prevailing winds. When the next shift of the boundary of the landfast ice and drifting ice, a new ridges parallel to the previously formed, thereby forming a belt of hummocks observed in the drift sections of the Arctic seas. Compressive and shear forces arising during contact of the ice lead to a breakdown of ice and the formation on the edges of hummocks. Distinguish tidal, thermal, wind and ridging. Tidal ridging in the North Caspian sea is virtually absent, because tidal level fluctuations here do not exceed the measurement accuracy. Thermal ridging occurs in severe winters in the landfast ice zone, however, a significant influence on the overall picture hummocking it has not. The most characteristic of most of the seas is wind ridging, which contribute to under-ice currents and wind-tide sea level fluctuations.

The maximum torosantucci, when all types of winters, it is noted in the contact zone of landfast ice and drifting ice.

For shallow coastal waters with a smooth and flat bottom ha�Acterna this form of bottom topography, as traces of vipashyana or furrows. They have the appearance of long, often linear grooves with a length from several tens meters to several kilometers. Furrows are formed when exposed to the bottom of the drifting ice pack, oriented in the direction of prevailing in these periods the winds and are held on the bottom of the vectors of ice drift. The width of the furrows varies from a few up to 50-100 m and more. All grooves terminate in shafts formed wapahani soil. Height exceeds the depth of the sea, and they appear on the surface in the form of Islands.

The duration of the existence of furrows in silty soils is 2-3 years, in the sandy soil of the furrow washed off by waves in a single season. Viphavadee the action of drifting ice is also characteristic of the coastal zone. During surges drifting with the sea ice, falling on the land, devise topsoil, leaving traces of vipashyana a depth of 0.5 m and a length of several kilometers. On the Islands during intense drift ice along the shore, created a powerful piles of ice. Fragments of ice, penetrating the soil to a depth of 1 meter, stored for a long time.

When planting hummocks on the ground there is a further accumulation of masses of ice as a result of ridging under the effect of slip and drift ice. � a result stamukhas can infiltrate the soil to a depth of several meters. The depth of their penetration into the soil depends on the physico-mechanical properties of soil, mass stamukhas, area of contact, the depth of the sea.

Because the ice plucking (the interaction of drifting ice with the seabed) exposed shallow areas of the seabed over a large area, it can be argued that these processes have mass (albeit seasonal) nature, and hence play an important role in the ecology of the pond. Along with purely mechanical movement of huge masses of bottom soil is inhibition Donna, island and coastal vegetation and organisms.

Most of the seas of the Arctic basin has a great diversity of ice processes. Being serious natural obstacle in the implementation of human activities on the sea ice cover significantly limits their activities, poses a real threat to their security.

Recently conducted in the offshore area of work in the search for hydrocarbons dictate the need for a more committed and not burdened with significant material costs and labor intensity.

In the source of information (Rusinko A. "Kaisar" this ice guard // the newspaper "Astrakhan Izvestia", 22.01.2004 [6]) as a means of protection of the marine oil terminal on the Caspian sea is considered the possibility of the use�ing for these purposes, submerged in the shallows of old ships, previously used as targets for missiles.

The research was carried out to identify the nature and intensity of interaction between drifting ice from a stationary, vertical barrier. The ships are at sea at depths of 5-6 m and at a distance from the shore from 10 to 50 km.

Episodic shifts and intensive ice drift under the influence of storm winds prevailing at this time of year, East and West directions, as well as wind-tide sea level fluctuations contribute to the formation of a powerful hummocks. Around sunken ships form a continuous hummocky fields and along their sides - multilayer giant piles of debris of ice, the height of which ranged from 3-6 up to 15 meters above sea level, and their underwater base reached the bottom, forming a hummocky education, sitting on the ground, - stamukhas.

The results of the ice measurements were used in 1999 in Astrakhan, where for the needs of Kazakh companies OKIOC (Offshore Kazakhstan international operating company) was reconstructed model of a submersible drilling barge, which has been specially adapted to work in conditions of drifting ice of the North-East of the Caspian sea.

The underwater base and the side of the barge type "Kaisar" have been modified to resist ledo�first loads which were studied and analyzed for the past five years. Conducted computer modeling. The result of the calculation area of the barge was doubled, added special ice reflectors on both sides of the barge. In place of statement of the barges in the sea, on both sides of the barges, the installation of the system is a powerful metal piles (penetration depth into the seabed up to 20 m), the purpose of which is deterrence of onset of drifting ice and activation of processes end torosova education around the platform. Also known similar device to protect the drilling platform from the effects of drifting ice (Karl-Ulrich Evers, Walter Spring Ice mjdel testing of an exploration platform for shallow waters in the North Caspian sea // 16th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Frctic Conditions "Ice Engineering Applied to Offshore Regions" (Fugust 12-17, 2001 Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) 2001, p.255-264 [7]), which also achieves the protection of drilling facilities from damage during the movement of ice fields before creating a boring object in the ice period hummocks, sitting on the ground, through ice-resistant structures, which are specially flooded around the perimeter of the drilling platform.

However despite the numerous advantages of the barges of type "Kaisar" the use of this device still does not guarantee absolute protection of drilling facilities from the effects of drifting ice.

So, in February 2002, p�d exposure to storm winds are predominantly westerly points of increase of the cohesion of floating ice in the Guryev area Borozdina, their intense motion, ridging and education stamukhas, which was accompanied by a rise in sea level caused by wind surge. This is a dangerous natural phenomenon almost caused a serious accident on Kazakh oil rig "Sunkar". One of the four barges of type "Ice defender", specially built and flooded around a drilling platform for the purpose of protecting her from the dangerous effects of drifting ice, has been moved by the moving ice and moved along the bottom for a distance of 120 m. it is Only by chance in the way of the barge was not drilling platform.

Also known useful model that relates to the oil and gas industry, in particular to the protection of drilling facilities from damage when operating at sea, in the North Caspian sea, in ice conditions - a Device for protecting objects from drilling damage during the movement of ice fields (the patent for useful model RU # 79611 [8]).

The technical result of the device [8] is a further improvement of devices of protection against the destruction of marine drilling of exploration and production. The known device [8] solves the problem of protection from destruction of drilling facilities for offshore exploration and production and provides a protective barrier consisting of metal panels that are installed on the bottom of the reservoir, and screw piles. The device works� as follows. Around the drilling facility installed a protective barrier, providing the ridging ice fields, and fix it with four or six screw piles, which provide a secure fit protective barrier on the bottom. Screw piles deepen into the ground at 10 m or more and initiate the formation of the annular stamukhas around the drilling object. Drifting under the action of wind, ice fields encounter a protective barrier located around the drilling object, and break. The claimed technical result is obtained in the assumption that because of the frequent changes in wind direction in all types of winters, in relation to the conditions of the North Caspian sea, the direction and speed of drift ice in the sea also changes frequently, up to 2-5 times a day. Happens ridging of ice, and as a result of multiple changes in wind direction based on their frequency of occurrence around the drilling object is formed an annular Toros, sitting on the ground, which further protects it from shifting and breaking.

This also solved another very important problem is ensuring environmental security of the Caspian sea waters as a result of possible oil spills, since the annular stamukha formed around the drilling object, provides reliable localization of the source of the oil (and any other) pollution, �ogranichennoi internal dimensions of the ring stamukhas. To eliminate the impact of contamination on the inside of the ring stamukhas much easier, cheaper and safer than in the open sea, covered with drifting pack ice. However, the technical result from the use of this technical solution is achieved only under the condition that "the direction and speed of drift ice in the sea also changes frequently, up to 2-5 times a day". In addition, reliable installation of screw piles is more difficult, primarily due to the type of soil and the depths of the sea in the area of offshore oil and gas terminal.

Also known method of destruction of ice cover (patent RU №2452812 C1, 10.06.2012 [9]). The invention relates to the field of protection of objects when drilling the movement of ice fields and can be used for destruction of ice cover. The method includes installing the ice explosives and undermining their alternate at intervals of time equal to the time of passage of Flexural-gravity waves from the place of detonation previous to the destruction site subsequent charges. Above the ice cover set the explosives and undermine them simultaneously with the detonation of the charges established under ice cover. Before installing explosives measure the speed and direction of wind, underwater currents and drift of ice fields, �predelut the thickness of the ice. The explosives are placed with the formation of the direction of propagation of the blast wave in opposite directions from the location of the Maritime component of economic activity.

The technical result consists in increasing the reliability of the protection of the marine object of economic activity from the effects of ice formations. New features of the known method [10], which consists in the fact that before installing explosives measure the speed and direction of wind, underwater currents and drift of ice fields, determine the thickness of the ice and the explosives are placed with the formation of the direction of propagation of the blast wave in opposite directions from the location of the Maritime component of economic activity, allow to exclude the undesirable proliferation of ice formations in the direction of placement of the Maritime component of economic activity.

However, the installation charges at a certain distance from each other is a time-consuming operation and is not completely secure.

It is also known a device for the destruction of the ice cover, containing acting on the coating watercraft, equipped with a gas source and delivery system under ice cover. The gas supply system is provided with a collector, rasmusen�m under the coating, and the installation mechanism of the collector to an underwater position to create a gas layer in the fracture zone. The invention is aimed at expanding Arsenal of technical means (patent RU №2314963 C2, 20.01.2008 [10]).

The known device comprises a flotation device, which is equipped with a gas source and the delivery system and regulation of gas in the fracture zone consisting of gas lines, controls, and regulation and mechanism of the gas reservoir to an underwater position to create a gas layer in the fracture zone. To actuate the device setting mechanism of the gas reservoir to an underwater position gas manifold set to an underwater position.

Include in work flow system and regulation of gas in the fracture zone. Gas from the source gas on the highways of the flow through the regulator enters the gas manifold, and from it - under the ice cover, where a gas layer. Gas layer separates the ice from the liquid, thereby eliminates the influence of fluid to the process of destruction of the coating. When exposed from above there is no need to overcome the forces caused by the influence of the fluid as an elastic substrate, and when exposed at the bottom there is no need to overcome the efforts of the adhesion of the coating to the fluid. Consequently, significant measures� reduced efforts for destruction of ice cover. However, the creation of a uniform gas layer cannot always be ensured, for example in the presence of ice keels or in the presence of underwater currents.

The objective of this technical solution is to increase the reliability of protection of Maritime economic activities in the ice formation, drift, and during the period of ridging ice fields located both in shallow and deep seas.

The problem is solved due to the fact that in the method of destruction of ice cover, including the installation of the ice explosives and undermining their alternate at intervals of time equal to the time of passage of Flexural-gravity waves from the place of detonation previous to the subsequent undermining of charges, in which additionally, over ice set the explosives and undermine them simultaneously with the detonation of the charges established under ice, which before installing explosives measure the speed and direction of wind, underwater currents and drift of ice fields, determine the thickness of the ice and the explosives are placed with the formation of the direction of propagation of the blast wave in opposite directions from the location of the Maritime component of economic activity, in contrast to the prior art charges size�up in waterproof membranes, made in the form of a ball and connected with acting on the ice cover of the watercraft by means of a cable-rope, which is connected with the balls through the fiery candles, the charges made in the form of volume-detonating mixture.

In addition, the device for destruction of ice cover containing affecting ice cover watercraft, equipped with a gas source and feeding it to the collector further comprises a cable, the cable having one end connected with affect ice coverage watercraft and the other end through the electromagnetic switch connected to the ballast along the length of the cable-rope installed incendiary spark, United with balloons filled volume-detonating mixture.

The essence of the proposed technical solution is illustrated by a drawing (figure). The drawing shows the scheme of charges, which shows: sea the object of economic activity 1, barrier 2, ice 3, the installation charges 4 explosives, means of measuring the speed and direction of the wind 5, a measurement of currents and drift ice fields 6, means for measuring the thickness of ice 7, craft 8, which is equipped with a gas source 9 and the delivery system and the regulation of gas consisting of gas lines 10, controls, and regulation 11 ihatovo collector 12, cable-the cable 13 having one end connected with affect ice cover 3 craft 8, and the other end through the electromagnetic switch 14 connected to the ballast 15, the length of the cable of the cable 13 is installed incendiary candles 16, United with the balls 17, the filled volume-detonating mixture and placed in the water on 18.

Protective barrier 2 may be performed as in the known device [9].

Due to the fact that it is practically impossible to eliminate the movement of ice formations after blasting, the sea around the object of economic activity establish a protective barrier 2, which consists of boards that are installed on the bottom of the reservoir and connected with piles. The pile is made in the form of an anchor-ballast conical shape of reinforced concrete.

The volume of the balls 17 is determined by the thickness of the ice cover 3. The balls 17 can be made of water-resistant fabric.

The proposed method is implemented as follows.

Before installation of the explosive charges by means of measuring the speed and direction of the wind 5 means for measuring the speed and direction of underwater currents and drifting ice fields 6, means for measuring ice thickness 7 determine the speed and direction of wind, speed and direction of underwater currents and drift of ice fields, the thickness of the ice. As a means of measuring �the scab and wind direction 5 can be used acoustic measure the speed and direction of the wind or stationary hydrometeorological complex type "Gismeteo". As a means of measuring the speed and direction of underwater currents and drifting ice fields 6 can be used parametric sonar transducer representing underwater sonar probe. To determine the drift of ice fields can also be used information obtained stationary hydro-meteorological complexes of the type "Gismeteo" with artificial satellites. According to the information set the direction of blast wave propagation relative to the Maritime component of economic activity, then, as in the prototype, choose the most secure installation point of the explosive charges. Further, under ice cover 3 in water 18 at a distance from each other set underwater explosives.

After that, carry out simultaneous undermining of the first charge with1. The second charge, as well as subsequent, undermine with an interval of time equal to the time of passing the top of the VVM from the place of detonation previous underwater charge.

Charges 4 represent volume-detonating mixture, through which the gas source 9 and the delivery system and the regulation of gas consisting of gas lines 10, controls, and regulation 11 and the gas reservoir 12 is filled, the balls 17.

Through the state�CSOs lowering lifting device 8 boats, for example winches, pull over the side of the cable the cable 13 having one end connected with affect ice cover 3 craft 8, and the other end through the electromagnetic switch 14 connected to the ballast 15, the length of the cable of the cable 13 is installed incendiary candles 16, United with the balls 17, the filled volume-detonating mixture.

After descending a cable-rope 13 overboard signals to the electromagnetic release switch 14 and the ballast 15 is sinking to the bottom, releasing the cable, the cable 13 with the balls 14. Under the action of underwater currents, the cable-the cable 13 with the balls 14 is located along the ice cover 3. Then sequentially the signals on incendiary candles 16 and is consistent undermining of the ice surface.

The proposed method allows to exclude the undesirable proliferation of ice formations in the direction of placement of the Maritime component of economic activity. Using the proposed method will allow to overcome more powerful ice cover, increase the speed of pilotage and ultimately to expand the timeline navigation not only on the seas and on navigable rivers and lakes, as well as to ensure the safe operation of marine facilities for economic activity.

Sources of information

1. Patent RU №2326785 C1, 20.06.2008.

2. Patent RU №2213675 C2, 10.10.2003.

4. Inventor's certificate SU # 1820188.

5. Patent RU №2124178.

6. Rusinko A. "Kaisar" this ice guard // the newspaper "Astrakhan Izvestia", 22.01.2004.

7. Karl-Ulrich Evers, Walter Spring Ice mjdel testing of an exploration platform for shallow waters in the North Caspian sea // 16th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Frctic Conditions "Ice Engineering Applied to Offshore Regions" (Fugust 12-17, 2001 Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) 2001, p.255-264.

8. Patent for useful model RU # 79611.

9. Patent RU №2452812 C1, 10.06.2012.

10. Patent RU №2314963 C2, 20.01.2008.

1. Method of destruction of ice cover, including the installation of the ice explosives and undermining their alternate at intervals of time equal to the time of passage of Flexural-gravity waves from the place of detonation previous to the subsequent undermining of charges, in which additionally, over ice set the explosives and undermine them simultaneously with the detonation of the charges established under ice before setting explosives measure the speed and direction of wind, underwater currents and drift of ice fields, determine the thickness of the ice and the explosives are placed with the formation of the direction of propagation of the blast wave in opposite directions from the location of the Maritime component of economic activity, characterized in that the charges are placed in waterproof about�lockah, made in the form of a ball and connected with acting on the ice cover watercraft through a cable - rope, which is connected with the balls, through an incendiary spark, the charges made in the form of volume-detonating mixture.

2. Device for destruction of ice cover containing affecting ice cover watercraft, equipped with a gas source and feeding it to the collector, characterized in that it further comprises a cable, the cable having one end connected with affect ice coverage watercraft and the other end through the electromagnetic switch connected to the ballast along the length of the cable-rope installed incendiary spark, United with balloons filled volume-detonating mixture.



 

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FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering, namely to the protection of industrial facilities, lines of transportation, communication, various constructions against the harmful effects of water, and can be used to break the ice cover on rivers and water reservoirs. Method involves drilling of holes in the ice cover and laying of supply pipelines in them with subsequent destruction of the ice cover. Destruction of the ice cover is carried out via hydraulic fracturing by unregelating liquid, supplied under pressure into the previously pressure-sealed areas of these holes. Security for people during destruction of the ice cover is provided due to the possibility of its destruction from a safe distance, as well as safety improving for the engineering constructions and environmental safety.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of the method due to the possibility of destruction of the ice cover into pieces of specified sizes in case of stratified break.

3 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydrology, in particular to regulation of ice conditions of rivers, namely to technology of works on elimination of ice jams on rivers, and is aimed at the prevention of jam-related floods. The device is a catamaran, in the hold of one of hulls of which a diesel engine is installed, and in another a generator with an accumulator battery is installed. The device has a screw shaft for the ice pre-capturing, a screw shaft with stiffeners for final braking of the ice, a transfer change gear for the rotation of the screw shaft with stiffeners. On the shaft with stiffeners a gear wheel for the rotation of the screw shaft of the ice pre-capturing through a cargo chain is installed. The shaft of the ice pre-capturing rotates and moves up and down along the bracket groove. Rise and lowering of the screw shaft of the ice pre-capturing is performed by a hydraulic piston. The front part of the catamaran is fitted with a tank with holes for passing of water and collecting the ice pieces after preliminary passing of the river ice breaker. The similar tank and the screw shaft are installed aft the catamaran. Propulsion engines are installed in the engine room under the pilot cabin between the catamaran hulls. For the adjustment of the length of the screw shaft the brackets on racks are installed.

EFFECT: prevention of destructive floods in jam regions is provided.

2 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to preventive jobs aimed at prevention of ice jams formation at river section and can be used for softening of ice cover at areas of underwater communications. Ice cover cleaned of snow is blacked to arranged ice bulky lens. The latter focus sun rays at blacked surface and inside ice cover.

EFFECT: accelerated destruction.

2 cl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ice technology, in particular, to performing icebreaking works with air-cushion ships. During the low tide the air-cushion ship moves with the resonance speed along the shoreline at a distance from the edge of the cadder and excites the resonant flexural-gravity waves in the ice, at that the transverse periodic motion is transmitted to the ship, with an amplitude not exceeding the half of the wavelength of the static deflection of ice, and the frequency equal to the frequency of resonant flexural-gravity waves.

EFFECT: increase of the efficiency of ice cover destruction.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: antiicing device for a hydraulic structure located on a shallow continental shelf includes protective elements 2 and fastening elements attaching the protective elements to water area bottom. Protective elements 2 are made in the form of submersible many-sided pontoons with possibility of their being filled with ballast material, one end face is provided with an inclined section and equipped with deflector 3 in its upper part, and the other, at least two end faces are vertical, along which pontoons are attached to each other. Pontoons form closed structure 4 in the form of a polygon in a plan view with two front walls 12 forming an ice-cutting wedge along its central axis, with two side walls 13 and rear wall 14 with possibility of its being disconnected. Each pontoon is installed with its end face with the inclined section and deflector 3 outwards, thus forming closed extended deflector 3 and an inclined surface, which envelop the whole structure along external perimeter. Two front walls 12 are made at least of two pontoons in the form of symmetrical polygons elongated in a longitudinal direction and provided at least with four side faces. Side walls 13 and rear wall 14 are made of pontoons in the form of polygons at least with three side faces. Side wall 13 is tightly attached with its end surfaces to vertical surfaces of front 12 and rear 14 walls. Fastening elements are made in the form of hollow piles and installed throughout the height of pontoons of front 12 and side 13 walls into the corresponding through holes 5.

EFFECT: improving protection efficiency of a hydraulic structure against ice and simplifying the device design.

9 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: device includes vertical cylindrical housing 1 opened from above and having through slots 5 in lower part. An element generating water circulation is arranged in lower part of vertical cylindrical housing 1 and made in the form of a pair of electrodes - a cathode and an anode. The cathode is made in the form of metal bar 3 that is arranged inside housing 1 throughout its length coaxially at some distance from inner surface of the housing. The anode is located around the bar - the cathode and dielectrically isolated on inner surface of housing 1 in its lower part and somewhat above its through slots 5. The anode is made from electrically conducting material non-soluble in water. Pairs of electrodes are connected through electrical connections to direct current source 4, and electrical connection of the anode to it is arranged inside housing 1.

EFFECT: preventing ice formation on water surface near the structure; reducing corrosion rate and improving reliability of the device.

4 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises creation of thrust with the help of ship propulsor to act upon the ice bulk along with creation of rarefaction in water by its intake and ejection from the area in shift aft in direction of ship motion. Note here that water ejection is performed by ship propulsor or by ship active control means.

EFFECT: power saving in navigation in ice.

Ice breaker aft // 2551638

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: ice breaker aft comprises ice breaking ledge rigidly secured at stem-post in the ship centre line and arranged behind rudder blade along ship motion. Top end of rudder blade turn axle extends thorough stem-post while bottom end is secured at the heel rigidly secured with keel. Said rudder blade turn axle is arranged on the side of ice breaking ledge side, said ledge being rigidly coupled by vertical prop with appropriate end of said heel to make a vertical protective frame around rudder propeller unit. Vertical prop rear edge is sharpened. Ice baffle plates are rigidly secured on both sides of stem-post at acute angle to horizontal plane at ship hull underwater surface, free ends of said plates are lowered under secured edges by at least to the level above below screw top edge. Distance from rudder blade turn axle to its rear edge does not exceed the radius of curvature described by said edge.

EFFECT: better controllability in reverse motion, higher reliability of rudder propeller protection.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method is implemented by creation ship trim by the stern, and buoyancy force due to drainage of the ballast tanks. At that the ship is provided with additional buoyancy force that is periodically changed with frequency equal to natural frequency of the resonance bending-gravitational waves generated in ice cover by pulse load.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of ice destruction by submarine.

4 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: device is proposed to damage ice cover comprising an underwater vessel equipped with ballast cisterns, due to drying of which a trim is created to a stern and buoyancy force. In the bow there is a container with a reservoir in it, walls of which are made of corrugated elastic material. Inner sides of the container are equipped with remotely controlled relief valves, and the reservoir itself with the help of a flexible hose is connected with a source of compressed air, is attached to the bottom of the container with the help of slings, and being straightened by supplied air it acquires toroid shape.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of ice cover damage by an underwater vessel.

5 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship building, particularly, to ice breaker vessels and pusher tug to be operated in shallow iced areas. Ice breaker comprises hull with sledge-type stern counter and steering mover complex arranged in the latter and including two paddle propulsors arranged on sides as well as two whirligig steering columns provided with two propeller screws and arranged in symmetry about the ice breaker centre line. Stern counter at structural waterline area features ice breaking shape with expressed wedge-shape with taper angle in waterline making 90-180 degrees and with surface inclined to vertical , at least 30 degrees. Ice-protection nose is formed in stern counter perimeter, features wedge-like cross-section and does not extend beyond ship hull. Said nose extends in fore direction beyond the screw propeller disc plane by magnitude not exceeding two diameters of said propulsors. This nose features height whereat its bottom edge at stern is spaced from rotational axes of screw propellers by at least half the radius of said propellers.

EFFECT: better manoeuvrability in ice.

3 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship building, particularly to ice breaking facilities operated in combination with tug. Propose ice breaking adapter pushed by pusher tug is intended for making of navigable waterways in ices. Adapter hulls are composed of front and two lateral rigidly interconnected frame structure for tight contact with pusher tug. Said hulls feature a broken flat stern in shape approximating to triangle at waterline level. Lateral hulls feature equal width and are shifted downward from the main hull so that the line extending through their stems level with the waterline is spaced from the parallel line extending level with waterline through main hull stem-post at least 0.1 of the main hull width in its midship. Said lateral hulls are located on both sides from the main hull so that their midship planes are spaced from ice breaker midship plane by distance I defined by the formula: m, where Bf and Bl are widths of the front and lateral hulls in midship plane. Device for tight contact of said adapter with pusher tug is arranged at frame structure to extend by magnitude b making at least 3 m beyond the line passing through lateral hull stem-posts.

EFFECT: higher safety of navigation in ice.

1 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship building, particularly, to surface scientific and research vessels. Scientific and research icebreaking vessel is proposed for carrying out 3D seismic technology exploration irrespectively to ice conditions which vessel has a hull where seismic equipment is located, as well as a shaft for bay cable laying. To move source of acoustic waves untethered unmanned submersible is used which bases on a vessel and is dropped and lifted via separate vertical shaft using running - pulling tool.

EFFECT: improved operational performance of scientific and research vessel for seismic exploration.

3 cl, 1 dwg

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