System of control of nonlinear dynamics of direct step-down voltage converter
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of electrical equipment and can be used in digital control systems of DC voltage converters with the function of suppression of the hazardous oscillations of output voltage occurring at a certain set of parameters of the system. In the nonlinear dynamics control system the control system consisting of the main subsystem and the control auxiliary subsystem, approximators on the basis of neural networks is connected to the power part of the converter. The converter control signal provides the stabilization of average value of output voltage. In the system the correction of error signal is provided, thus the stabilization of the design dynamic mode (1 cycle) is provided.
EFFECT: ensuring of pre-set nonlinear dynamic properties of the system and pre-set parameters of speed and accuracy of output voltage stabilization in case of refusal from parametrical synthesis.
The claimed invention relates to Converter equipment and can be used to implement digital control systems, DC-to-DC function the suppression of dangerous fluctuations in output voltage that occurs when a particular set of system parameters.
The known method International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, , called method with delayed feedback, where for the stabilization of unstable periodic trajectories assumes the use of a feedback delay that is approximately equal to the period of the stabilized periodic mode.
Stabilization of the project is due to the fact that the control signal after the controller standard control system is added two corrective signal: scaled difference between the current in the stroboscopic times and current at stroboscopic times, detained for the period of pulse width modulation; the scaled difference between the voltage on the capacitor in the strobe time and the voltage on the capacitor at stroboscopic times, detained for the period of pulse width modulation, which allows to adjust the vector of the driving influences from the point of view of the system of differential equations describing the system,and provide periodic project mode.
Disadvantages of the method include the difficulty of choosing a time delay and parameters of the control system, resulting in no guarantee the correct operation of the device in a wide range of changes in its parameters.
The object of the invention is to control the nonlinear dynamics of the system to ensure its operation in the project periodic mode with small amplitude oscillations in a wide range of control system parameters or the input voltage with the possibility of work in the areas of multistability.
This problem is solved due to the fact that the power part of the Converter, made on the basis of direct down Converter, the LC filter connected control system consisting of two subsystems: the main subsystem, consisting of a subtractor forming a difference of the reference signal and the feedback signal (error signal), the scaling amplifier feedback voltage, a proportional controller, the input of which is fed with the error signal, and the output signal is input to the comparator, the second input of which receives the signal from the generator deploys voltage, synchronous with the reference generator, which allows to generate a control signal transmitter, to ensure stabilization of the average value of the output is tense�I; auxiliary control subsystem, characterized in that the method does not use the time delay in the stabilization of the project, and introduced the perceptron-based neural networks, using the current value of the setpoint voltage of the input voltage and the load impedance form a vector specifying the (current of the inductor and capacitor voltage) at a fixed point display 1-cycle, subtract vector from which feedback state variables at stroboscopic times, output devices sample-and-hold with the use of the scaling amplifier is implemented using visitarla, next, the result of the subtraction is amplified scaling amplifiers and fed to the subtractor of the main control subsystem to adjust the error signal, thereby providing stabilization project dynamic regime (1 cycle).
Functional diagram of the control system (CS) immediate step-down DC-DC Converter shown in Fig.1.
In SU is allocated two subsystems:
- the main control subsystem (SDAS) provides stabilization of the average value of the output voltage without considering the nonlinear dynamic properties;
auxiliary subsystem management (SPM) provides stabilises�Yoo design dynamic regime (1 cycle).
Standard automatic feedback-control the average value of the output voltage pulse Converter is described by the function strobe display 
where the vector of state variables X=[iLUc,]T, iL- current inductor; Uc- the voltage on the capacitor; zk- the fill factor of the PWM on the k-clock interval; Xk-1the vector of system state variables at the beginning of the k-th clock interval. The matrix of system parameters and A vector of the driving influences B are presented in . The matrix a depends on the inductance L, capacitance C, the parasitic resistance of the inductor R and the load resistance RH. The vector B depends on the input voltage of the Converter E0and the inductance of the inductor L.
In the standard control system for the institution feedback voltage scaling is used the amplifier to�fficient β. The subtractor B calculates an error voltage UOshthat is fed into a proportional controller with a coefficient α. As a job on the average value of the output voltage signal is used UW. The control signal after the controller Uyis fed to the noninverting input of the comparator. The inverting input of the comparator is fed razvertyvaemye voltage Upfrom generator deploys voltage UAH. Output pulses of the comparator Uandcontrol power transistor VT is the immediate step-down Converter.
In the present case, the standard SU introduced two additional governors impact ΔUOSCand ΔUOSC(Fig.1), which are defined by the expression
where URMSULkthe reference signals for the voltage on the capacitor and the current of the inductor, respectively, in the stroboscopic time points (fixed point display); Uck- scaled capacitor voltage at stroboscopic times; ILk- scaled current throttle at stroboscopic times.
The expression for the function stroboscopic display SU is
where Δzk- increment the fill factor on the k-clock interval.
The specified increment is calculated on the basis of the expression
where Upm- the amplitude deploys the voltage at the output UAH.
When implementing the algorithm to control the most important task is the calculation of the fixed point of the stroboscopic display, which is using the method of equations of frames . However, when using this method, the microcontroller SU has to implement one of the numerical methods for solving systems of nonlinear transcendental equations that Tr�Buet serious enough computing resources. To simplify this task, we used two neural networks (HC1 and HC2), each of which calculates its vector component of the fixed point 1-display cycle X*=[URMS, iLk]T.
As input variables of neural networks (factors regression) are the parameters in the system can vary within wide limits. The factors used in the regression models are specifying the voltage UW, input voltage (E0and the load resistance Rnwhich is calculated using the sensor signals of the load current and sensor output voltage. This approach can significantly reduce the time of calculation of fixed points, and achieved the accuracy of the approximation is acceptable from the practical point of view. In the considered control system neural network implemented a regression model of the form X*=F(P)=[f1(U3E0, Rn), f2(UWE0, Rn)], where f1and f2- nonlinear three-parameter functions - components of the vector function F implemented HC1 and HC2, respectively, P=[UWE0, Rn]Tis a vector of factors regression. The calculation of the current load unit is the transmitter load resistance VSN.
Feedback p� state variables at stroboscopic times in the proposed system (Fig.1) is carried out using devices sample-and-hold (UVH and OVH in Fig.1). As can be seen from Fig.1, memory voltage on the output capacitor C and current of the inductor L, scaled with coefficients β1and β2accordingly, at the beginning of each clock interval when applying for WMDs Gating pulse from the master oscillator MO, which operates synchronously with the generator deploys voltage UAH. With the help of two visitarla (B1 and B2 in Fig.1) calculate the deviation of the current position of the point of the mappings from the specified subsequent scaling coefficients (K1and K2the corresponding components of the vector of misalignment ΔX=[ΔUckThat ΔiLk]T. The calculated increment ΔUOSCand ΔUOSCcombined with the error voltage SDA UOshby calling on each clock interval of the stabilizing design mode increment the fill factor Δzk. When setting in system design 1-cycle ΔUOSC=ΔUOSC=0, and Δzk=0.
The proposed structure of the control system is implemented fairly large range of modern digital signal microcontrollers or low-cost programmable logic integrated circuits. If you use the latter significantly simplifies the calculation of the assignment for fixed point 1-cycle with the use of neural networks.
To analyze the proposed �], performed computer modeling, the results of which are shown in Fig.2, 3 in the form of maps of dynamic regimes, showing the characteristics of a partition of the space of system parameters on stability of different modes. The simulation was carried out with the following system parameters: L=0.1 GN, C=1 µf, R=10 Ω; Rn=100 Ω; α=60; β=0,01; UW=5 B; Upm=10 B; a=0,0001 c; K1=-0,9; K2=-0,9; β1Of =0.01; β2=0,1.
When you build maps of dynamic regimes (Fig.2, 3) is chosen sufficiently large, the gain of the controller of α=60, which allowed to assess the possibilities of the method when the system is in rather difficult conditions. As can be seen from Fig.2, area 1-cycle of the system without control of nonlinear dynamics is neodnovidnoe and its area is relatively small.
Fig.3 shows a chart of dynamical regimes, the analysis of which shows that the region of a 1-cycle (P1) is significantly increased in comparison with the region 1-cycle in Fig.2. In particular, when the input voltage is E0<1500 B over the entire range of voltage variation of the task in the system has a stable 1-cycle. At E0>500 B and at UW>8 B on the map area appear chaotic oscillations, the area is relatively small. The use of this method of management has significantly improved nonlinear dynamic properties of the system�we in this case, the proportional gain of the controller remains unchanged, allowing it to maintain a given static error UOsh.
Simulation demonstrates the effectiveness of a method for control of nonlinear dynamics direct step-down voltage Converter. The use of this method of control will allow to refuse parametric synthesis, while ensuring the given nonlinear dynamical properties of the system and ensure specified performance and accuracy of output voltage stabilization.
1. Batlle C. Stabilization of periodic orbits of the buck converter by time-delayed feedback / C. Batlle, E. Fossas, G. Olivar // International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications. - 1999. - Vol.27, No. 3. - P. 617-631.
2. Kobzev, A. B., " Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor converters / B. A. Kobzev, G. Y. Mikhalchenko, A. I. Andriyanov, S. G. Mikhalchenko - Tomsk: Tomsk state University of control systems and Radioelectronics, 2007. - 224 p.
Management system, implemented due to the fact that the power part of the Converter, made on the basis of direct down Converter, ZC-filter connected control system consisting of two subsystems: the main subsystem, consisting of a subtractor forming a difference of the reference signal and the feedback signal (error signal), the scaling amplifier return with�yahzee voltage, proportional regulator, the input of which is fed with the error signal, and the output signal is input to the comparator, the second input of which receives the signal from the generator deploys voltage, synchronous with the reference generator, which allows to generate a control signal transmitter, to ensure stabilization of the average value of the output voltage; an auxiliary control subsystem, characterized in that the perceptron-based neural networks, using the current values for the setpoint voltage, the input voltage and the load resistance (the calculator calculates resistance load), form a vector specifying the (current of the inductor and the voltage across the capacitor) on the fixed point display 1-cycle, subtract vector from which feedback state variables at stroboscopic times, output devices sample-and-hold with the use of the scaling amplifier is implemented using visitarla, then the result of the subtraction is amplified scaling amplifiers and fed to the subtractor of the main control subsystem to adjust the error signal, thereby providing stabilization project dynamic regime (1 cycle).
SUBSTANCE: step-up voltage converter comprises an input circuit with a choke in one of branches, two power keys, two diodes, and a starting key with a resistor shunting it and two in-series output capacitors. In order to improve reliability of semiconductor elements and prevention of the core saturation upon supply of input voltage should be performed in four stages. Unbalanced conditions of the converter operation are eliminated by introduction into the scheme of two auxiliary keys controlled by two auxiliary drivers and two operating amplifiers (OA). A resistor is connected in series with each auxiliary key and each operating amplifier contains series circuits, which consist of a diode and resistor thus ensuring hysteresis of connection and disconnection of the auxiliary keys.
EFFECT: high reliability.
SUBSTANCE: invention is a device with supply from a solar battery, which includes a battery, at least one photoelectric element (which may be a part of a solar module comprising multiple photoelectric elements) and a DC-perceptive AC device, such as a compact fluorescent lamp. The device with supply from a solar battery may also include the first DC-DC converter, which receives the first electric signal from at least one photoelectric element and provides a charging signal to a battery, and the second DC-DC converter, which receives the second electric signal from a battery and provides for a DC signal of DC supply to the DC-perceptive AC device.
EFFECT: higher efficiency factor.
19 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: protection circuit of the power supply unit of a dc voltage apparatus is installed at the output of the power supply unit, and between the positive terminal (3) of the power supply unit and the positive terminal (1) of said apparatus there is a switching element (S1) and an inductor (L1), which is connected between the switching element (S1) and the positive output terminal (1), wherein the inductor (L1) on its side connected to the positive output terminal (1) is also connected to the an output capacitor (C2), and the side of the inductor (L1) connected to the switching element (S1) is connected to a diode (D1), which is connected in parallel to the output capacitor (C2) n the cathode side, and there is also a device for controlling the switching element (S1), which includes the switching element (S1) depending on current measured in the protection circuit.
EFFECT: designing an apparatus which, as a result of connecting units when the apparatus is operating, the absence of current harmonics is determined, and therefore undervoltage on the conductor line.
SUBSTANCE: in a stabiliser, comprising an input capacitor, a transistor, a diode, a throttle, a current sensor and an output capacitor, parallel to the input capacitor there are the following components connected in series - an upper stabilitron, a current stabiliser and a lower stabilitron, joined to a negative pole of the input capacitor, parallel to the upper stabilitron there are the following components connected - an interlocking device, connected to an upper comparator, an operational amplifier and a reference voltage divider, a sawtooth oscillator, an upper comparator and an operational amplifier, and a bridge circuit is connected in parallel to the lower stabilitron, including a transistor of an optical transistor and three resistors, and also a lower comparator. At the same time devices are used for galvanic isolation of control elements.
EFFECT: expansion of input voltage range, simplification, reduced cost, increased reliability and convenience of the stabiliser operation.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: radio engineering.
SUBSTANCE: voltage switching unit with protection against current overload includes electronic switch which supplies the power to load unit and to overload freezing unit. Overload freezing unit freezes the activation of electronic switch at initial supply of input voltage and provides the deactivation of electronic switch when the current is higher than the specified one. Additionally introduced shaper of delayed pulse unlocks the electronic switch, provides the specified delay relative to the supply of input voltage.
EFFECT: improving reliability of the device owing to excluding the current stabilisation mode at any kinds and modes of load, and enlarging functional capabilities owing to tuning of current commutation time relative to supply of input voltage.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: integrated power supply voltage converter is intended for efficient conversion of power supply voltage for low-capacity and low-voltage devices that operate from batteries and accumulators to voltages that are less than voltages of chemical power supply sources. Circuit of integrated power supply voltage includes the following components: substrate for circuit arrangement, output unit connected to power supply source and generating output signal, control unit, which controls output unit by means of feedback, unit of low-frequency filter, function of which is to level output signal received from output unit, control unit is equipped with source of reference voltage, voltage divider, clock signal generator and error detector, besides voltage divider transforms signal from reference voltage source and sends it to input of error detector, where signal is also supplied from output unit as well, and further from error detector control signal arrives to permitting input of clock signal generator, and output unit is arranged as based on switched capacitors in the form of two cascades connected in parallel, the first of which comprises capacitor (17), one p-channel transistor (18) and three n-channel transistors (19, 20, 21), the second cascade comprises capacitor (22), p-channel transistor (23) and three n-channel transistors (24, 25, 26), besides transistors of output unit cascades are controlled by two paraphrase signals from clock signal generator "input 1" and "input 2" so that "input 2" signal is sent to transistors (18, 20, 21) and (24), and signal "input 1" is sent to transistors (19, 23, 25, 26), transistors are connected so that depending on level of "input 1" and "input 2" signals, which may either be high or low, at the moment of time, when "input 1" signal is of high level, and signal "input 2" is of low level, current passes through transistors (18, 19) and capacitor (17) from power supply source to output, besides capacitor (17) is in charging phase, and through transistors (25, 26) and capacitor (22) from common bus to output, besides, capacitor (22) is in discharging phase, and at the moment of time, when "input 1" signal is of low level, and signal "input 1" is of high level, current passes through transistors (20), (21) and capacitor (17) from common bus to output, besides, capacitor (17) is in discharging phase, and through transistors (23, 24) and capacitor (22) from power supply source to output, besides capacitor (22) is in charging phase, and at the same time, both in charging or discharging phase of capacitors (17) and (22) current flows in one direction towards outlet of output unit.
EFFECT: achievement of low output voltages and improved efficiency factor at low energy consumption.
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed diode-transistor bridge relates to electrical engineering, particularly to electrical machines and can be used in structural couplings with magnetic bearings. Diode-transistor bridge comprises supply diagonal and load diagonal incorporating at least one inductor coil (8). Note that throttle (7) is additionally included in load diagonal, RC-circuit (9) being connected in parallel to said throttle. Capacitor (12) and power source are connected in said supply diagonal, the latter being connected via separating diode (13). Transistors (5,6) connected into bridge arms have no common connection point. Storage capacitor (12), throttle (7) with RC-circuit (9) and separating diode (13) connected in the diode-transistor bridge in proposed manner, allows a notable reduction in consumed power of the bridge, diametre of conductors connected to power supply and its overall dimensions.
EFFECT: higher reliability, reduced dependence of source weight-and-size upon consumed power.
SUBSTANCE: suggested controlled AC/DC converter includes a controller that shapes width-modulated pulses and provides four parallel control channels shifted per 90° towards each other with feedback from outputs of control channels and microcontroller. Each channel consists of driver, cascade based on CMOS transistors connected as per half bridge circuit with feedback with the above controller, output low-frequency filter.
EFFECT: achieving low level of noise and disturbance of output voltage and compact size of the device.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to electric engineering and can be used in independent electric power supply systems the consumers of which specify increased requirements for the shape of output voltage curve. Device includes storage battery, DC buses, inverter, three-phase filter containing LC circuits and terminals for load connection.
EFFECT: providing regeneration of converted energy into circuit of primary source.
FIELD: technology for controlling force transformation equipment, possible implementation for construction of reversed flow pulse voltage transformers, grid correctors of power coefficient.
SUBSTANCE: device has circuit, consisting of resistor, capacitor and discharge key connected in parallel, and also first threshold device, supporting voltage source, RS-trigger and circuit, consisting of rectifying device, connected to one input of system for selecting maximal voltage, output of which is connected to resistor and to capacitor and discharge key connected in parallel, also, device has second threshold device, logical circuit AND, comparator, logical circuit OR, launching pulses generator.
EFFECT: including device in voltage transformers makes possible maximal use of transformers power, decreased weight and dimensions, increased reliability and also increased raw efficiency of transformers.
SUBSTANCE: controller (120) comprises inputs (121) to receive inlet power PI, outputs (122) to ensure substantially permanent output power PO for load L with variable impedance, and a communication line (126) to receive voltage VL at load. The device power controller (120) is configured to determine input voltage VI and inlet current II to detect existing resistance RL of the load L and to set output voltage VO and output current Io on the basis of input voltage VI, input current II and existing resistance RL. Output voltage VO substantially does not depend on input voltage VI. Output voltage VO and output current IO vary to maximize power at load PL to maintain substantially permanent output electric power PO.
EFFECT: reliability improvement.
31 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: electric engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has microcontroller with an analog-digital converter, realizing operation algorithm of thyristor frequency transformer, three-phase thyristor rectifier, containing throttling valve, thyristor inverter, launch thyristors, LC-contour, voltage and inverter current control nodes for LC-contour, synchronization pulse generator. Non-contact current direction indicator is composed of two Hall indicators, mounted in the gap of magnetic duct, enveloping LC-contour conductor. Hall indicators provide synchronization of operation of control block with frequency of LC-contour and provide automatic support of power value of LC-contour, determined by value of consumed current and actual value of rectifier thyristors opening node.
EFFECT: higher reliability, higher durability, higher efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises auxiliary power supply source connected to automobile 12 V accumulator battery, half-bridge transistor converter, current-limiting resistor, current sensor, transformer-rectifying cascade, input filter, output filter, the first and second power amplifiers for transistor control of half-bridge transistor converter, voltage regulator, comparator, RS-trigger and toggle flip-flop, the first and second relays, voltage sensor at positive input terminal of half-bridge transistor converter, the first and second 4OR-NOT logic elements; the device also comprises square-wave generator and power supply source includes step-down PWM-regulator formed by in-series valve and field transistor, and the third power amplifier connected to gate of the field transistor, at that the second output of voltage regulator through indicator is connected to positive terminal of automobile 12 V accumulator battery.
EFFECT: improved power characteristics and expanded functionality of the device.
SUBSTANCE: electronic stabiliser comprises a ballast resistor connected in series to the load and a regulating element based on two series-connected transistors, feedback divider and voltage rectifying divider, all of them connected in parallel to the load, at that one arm of the feedback divider is made as in series stabilitrons and resistor, the centre tap of the feedback divider is connected to input of the first transistor while the centre tap of the rectifying divider is connected to input of the second transistor.
EFFECT: higher reliability of the stabiliser.
SUBSTANCE: device contains five transistors, three resistors and a current source which is coupled between the power supply bus and output terminal; the first resistor is coupled by its first output to the common bus, the second and third resistors are connected by their first outputs to the output terminal; bases of the first and the second transistors are connected to collectors of the first and fifth transistors and bases of the fourth and fifth transistors; the second output of the first resistor is coupled to emitter of the second transistor; emitters of the first and third transistors are connected to the common bus; collector of the third transistor is connected to the output terminal; the base of the third transistor is connected to collectors of the second and fourth transistor; emitter of the fourth transistor is connected to the second output of the second resistor; emitter of the fifth transistor is connected to the second output of the first resistor.
EFFECT: receipt of thermally stable output voltage, which value is close to doubled energy gap width of the used semiconductor.
SUBSTANCE: in bridge self-maintained voltage transducer the secondary winding of a transformer is used to design a transistor saturation source. The result is obtained due to the bridge self-maintained voltage transducer with transistor saturation source which comprises the first, second, third and fourth transistors and their collectors, emitters of the first and second transistors, resistors, a transformer, a filter capacitor and the power source bus.
EFFECT: reducing power loses at transistors of the bridge self-maintained voltage transducer and increasing its reliability.
SUBSTANCE: voltage stabiliser includes first and second transistors connected by emitters to a common bus, first and second resistors connected by first outputs to the common bus, third transistor connected by emitter to second output of the first resistor, third resistor connected by first output to connection point of first transistor base and third transistor collector, fourth transistor connected by collector to output terminal, fourth resistor connected by first output connection point of second output of third resistor and fourth transistor emitter, second transistor collector and base connected to second output of fourth resistor, fifth resistor connected by first output to output terminal and by second output to connection point of fourth transistor base and second output of second resistor, fifth and sixth transistors connected by emitters to power bus and by bases to sixth transistor collector, seventh transistor connected by collector to power bus, eighth transistor connected by emitter to output terminal, current source inserted between power bus and connection point of eighth transistor base and first and fifth transistor collectors, sixth resistor inserted between second and third transistor bases, eighth transistor collector connected to sixth transistor collector, seventh transistor base connected to eighth transistor base, seventh transistor emitter connected to output terminal.
EFFECT: output voltage of stable temperature, reduced minimum difference of stabiliser input/output voltage.