Method of nano and micro object study by probe microscopy
SUBSTANCE: object is positioned on porous substrate, fixed to the substrate surface and scanned by probe microscopy method. Substrate with through pores of smaller size than the diameter of a study object is used, and an object is fixated by laminar flow of liquid or gas supplied to the substrate from the side of scanning, with clamping force exerted by the flow on an object within 10-12-10-3 N range.
EFFECT: possible study of structures and mechanical properties of organic and inorganic objects, enhanced information content of nano and micro object studies by probe microscopy.
The invention relates to the field of probe microscopy and can be used to study the structure and mechanical properties of organic and inorganic nature.
The known method of the study of nano - and micro-objects by the method of scanning probe microscopy by placing the object on a substrate, its fixation on the surface of the substrate by using electrostatic force and scanning of the recorded object method probe microscopy (Rikke Louise Meyer, Xingfei Zhou, Lone Tang, Ayyoob Arpanaei, Peter Kingshott, Flemming Besenbacher. Immobilisation of living bacteria for AFM imaging underphysiological conditions // Ultramicroscopy (2010), p.1-8).
The known method of the study of nano - and micro-objects by the method of scanning probe microscopy by placing the object on a substrate, its chemical fixation on the substrate surface and scanning the recorded object method probe microscopy (Rikke Louise Meyer, Xingfei Zhou, Lone Tang, Ayyoob Arpanaei, Peter Kingshott, Flemming Besenbacher. Immobilisation of living bacteria for AFM imaging underphysiological conditions // Ultramicroscopy (2010), p.1-8).
The closest to the claimed is a method of study of nano - and micro-objects by the method of scanning probe microscopy by placing the object on a porous substrate, its fixation on the substrate surface and scanning the recorded object method probe microscopy (Kailas L., E. C. Ratcliffe, E. J. Hayhurst, M. G. Walker, S. J. Foster, J. K. Hobbs, Immobilizing live bacteria for AFM imaging of cellular processes // Ultramicroscopy 109 (2009), p775-780) - as a prototype. In this method, the object under study (bacterium) is placed in the environment of water on the surface of the porous substrate from silicon dioxide, containing of through pores, allow the water to evaporate, whereby the object is fixed on the surface of the substrate, then the substrate is placed in a measuring cell with a liquid and are scanning the recorded object by the method of scanning probe microscopy.
The disadvantage of this method is its complexity, which consists in a multi-stage preparation of the substrate with the sample before scanning probe microscope and a lack of data in ways that do not allow to study the properties change depending on the varying parameters of the environment in which measurement is carried out.
The technical problem of the invention is to reduce the complexity of the method, increasing the amount of information and expand the Arsenal of technical means that can be used to study nano - and micro-objects by the method of scanning probe microscopy.
Said technical result is achieved in that in the known method of the study of nano - and micro-objects by the method of scanning probe microscopy by placing the object on a porous substrate, its fixation on the substrate surface and scanning the recorded object method probe Mick�octopii, use a substrate with through pores larger than the size of the investigated object and the fixation of the object is carried out by laminar flow of liquid or gas supplied to the substrate from the side being scanned, the magnitude of the pressure force acting from the side of the stream to the object, is in the range 10-12-10-3the Newton (N).
The proposed method is new and not described in scientific literature.
This method can be used for studies using scanning probe microscopy nano - and micro-objects of organic and inorganic nature. Thus, the dimensions of the studied objects can be from 1 nanometer (nm) to 100 micrometers (μm). As such objects can be used, for example, viruses, bacteria, nano - and microparticles of inorganic materials, etc.
The proposed technical solution can be used to study various objects by scanning probe microscopy such as atomic force microscopy, near-field microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, etc.
In this technical solution can be used various organic and/or inorganic liquids, such as alcohol, chloroform, acetone, water, aqueous saline solutions, physiological fluids, etc., and various gas�, for example, such as air, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, etc. Can be used as individual liquids or gases and mixtures of liquids, or gases.
In the proposed method can be used on porous substrates made of various organic or inorganic materials, such as polymers, silica, silicon, alumina, etc. it Should be noted that the substrate used must have through pores whose size must be less than the size of the investigated object, and pore shape may be almost any. The pores can be either the same size or different. Such substrates are described in scientific literature. [Shashishekar P. Adiga, Chunmin Jin, Larry A. Curtiss, Nancy A. Monteiro-Riviere and Roger J. Narayan. Nanoporous membranes for medical and biological applications WIREs Nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology is, V. No. 1, 2009, p.568-581]. If the proposed technical solution, use a porous substrate not with through with through pores or pores, the size of which will match or exceed the size of the studied objects, the present invention becomes inoperative.
It should be noted that the fixation of the investigated object on the surface of the porous substrate have to be performed before microscopic investigations if the object is not secure, it is possible to study the object by scanning probe Mick�octopii fails.
In the proposed technical solution fixation test object on the surface of the porous substrate is carried out by laminar flow of the medium supplied to the substrate from the side being scanned. It should be noted that the flow must be laminar. When using a turbulent flow environment the proposed technical solution will not work. If the laminar flow of the fluid will be supplied to the substrate from the side opposite to the scanning, the technical solution will not be healthy.
It was established experimentally that the proposed invention the magnitude of the pressure force acting from the side of the flow object shall lie within the range of 10-12-10-3N. If the stream will exert a clamping force greater than 10-3N, it will cause critical bending of a cantilever probe microscope, which will allow for the scanning of the investigated object with the needle of the cantilever. The amount of downforce can be determined by a known method [J. Zlatanova, S. M. Lindsay, S. H. Leuba. "Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy in Biology Using the Atomic Force Microscope", Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol, 74, 37, (2000)] by chemical attachment silatrane groups of the linker [molecular fragment, covalently linked to a solid substrate that contains reactive functional groups] to needle cream�avago cantilever probe microscope. However, other functional groups of a linker capable of covalently to contact the surface of the investigated object. As the linker can be used such chemical compounds, such as 1-ω-mercaptopropionate, 1-ω-aminoalkylsilane, etc. this is followed by scanning of the investigated object using a modified cantilever and carry out the removal of the force curves for the same 10 of the studied objects, which define the average effect of separation from the object surface in the presence and in the absence of fluid flow. The difference of certain forces of separation is equal to the clamping force of the stream.
In the present invention to fix the investigated objects on the surface of the porous substrate in two ways, the first of which is to place the object in its pure form or in the form of a slurry on a porous substrate followed by submission of a laminar flow of liquid or gas. The second way lies in making the test object directly in laminar flow of liquid or gas.
In the proposed technical solution is possible to vary the flow rate of liquid or gas, as well as other parameters of a liquid or gas, such as the concentration of dissolved substances, temperature, etc., in the course of the experiment. In the latter case, you can examine treason�their properties depending on the changes of flow parameters, what increases the information content of the method.
After the end of the experiments used membrane can be released from the studied objects by filing a counter-flow of liquid or gas and re-used in other experiments.
The advantages of the proposed technical solution is illustrated by the following examples.
The experiment is performed using a liquid cell of the atomic force microscope containing a membrane of silicon oxide, having an area of 1×1 cm2. Used membrane has a thickness of 1 μm and contains through the pores of cylindrical shape with a diameter of 150 nm with an average distance between the pores of 200 nm. Using a syringe pump to create a laminar flow of buffer brand Tris-HCl (pH of 7.5, 0.01 M) through a porous membrane. Then in laminar flow add studied the tobacco mosaic virus with a size of 300 nm, taken at a concentration of 1 microgram/ml in buffer Tris-HCl. As a result of passing a laminar flow of the buffer containing the tobacco mosaic virus, through the porous membrane on its surface are fixed in one position viruses due to the downforce of the laminar flow of the buffer equal to 10-3N. Then produce a scan of tobacco mosaic virus, fixed onto the membrane surface using atomic force microscope brand Nanoscope and study the surface morphology of V�USA with a spatial resolution of 4 nm.
The experiment is performed using a liquid cell of a near-field microscope brand Certus NSOM containing the porous membrane of aluminum oxide having a size of 2×2 cm2. Used membrane has a thickness of 1 μm and contains through the pores of square shape (square side 500 nm) with an average distance between the pores of 600 nm. The membrane is applied to a suspension of the bacteria Acinetobacter baumannii in bidistilled water with a concentration of 2 micrograms/ml through syringe pumps create circulating laminar flow bidistilled water through the membrane from the side being scanned. As a result of passing a laminar flow of water through a porous membrane on its surface are fixed in one position bacteria at the expense of downforce flux of 10-6N. After that make scan of bacteria fixed on the membrane surface. To study the effect of the antibiotic colistin on the surface structure of bacteria in laminar flow circulating through the membrane type in a given antibiotic, wherein the antibiotic concentration range from 0.5 to 32 micrograms/ml. In the result of the experiment was studied the surface morphology of the bacteria with a spatial resolution of 2 nm depending on the concentration of the antibiotic colistin, which indicates a high informative way.
Example 3The experience carried out analogously to example 1, but the substrate using a polycarbonate membrane with an average diameter of through pores of 20 nm and an average distance between the pores is 30 nm, and instead of the fluid flow using a laminar flow of nitrogen gas, as a scanning probe microscope using tunneling microscope brand FemtoScan, the Russian Federation, and the quality of the object using spherical gold particles, whose diameter is 30 nm. The magnitude of the pressure force acting from the side of the gas flow on an object that is 10-12N. In the course of the experiment to study the surface morphology of the gold particles with a spatial resolution of 1 nm.
The experience carried out analogously to example 3, however, instead of gaseous nitrogen of the air is used laminar flow which creates downforce equal to 10-10N. In the course of the experiment to study the surface morphology of the gold particles with a spatial resolution of 1 nm.
The experience carried out analogously to example 3, however, instead of the nitrogen gas used argon, laminar flow which creates downforce equal to 10-11N. In the course of the experiment to study the surface morphology of the gold particles with a spatial resolution of 1 nm.
The experience carried out analogously to example 3, but instead of laminar photokeratoscope nitrogen use laminar flow of chloroform, which creates downforce equal to 10-8N. However, instead of tunneling microscope using an atomic force microscope brand Nanoscope. In the course of the experiment to study the surface morphology of the gold particles with a spatial resolution of 2 nm.
The experience carried out analogously to example 6, however, instead of the laminar flow of chloroform use laminar flow 70% aqueous solution of ethanol, which creates downforce equal to 10-9N. In the course of the experiment to study the surface morphology of the gold particles with a spatial resolution of 2 nm.
Thus, the given examples show that the proposed method is quite simple and really significantly reduces the complexity of the known method of the study of nano - and micro-objects by the method of scanning probe microscopy, increases the information content and expands the Arsenal of technical tools that can be used to study nano - and micro-objects by the method of scanning probe microscopy.
Method of the study of nano - and micro-objects by the method of scanning probe microscopy by placing the object on a porous substrate, its fixation on the substrate surface and scanning the recorded object method probe microscopy, characterized in that the substrate with through pores larger than the size of the investigated volume�KTA, and the documentation of the object is carried out by laminar flow of liquid or gas supplied to the substrate from the side being scanned, the magnitude of the pressure force acting from the side of the stream to the object, is in the range 10-12-10-3Newton.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ecology. The invention provides a method of determining the quality of the environment by EPR-spectroscopy of lichens, including the collection of samples of lichen thalli from the trunks of trees growing in an industrial and background area, which is not contaminated by anthropogenic emissions into the environment, cleaning, drying, grinding, which is characterised by the fact, that drying is carried out at a temperature of 85-95°C to constant weight and ground, the EPR spectra are removed, from which the concentration of paramagnetic centres is determined, in the excess of the concentration of the paramagnetic centres in the lichen samples collected in the industrial zone, over the concentration of the paramagnetic centres of the lichen samples from the background area the low quality of the environment in the industrial zone is detected, and in case of equal concentrations of the paramagnetic centres - the acceptable quality of the environment is detected, and in the studies the samples of the same species of lichen are used.
EFFECT: invention provides the improvement of the method of lichenoindication, improvement of the quality of evaluation of the test objects, obtaining objective result.
2 ex, 2 tbl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of determining ammonium compounds in the atmosphere of livestock complexes comprises collecting samples of lichen from trees growing in the background zone, which has no emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere. The data for the samples of lichen collected in the zone of pollutants emission to the atmosphere is compared with data for laboratory standards by IR spectroscopy method. For obtaining the standards under laboratory conditions the interaction process of lichen of the background zone with emission of pollutants contributing to formation of ammonium sulphate is simulated. Lichen Parmelia sulcata is used as bioindicator.
EFFECT: invention enables to determine the level of ammonium compounds in the atmosphere of livestock complexes.
2 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ferrous metallurgy and can be used to determine chemical composition of materials containing lump metal and used as raw material in cast iron production. The method involves separation of material into metal and slag fractions, measurement of metal fraction weight, grinding of slag fraction down to the fineness of 5 mm at most and determination of weight ratio of total ferrum and of necessary components in it by complete acid digestion, calculation of weight ratio of total ferrum and of components in the material, after grinding a sample is taken with the fineness of from 0.16 mm to 5 mm at most and chemical analysis is performed.
EFFECT: improved information value and reliability of analysis.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine and can be used for the prediction of the early stage of lymphocyte apoptosis. That is ensured by isolating cells, incubating for 48 hours at temperature 37°C with 5% CO2 with adding apoptosis inductor, dexamethasone in the concentration of 10-4 mole/ml. A lymphocyte viability is quantified by trypan blue inclusion, the recovered and oxidised glutathione concentrations are measured in lymphocyte lysate after the 30-minute pre-incubation with 2-vinylpyridine 10 mM. The early stage of lymphocyte apoptosis is stated, if observing an integrated decrease of the recovered glutathione concentration by 17% and more and an increase of the oxidised glutathione concentration by 19% and more as compared to the reference.
EFFECT: using the presented method in medical practice enables predicting the antioxidant state of the patient's body accompanying various diseases as shown by the early stage of lymphocyte apoptosis evaluated.
SUBSTANCE: method includes the selection and preparation of samples to be analysed, selection of specified volumes of solutions of a test system components, placement of the samples to be analysed and the test system components into a cuvette, registration of chemiluminiscence with further quantitative estimation of its value with taking into account the background signal of chemiluminiscence. The weight of porting of the sample of the material to be analysed is taken such that corresponds to the value of a specific surface 0.20±0.05 m2/g, and in case when it is not possible to determine the value of the specific surface of the sample to be tested, the weight of the taken portion is 0.010±0.005 g. The portion of the sample of the material to be analysed is placed into a cuvette with the further successive addition of the test system components: 0.01M solution of luminal in 0.5 NaOH solution and a solution of hydrogen peroxide of a 20-30% concentration to fill the working space in the cuvette, keeping the ratio luminal:hydrogen peroxide equal to 2:5. After that, values of chemiluminiscence are registered for 125 minutes and the total value of chemiluminiscence is calculated.
EFFECT: identification of the free-radical activity of solid materials by the method of the chemiluminiscence registration by means of the system of chemical reagents without the application of biological substrates in the test system.
3 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of estimating antioxidant activity of vegetable raw material from swamp cinquefoil (Comarum palustre L.). Method of estimating antioxidant activity of vegetable raw material from swamp cinquefoil (Comarum palustre L.) consists in determination of antioxidant activity in water tinctures of swamp cinquefoil by reduction of the level of free-radical oxidation, which is determined by the level of malonic dialdehyde (MDA) by method of interaction with thiobarbituric acid in model system of lipid peroxidation, represented by liposomes obtained from lecithin.
EFFECT: method reduces labour intensiveness of antioxidant activity determination and simplifies processing of obtained results, reduces cost of carrying out analysis, and increases determination accuracy.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of radiobiology and experimental medicine. A method of estimating pharmacological and toxicological properties of substances consist in the following: a substance to be analysed is introduced into a nutritional medium of larvae and flies of Drosophila melanogaster, combining in their genome hypomorphic mutations of ss- and CG5017-genes. The larvae and flies are irradiated with ionising rays with a dose of 1-10 roentgen. Viability, structures of extremities and a level of transcription of CG 1681, CYP6G1 and ss-genes are estimated. The obtained characteristics of the flies, grown on a medium, containing the analysed substance, and the flies, grown on a medium, which does not contain the analysed substance, irradiated and non-irradiated are compared, and pharmacological properties of the substance are determined by the results of comparison of viability, quantity of tarsal segments of extremity and the level of transcription of CG 1681, CYP6G1 and ss-genes in the flies of all formed groups.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to realise effective fast targeted selection and determine the properties of substances with toxicoperotective, radioprotective, toxicosensibilising and radiosensibilising properties.
7 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes the selection of a totality of substances, for which the following procedures will be performed: monitoring of the region around a point source, determination of a route of sampling by the seasonal wind direction and drawing a map of isolines of pollutions on the basis of obtained data. A vector of the prevailing seasonal wind direction is selected. On the said vector sampling for each pollutant is carried out in two points r1 and r2, spaced from the point source at distances in the interval of 5 heights of a source (h) to 15 heights of the source. Coefficients B=ln(q1/q2·exp(C·((1/r2)-(1/r1))))/ln(r1/r2) and A=q1/(r1B)·exp(-C/r1), where q1 and q2 are concentrations of a pollutant in the points of sampling r1 and r2, C=30 h, are calculated. A single-dimensional profile of the pollutant concentration is calculated by the direction of the prevailing wind by formula F(R,A,B)=A·RB·exp(-C/R), where R is the current distance from the source, with transition to an area image of the pollutant distribution in the region being performed by multiplication of the specific concentration F(R,A,B) by a transposed function of the wind rose G(φ+180°), known from meteorological observations for the said region in the selected season.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to estimate a degree of pollution of the environment from the technogenic point source in a quick and accurate way.
3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of surface events and may be used in different fields, also for characterisation of disperse materials or crushed materials, sand, cement, etc. The method is characterised by the fact that the studied disperse material is placed into a template made in the form of a plate having free space in its centre, which is arranged in the centre of the limiting circumference applied on an easily replaced surface, or in a cuvette with available internal area, covered with a layer of water, which is exposed to the surfactant, they fix appearance of moving objects and calculate speed of their motion with subsequent calculation of speed of water movement along the surface of the disperse material.
EFFECT: method improvement.
6 ex, 1 tbl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: energy value is determined based on the calculation of the activation energies of chemical components as the sum of the activation energies of the grain cover and core of white lupine, multiplied by the mass fraction of the cover and core in the grain, respectively. To calculate the activation energy the data of thermogravimetric and differential-thermal analysis are used, obtained in continuous heating of samples at a rate of 20 deg/min to thermal decomposition of the components of the grain cover and core.
EFFECT: invention enables to estimate fast and accurately the energy value of feed white lupine grains for feeding farm animals.
3 tbl, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to magnetophotonics. A method of amplifying the magneto-optic Kerr effect by forming a magnetic photonic crystal with a periodically structured magnetic surface, wherein the surface morphology of the magnetic photonic crystal is determined by the level of the section of the densest face-centred cubic arrangement of microspheres in the <111> plane within a layer of a colloidal crystal.
EFFECT: amplifying meridian magneto-optic effect.
10 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a novel salt nanosize weakly crystalline modification 4-methyl-N-[3-(4-methylimidazol-1-yl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-3-[(4-pyridin-3-ylpyrimidin-2-yl)amino]benzamide (nilotinib) hydrochloride monohydrate. Nilotinib is used as an anti leucaemia cytostatic drug during therapy of cancerous diseases. The nanosize weakly crystalline modification is characterised by the following set of interplanar distances (d, E) and respective intensities (Iot, %) 14.70-27.8%; 12.94-19.4%; 11.43-22.2%; 7.474-26.4; 6.480-25.0%; 6.217-26.4%; 6.040-52.8%; 5.134-19.4%; 4.824-16.7%; 4.489-25.0%; 4.367-25.0%; 4.156-30.6%; 4.092-30.6%; 3.738-30.6%; 3.656-34.7%; 3.528-41.7%; 3.468-44.4%; 3.165-52.8%; 3.053-36.1%; 2.999-100%; 2.869-22.2%; 2.823-69.4%; 2.653-33.3%; 2.524-22.2%; 2.383-22.2%; 2.348-22.2%; 2.203-20.8%; 2.151-22.2%; 2.020-19.4%; 1.932-22.2%; 1.849-26.4%; 1.841-25.0%; 1.763-22.2%, three endothermic effects equal to (97.3±0.4) J/g at temperature of (92.6±0.5)°C, (54.5±0.4) J/g at temperature of (173.7±0.5)°C, (215.6±0.4) J/g at temperature of (273.4±0.5)°C, particle size of less than 150 nm, specific surface area of more than 30 m2/g and powder density in free filling of less than 0.024 g/cm3. A method of producing the modification includes preparing an aqueous solution of 4-methyl-N-[3-(4-methylimidazol-1-yl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-3-[(4-pyridin-3-ylpyrimidin-2-yl)amino]benzamide hydrochloride monohydrate at 25-100°C, which is then frozen at a rate of not less than 60 degrees/minute, followed by removing the solvent by freeze-drying for 22-27 hours. The invention also relates to a pharmaceutical composition.
EFFECT: disclosed modification is 15-20 times more soluble than the existing modification A, which means it can be absorbed into the body over a shorter period and has high activity.
3 cl, 8 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method may be used in scanning probing microscopy for determination of electric voltage, modulus of elasticity, hardness, viscosity, plasticity of piezoelectric materials, components of micro and nanoelectromechanical systems, as well as biomicroelectromechanical devices. Nanoindentation of the material is done with a stiff indentor with continuous speed. Simultaneously they measure change of electric voltage and contact force as the indentor is pressed into the material, for instance, piezoelectric. Measurements are made at least for two temperatures of the material.
EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities of material properties detection by nanoindentation, possibility to determine load value that results in phase transition.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: distinctive feature of the proposed method is the use of biopag-D and the microcapsule shells of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, as well as the use of a precipitator - 1,2-dichloroethane in the preparation of nanocapsules by physico-chemical precipitation method by nonsolvent.
EFFECT: simplifying and speeding up the process of obtaining the microcapsules and increase in the yield by weight.
SUBSTANCE: invention provides a method of encapsulating a medicinal preparation via a nonsolvent deposition method, characterised by that the core of the nanocapsule used is fenbendazole, the envelope used is pectin, which is deposited from a suspension in benzene by adding tetrachloromethane as the nonsolvent at 25°C.
EFFECT: simpler and faster process of producing microcapsules, reduced losses when producing microcapsules.
SUBSTANCE: distinctive feature of the proposed method is the use of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and the shell of carrageenan nanocapsules, as well as the use of a precipitator - acetonitrile in the preparation of nanocapsules by physico-chemical precipitation method with nonsolvent.
EFFECT: simplification and acceleration of the process of preparation of nanocapsules and increase in the yield by weight.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: sensor comprises a tight body, inside of which there is a piezoelectric acoustic line, on the working surface of which there is a transceiving interdigital transducer (IDT), loaded to an antenna, which is arranged outside the tight body, a support reflecting IDT and a reflecting IDT loaded to impedance located outside the tight body, the value of which is sensitive to the measured value, and an acoustic absorber applied at the ends of the acoustic line. The impedance is made in the form of a lattice of parallel connected nanorods of zinc oxide.
EFFECT: provision of maximum sensitivity of a sensor to concentration of carbon monoxide due to usage of zinc oxide rods as impedance depending on carbon monoxide concentration, with resistance close to resistance of radiation of a reflecting IDT.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in human and veterinary medicine for construction and production of highly efficient vaccines.
EFFECT: invention enables to create vaccines with low toxicity, increased immunogenic activity, and stable in storage.
SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to nanotechnology and may be used to manufacture catalysts and sorbents. Graphene pumice contains graphenes arranged in parallel at distances of more than 0.335 nm, and amorphous carbon as a binder at their edges, with the graphene-binder ratio from 1:0.1 to 1:1 by mass. The specific area of the surface is more than 1000 m2/g. The absolute hardness is 1 unit by the Mohs scale and less, specific density is 0.008-0.3 g/cm3 for solids, loose specific density of 0.005-0.25 g/cm3 for granules. The composition is produced by burning of a homogeneous powder mix of graphite oxide, unstable organic material and organic and inorganic metal salts with the moisture of all components of 10-15% in a heat-resistant open or tight mould. The source material for the binder is represented by chemical compounds capable of being in a liquid state up to 180°C, not soaking the graphite/graphene surface and damaged at a temperature of not more than 800°C. Graphene pumice is activated by restoration in hydrogen at 400-450°C and pressure of 0.05-0.11 MPa for 10-30 min or in methane at 800-950°C for at least 1 hour at atmospheric pressure with subsequent cooling.
EFFECT: produced sorbents make it possible to multiply increase the capacity of reservoirs for the storage and transportation of natural gas.
15 cl, 8 dwg, 2 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: preoperative patient preparation involves urinary catheterisation and rectal drainage. That is followed by radical surgical d-bridement of a purulonecrotic centre and wide opening of the involved site. The pus pockets are drained, and the necrotic tissues are excised to form a vast wound surface. The radical surgical d-bridement of the purulonecrotic centre leaves a sphincter muscle of anus and a serous-muscular layer of the rectal walls preserved. On the 3rd-4th postoperative day, after multiple necrectomies of the wound surface and intensive infusion, detoxification and antibacterial therapy, the vast wound surface is covered with a porous sponge and/or a gauze bandage as a wound filler. The sponge is made of a hydrophilic polyurethane base impregnated with activated carbon. The gauze bandage is impregnated with a colloidal solution of zerovalent metal silver Ag0 particles having a silver nanoparticle size from 2 to 25 nm. The patient is anaesthetised adequately and placed in a plastic air-tight transparent isolator chamber configured as cut down trousers with the vast wound surface covered with the wound filler. The 3-5 postoperative days involve 3-4 continuous vacuum drainage of inflammation products of the involved soft tissues through the porous sponge and/or gauze bandage coverage. The vacuum drainage does not require the dressings to be changed and uses a negative pressure of 85-130 mmHg. After each procedure of the vacuum drainage of the wound surface and every time the isolator chamber is opened, the wound is visually inspected, examined for bacterial contamination and explored. Necrectomy is performed if needed. After the inflammation is arrested completely and the wound surface is clean, whereas the wound surface is decreased considerably, a bacterial swab test is conducted. That is followed by the stages of skin repair of the wound defect with the use of local tissues. The vacuum drainage of the necrotic putrid inflammation products contaminating the soft tissues uses the porous sponge having 30 to 45 pores 700 to 1,500 mcm in size per 1 cm2 of the surface area. In case the combined use of the porous sponge and gauze bandage covering the vast wound surface during the vacuum drainage of the inflammation products contaminating the soft tissues, the gauze bandage is first to cover the wound, and then it is the porous sponge that is placed. The vacuum drainage of the inflammation products contaminating the soft tissues is combined with rectal drainage implying the controlled faecal diversion and urine diversion through a urinary catheter into an external urine bag.
EFFECT: reduced hyperemia and wound edge oedema, providing accurate visualisation of tissue necrosis, reducing the time of formation of the clean wound with adequate granulation tissue, preventing anaerobic flora growth, reducing the time of pus pockets cleansing and healing in a combination with higher quality of patient's life.
4 cl, 6 ex
FIELD: magnetic materials whose axial symmetry is used for imparting magnetic properties to materials.
SUBSTANCE: memory element has nanomagnetic materials whose axial symmetry is chosen to obtain high residual magnetic induction and respective coercive force. This enlarges body of information stored on information media.
EFFECT: enhanced speed of nonvolatile memory integrated circuits for computers of low power requirement.
4 cl, 8 dwg