Method of culture of spring sown cereal at erosion dangerous, dry slopes

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes main treatment of soil transverse to slope, and seeding. In spring upon soil physical readiness grains are spreaded over its surface, rolled using smooth rolls, and overall spraying of soil surface is performed in amount 200-250 l/ha with the following composition, %wt: chalk - 5-6, ammonium nitrate - 3-4, organic glue - 2-3, water - rest.

EFFECT: reduced water erosion of soil by decreasing of number of treatments resulting in soil decompression, and increased moisture provision and crops.

2 tbl

 

The invention relates to agriculture, particularly the cultivation of spring crops on erosion-prone, arid slopes steeper than 3-5 degrees.

Known "Method of cultivation of spring barley on sloping lands" - RF patent №2334386. The method consists in that before planting geomorphological analysis of the territory with the release of slopes of different exposures. On the Northern slopes of the spend planting malting barley, and to the South is grown on barley cereal needs. Moreover, under a malting barley in the autumn of fertilizers.

The disadvantages of the known method include the relatively high water-induced soil erosion on the slopes, a large number of treatments of the soil in the cultivation of crops (ploughing and spring harrowing of the soil pre-sowing cultivation of soil, softening of the soil during seeding, etc.) that violate the density (loosen) the soil, and thereby increase water erosion. The disadvantage is the low yield of cultivated crops, which in turn reduces water erosion and lack of soil moisture in arid, insulinaemic slopes.

Relatively high soil erosion by water is because the cultivation of crops on the slope of the water flows from snow melt and after rains, moving down the slope, accelerate�Xia, wash and carry away soil particles, washing away the fertile soil layer. Also water erosion contribute to processes that loosen the soil in the cultivation of crops and lead her to a dangerous erosion state, at which the water flow more easily washes away particles of loose soil. Therefore, when the tillage necessary for the cultivation of crops, water erosion of soil on slopes increases. Besides insulinaemic slopes with southern exposures, heated by the sun, as a rule, lack of soil moisture due to high temperatures much evaporates into the atmosphere, and the slopes are in dry condition. In such circumstances, cultivated crops give low yields.

In the known technical solution on the slopes of different exposition sown barley for various needs (malting and cereal). This gives the opportunity to improve the quality of the grain. But to solve the issues about the reduction of water erosion on the slope, reducing the operations of crop cultivation (decrease loosening the soil in the treatments) and increase of its productivity, the use of this method will not. Because, when the difference in placement of a given culture on the terrain, the doses of applied fertilizers under it and grown in different crop rotations she air�lyaetsya one conventional technology. That is the major tillage (ploughing) is held in the autumn after harvesting predecessor. In the spring with the onset of physical maturity of the soil it is harrowed, and when the deadline planting sowing cultivation, seeding and further cultivation of culture.

Known method of cultivation of spring crops on the steep slopes over 5 degrees (under the editorship of E. V. Shevchenko, M. D. Boldyreva, etc., the System of agriculture in the Central Chernozem zone, pp. 87-90, p. 62. Central Chernozem publishing house, Voronezh - 1980.). The method consists in the main moldboard tillage across the slope, seedbed preparation (cultivation and sowing of crops across the slope.

The disadvantages of the known method, like the previous similar technical solution is the high water-induced soil erosion on the slopes, what's going on, in particular, and due to the large number of treatments of the soil in the cultivation of crops (ploughing and spring harrowing of the soil pre-sowing cultivation of soil, softening of the soil during seeding, etc.) that violate the density (loosen) the soil, thereby increasing erosion. The disadvantage is the low yield of cultivated crops, which in turn reduces water erosion, lack of soil moisture on �asullivan, warmed up to high temperatures, insulinaemic slopes.

Thus, the technical result of solving the problem is to reduce water erosion by reducing treatments, resultname the soil, and increasing soil water content and yield.

The technical result reached by the fact that in the spring with the onset of physical maturity of the soil on the surface scatter the seeds, rolled down their smooth rollers and conduct continuous spraying the surface of the soil in the amount of 200-250 liters per hectare composition with the following ratio of components, wt.%:

Mel - 5-6

ammonium nitrate - 3-4

organic adhesive 2-3

water - the rest

Thus, the essence of the presented technical solution is as follows: in autumn after harvesting predecessor across the slope spend plowing of the soil. Then, in the spring with the onset of physical maturity of the soil on the surface scatter the seeds of spring crops, after which they rolled down smooth rollers and broadcast spraying is carried out in the amount of 200-250 liters per hectare composition consisting of chalk in an amount of 5-6% by weight, of ammonium nitrate 3-4% by weight, organic adhesive, 2-3% by weight and water - the rest.

Signs: "in the spring with the onset of physical maturity of the soil on the surface scatter the seeds" are�much, as in combination with other essential features allows to achieve a technical result.

The seeds of spring crops you should sow (to scatter on the soil surface) in the spring, otherwise sown culture due to the reduction of the vegetation period will not give a high yield. Spreading seeds on the soil surface in a state of physical maturity, is their seeding. The soil should be in a state of physical maturity, otherwise agricultural technology is not able to pass through its surface (will get bogged down in it and leave the track), without disturbing its surface microrelief. If the tractor form ruts or other irregularities of the surface, there is a risk of water erosion processes that occur after rain or showers. In this case, rainwater concentrate on tracks, flowing down the slope and form gullies, which are elements of new erosion. Thus, there is a growing risk of water erosion of the soil that adversely affects the achievement of the technical result of the presented method. Besides, the presented method of cultivation of spring crops no such tillage, harrowing, pre-sowing cultivation and sowing drills. These operations (processing) primarily involve loosening the soil that naru�AET its density (resultsthat it) and creates conditions to enhance water erosion processes. These resultname soil treatment replaced by spreading seeds on the soil surface and smooth rolling wheels. Consolidation not only presses the seeds into the soil, but additionally condenses it. This not only reduces tillage, but also, compacting the soil, reduces water erosion processes, which positively affects the achievement of the technical result is represented by the solution of the problem. Therefore, seeds of spring crops should be scattered on the soil surface in a state of physical maturity (onset of physical maturity of the soil on the timing coincides with the onset of the sowing of spring crops).

Next seeds rolled down smooth rollers and conduct continuous spraying the surface of the soil in the amount of 200-250 liters per hectare composition with the following ratio of components, wt.%:

Mel - 5-6,

ammonium nitrate - 3-4;

organic adhesive 2-3;

water - the rest.

These signs are also significant as they could contribute to the achievement of the presented solution to the problem of the technical result.

Seeds rolled down smooth rollers, they are partially or fully pressed into the soil, which is essential for their contact and soil moisture. This improves their ability to supply the moisture necessary to obtain germination, and hence the sun�Oeste, which in turn improves the yield of spring crops, which also positively affects the achievement of the technical solution to the problem of the technical result.

Next spend a solid spraying the surface of the soil in the amount of 200-250 liters per hectare of the above composition. This composition on the soil surface forms an organic film. Space spraying in the amount of 200-250 liters per hectare continuous film is formed with a thickness of 0.8-1.0 millimeter. When spraying the composition in an amount of less than 200 litres per hectare film is formed too thin, arbitrarily torn and does not form a continuous coating, and forms a curtain. When spraying the composition in an amount of more than 250 liters per hectare coating becomes too thick and durable (its thickness exceeds 1.0 mm.) and a significant proportion of germinating seeds is not able to overcome it (punching) and form shoots. This reduces the germination and yield of crops, negatively affecting the achievement of the technical result of the presented method. Besides continuous and the coating is blagodarnyi, as it does not soil the moisture to evaporate that retains soil moisture and increases the supply of plants during germination 20-30% (especially on dry, insulinaemic slopes). The seeds scattered on the surface of the p�CVI and under continuous coating, have sufficient moisture for germination and the formation of shoots. Besides being a part of the film (coating) ammonium nitrate (ammonium nitrogen) in a moist, warm, greenhouse atmosphere, which creates a consistent film coating is vaporized and used as food swelling and germinating grain. Plants at the stage of swelling and germination of grain receive additional nitrogen nutrition that can improve the germination of grain by 4-5% and have a stronger and harmonious growth. It also contributes to increasing crop yields, for example, spring barley by 10-15%, and spring wheat at 7-8%, which positively affects the achievement of the technical result of the proposed method. Besides, the claimed method included in the coating composition is ammonium nitrate evaporates only with its lower part on the surface of the soil itself as a continuous coating between you and the ground creates an isolated greenhouse atmosphere with consistently high humidity and temperature, which contributes to the evaporation of ammonium nitrate from the coating composition, as well as the best germination and yield of spring crops. Humidity under continuous coating is in the range of 70-75%, and the temperature in the daytime does not exceed 30-35 degrees Celsius, and at night does not drop below 20-25 degrees. This relates�the comparatively low heating of the surface and the atmosphere under it during the day contributes to included in its composition of chalk. His partially white color reflects sunlight especially on insulinaemic the slopes and this saves germinating seeds from overheating. And the weak cooling of the soil surface at night contributes to the insulation of the surface integral coating from the atmosphere. The content of chalk in the lineup which spray the soil surface, less than 5% by weight is not enough, as the color of the formed coating is insufficient in this case and white coating overheats during daylight hours (gaining temperature over 40 degrees Celsius, resulting in a reduction of the germination and yield of crops, and thus negatively affect the achievement of the technical result. When using chalk more than 6% by weight of the coating after drying becomes too fragile and brittle, when dry immediately breaks down into separate pieces and does not form a totality. Such coverage may not create a standalone greenhouse atmosphere saturated with moisture and volatile nitrogen compounds, and thus the seeds germinating, will not receive the additional supply of nitrogen and moisture, which also adversely affect the achievement of the technical result of the proposed method (table. 2).

When used in the composition for spraying ammonium nitrate less than 3% by weight of the amount evaporating from the coating of nitrogen is too small, it is not enough to power�I germinating grain and maximize the number of shoots, able to "break" coverage. Part of shoots in this case dies, reducing yield and adversely affect the achievement of the technical result. When used in the composition for spraying ammonium nitrate more than 4% by weight of the amount evaporating from the coating too much nitrogen and volatile nitrogen "burn" (kill) the portion of sprouting grains, which reduces germination (tab. 2) and the harvest of spring crops, negatively affecting the achievement of the technical result presented.

In the composition for spraying is 2-3% by weight of an organic adhesive. When the content in the composition is less than 2% by weight of the organic adhesive, a continuous coating is not formed, and produces clumps. Therefore, under such a coating is not generated on the surface of the entire field of greenhouse, full of volatile nitrogen compounds "mintmaster" that reduces the germination of the grain (PL. 2), the yield and adversely affect the achievement of the technical result. When the content in the composition for spraying more than 3% by weight of the organic adhesive coating is formed too thick and some of the seedlings are not able to "break" it (PL. 2). These plants die and further reduce crop productivity, which negatively affects the achievement of the technical result is represented by the solution of the problem.

The water in the composition for spraying use if�Dima for the dissolution of all the constituent components and their application to the soil surface in a liquid state. When drying the composition and creates a solid coating.

The invention is performed as follows. In autumn, after harvesting predecessor, conduct primary tillage that involves ploughing of the soil in the direction across the slope. Then, next spring offensive of the soil of the state of physical maturity (this condition occurs, as a rule, together with the optimum terms of sowing of spring crops) undertake sowing of spring crops, which consists in spreading seeds on the soil surface of the field. Spreading seeds is carried out using a spreader of mineral fertilizers RUNES TO 0.8 or TO -1000 in the unit with the tractor MTZ-80. Then carry out a rolling seeds with smooth water-filled rollers in the unit with the tractor MTZ-80 or T-40. Compacting is carried out in one or two tracks. During reconsolidation, not only scattered on the surface the seeds are pressed into the soil, but the rollers still smooth the microrelief of the field and compacted upper erosion-prone soil. The alignment of the microrelief and soil compaction reduces water (rain) erosion of the field (tab.1), and a pinch of seeds rollers improves their contact with the soil that tightens to him soil moisture, increasing their moisture supply and germination, thereby increasing the yield.

Before sowing was preparing a composition for polyposes�CSOs applying to the soil surface of the field. To prepare the working solution using the following composition: chalk is 5-6% by weight, ammonium nitrate, 3-4% by weight, the organic glue is 2-3% by weight, water - the rest.

In capacity 100 kg working solution was filled in the chalk powder in an amount of 5-6 kg, 3-4 kg (in bulk) ammonium nitrate, organic glue - 2-3 kg (and as the organic adhesive used, for example, wheat flour). Then the container was added the 87-88 87-88 kilogram or liter of water. All this was mixed thoroughly, allowed to stand for 8-10 hours for the swelling of the particles of flour and pour it into the sprayer.

For the application of the whole (working solution) to the surface of the soil with scattered seeds used sprayer MAR-6. The working solution (composition) was applied immediately after the reconsolidation of the soil with the seeds. Caused by the composition solidifies within 1-2 hours and forms a surface film that temporarily (before germination) insulates the surface of the soil with the seeds from contact with the atmosphere. Thus on the soil surface under the coating is formed isolated "mintmaster" with the greenhouse effect, that is, the air between the soil pressed into her seed and the coating has a high moisture content and the temperature optimum for germination of grains and the formation of shoots. Besides covering the period from its mixing ratio�Oia to partial rupture during germination additionally during the rains protects the soil surface from water erosion, because rain water, in this case, not contacting with the ground, rolls down to cover down the slope and into the hollow beams and without causing water erosion.

Table 1
Soil compaction, yield and soil erosion by water under different methods of cultivation of spring barley on the steep slope of 5 degrees
Tech. solutionGradeThe density of the upper soil layer (0-10 cm),
g/cm cubic.
Harvest, Wed for 3 years
kg/ha
The removal of soil from the slope, Wed for 3 years (water erosion)
PrototypeOdessa 1000,7-0,8309-10
The claimed solutionOdessa 1000,9-1,0356-8

Table 2
Germination of seeds at different ratio for spraying power�of the soil surface (culture - barley, grade - Odessa 100)
Component compositionRatioGermination, %
ChalkLess than 5%60-70
More than 6%70-75
5-6%92
Ammonium nitrateLess than 3%70-75
More than 4%50-60
3-4%90-92
Organic adhesiveLess than 2%60-70
3%50-55
2-3%90-92
* - each component is considered separately from the total composition

Then, after a few days (usually 10-14 days) sprouts appear, which break through the solid coating, and begin to develop plants. Then, using the 0.8-1 month covering soil microorganisms decompose.

The method of cultivation of spring cereals �and erosion-prone, arid slopes, including primary tillage across the slope sowing, characterized in that the spring at the onset of physical maturity of the soil on the surface scatter the seeds, rolled down their smooth rollers and conduct continuous spraying the surface of the soil in the amount of 200-250 liters per hectare composition with the following ratio of components, wt.%:

chalk5-6
ammonium nitrate3-4
organic adhesive2-3
waterelse



 

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1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method comprises processing soil in row spacing and care of plants using tillage tools in the unit with wheel-type tractors. At that the wheel-type tractors move along permanent artificial tracks with hard coating in the root zone of hop plants. Supports for placement of race tracks are made in the form of a metal pipe embedded in soil, which is welded to two brackets, and two race tracks with hard coating are placed on them.

EFFECT: method enables to increase the yield of hops and the performance of machine units.

2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method includes the harvesting of the previous culture, adding of phosphoric fertilisings, skimming, application of organic fertilisings. Tillage is performed with a complete turnover of the layer, relief leveling, early spring harrowing, pre-plant tilling, sowing, inter-row care, vegetation waterings and harvesting. Meanwhile for intensifying of photosynthetic activity of its culture during its growth and the decrease of the growing season, just before the amaranth sowing a nanostructure water-phosphatic suspension consisting from nanoparticles with the dimensions below 100 nm and obtained from connatural phosphorites is applied into the soil, at the rate of 1.0-2.0 kg per 1 ha of the sowing area.

EFFECT: method allows to increase nitrogenase activity of amaranth during growth and to reduce a growing season while keeping a former level of productivity of the given culture.

2 tbl, 15 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes pre-plant processing of soil with sowing of seeds. Sowing of seeds in soil is performed periodically every two years. In the first year the sowing of seeds is performed in the late period and late harvesting by direct combine operation is performed. In the second year the over-stocked drop plantlets are harrowed away down to the density 2.0-3.0 mln plants per 1 ha. Harvesting is performed by separating method with the maturing of buckwheat. Seeding in the first year of cultivation buckwheat is performed on stubble field at the depth 5-6 cm using standard method, with the norm 3.0-3.5 mln. fertile grains per 1 ha, with simultaneous use of mineral fertilizings with the dose N30P30K30. Late sowing of seeds in the first year of buckwheat cultivation is performed in the second half of June. Late harvesting by direct combine operation is performed in the first year of buckwheat cultivation is performed with cutting of plants at height 20-25 cm from the soil surface. Harvesting by direct combine operation in the first year of buckwheat cultivation is performed 5-7 days after first autumn frost, playing a role of desiccation - drying of cormophyte mass and grain on the root. The blooming buckwheat are fertilized by bees - 2-4 honey-bee colonies per 1 ha.

EFFECT: increase of yield.

7 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of mechanisation of agricultural production. The method is characterised in that spraying of leaves of cultivated crops with fertiliser solutions is carried out and herbicides are applied with the tape. Spraying of leaves of cultivated crops is carried out in portions with a solution of mineral fertilisers, and application of the herbicides - on both sides symmetrically with respect to the row of plants within the protection zone with overlapping. To prevent the contact of the solution of the herbicide with the leaves of cultivated crops they are raised, and devices for application of fertilisers and herbicides are brought to the action zone of protective shields.

EFFECT: method provides improvement of quality of spraying, and also minimises the negative impact of herbicides on cultivated vegetative crops.

2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: paraplough-aerator comprises a frame, a suction pipe with a safety spring, and a paraplough. The paraplough is rigidly attached to the suction pipe. The pipe at the lower part of the horizontal plane the spring with the stops is attached. The spring with the stops has the ability of stretching, compression and bending in the course of work and in deformation to saturate the soil with air by sucking air from the suction pipe.

EFFECT: device enables to increase water-permeability of soil, to saturate the soil with air, which thereby increases the crop yield.

1 dwg

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