Method of deep processing of vegetable organic fuel without chemical binding components and bricketed fuel

FIELD: wood working industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of deep processing of wood sawdust and leaves without chemical cementing components, characterized by that they are sieved for removal of large-size elements, loaded into a dryer for decrease of humidity down to 10%, crushed until obtaining of a mix of particles with the size less than 15 mm and the volume no more than 0.5-1.0 cm3, formed, pressed at the pressure 120-140 kg/cm2 and the temperature 250-350°C without air access. The invention describes also the briquette obtained by the named method.

EFFECT: obtaining robust briquettes from wood sawdust and leaves, without using the chemical cementing components.

5 cl, 8 ex

 

Method and bitterbynde fuel from sawdust and leaves relate to the production of solid fuel in the form of briquettes and can be used as a substitute for natural solid fuels for household use and industry.

Known fuel briquette containing a mixture of chopped dried solid fuels from groups: sawdust, peat, dehydrated poultry manure, dehydrated manure, etc. and/or their mixture, and the precipitate from the wastewater, and a binder selected from the group: lignosulfonate, molasses, and/or clay, and/or paraffin wax or slack wax. Briquetting is carried out at a pressure of 1-30 MPa, and drying is carried out at a temperature less than 300°C. the Components of the binder before pressing was stirred and heated to 60-80°C or stirred with heating at this temperature [1].

A limitation of the method of production of briquettes is that they require the use of binders.

The closest relative of the present invention in essence and achieved result is an invention which relates to the production of solid fuel in the form of briquettes and can be used as a substitute for natural solid fuels for household use and industry. Fuel briquette contains 10-30% shredded vegetable component and/or peat, 2-10% neutralizes� supplements 30-60% of the acid sludge and the balance to 100 - sludge from wastewater treatment. Method for producing briquettes include dosing and mixing of the aforementioned components, and drying the pellets at a temperature of 20-200°C for 0.5-20 hours [2].

The disadvantage briquetted fuel is insufficient mechanical strength, which leads to the destruction of the briquettes during cargo operations and, consequently, to increase the cost of using briquettes.

To solve this problem, a method of manufacturing a briquette with a high content of lignin, seasonal solved the problem of fallen leaves when you receive this type of fuel.

The technical result - the hardening of the briquettes, and reducing the cost of their use.

A method of deep processing of wood sawdust and leaves no chemical bonding of the components, characterized by the fact that they pass through a sieve to remove large-size elements, is loaded into the dryer to reduce the moisture content to 10%, pulverized to obtain a mixture of particles less than 15 mm and the volume of individual particles is not more than 0.5-1.0 cm3, shaped, pressed under a pressure of 120-140 kg/cm and a temperature of 250-350°C without access of air. The method is characterized in that the treated mixture consisting of 80% leaf and 20% sawdust.

The briquette product�erished, it contains leaves and sawdust, has melted the surface.

The briquette is characterized in that it contains leaves and softwood sawdust in the ratio of respectively 80% and 20%.

The briquette is characterized in that it has a rectangular shape.

The production of bioenergy fuels should be organized on the basis of production of pellet fuel, which avoids specified seasonal factor.

Below are examples of preparation of solid fuels from different mixtures.

Example 1.

Vegetable fuel (twigs, leaves, sawdust, peat, dehydrated manure) mass 950 kg pass through a sieve to remove large-size elements, is loaded into the dryer to reduce the moisture content to 10%, pulverized to obtain a mixture of particles of 10 mm and a volume of the individual particles of 0.5 cm3, shaped, pressed under a pressure of 140 kg/cm2and a temperature of 350°C without access of air. Get a solid briquettes with melted surface.

Example 2.

Seasonal leaves and sawdust is passed through a sieve to remove large-size elements, is loaded into the dryer to reduce the moisture content to 10%, pulverized to obtain a mixture of particles of 12 mm and a volume of the individual particles of 0.8 cm3, shaped, pressed under a pressure of 130 kg/cm2and a temperature of 300°C without access of air. Get a solid rectangular� briquettes.

Example 3.

Leaves and sawdust of coniferous trees (800 and 200 kg respectively) pass through a sieve to remove large-size elements, is loaded into the dryer to reduce the moisture content to 10%, pulverized to obtain a mixture of particles of 14 mm and a volume of the individual particles 1.0 cm3, shaped, pressed under a pressure of 120 kg/cm2and a temperature of 250°C without access of air.

Get a solid rectangular briquettes with melted surface.

Example 4.

Treat a mixture of 30% sawdust (300 kg) and 30% straw (300 kg) and 40% of polyethylene of high pressure (400 kg), humidity reduce to 8.5%, pressed into pellets, fuel withstood three months on the open ground at the fuel depot. The moisture content of the fuel after exposure was 9.5%.

Example 5.

Treat a mixture containing 300 kg of wood, 300 kg of waste grain, 10 kg shells, 150 kg of peat (with a moisture content after drying 10%) and 250 kg of polyethylene of low pressure, humidity was lowered to 9%, pressed into pellets, fuel withstood three months on the open ground at the fuel depot. The moisture content of the fuel after exposure was 10%.

Example 6.

Treat a mixture of 670 kg of waste paper, 300 kg of plant stems (with a moisture content after drying 9%), 30 kg of polypropylene, receive solid fuel with a moisture content of 8.9% in the form of granules, which can withstand three months in the open area on the�one stock. Humidity after exposure was 8%.

Example 7.

From a mixture containing 300 kg of wood, 300 kg of grain 10 kg shells, 150 kg of peat (with a moisture content after drying 10%) and 250 kg of high-density polyethylene, got a solid fuel with a moisture content of 8.9% in the form of granules, which was sustained for three months on the open ground at the fuel depot. Humidity after exposure was 9.5%. Solid fuel burned in the boiler 15 "Altai".

Example 8.

From a mixture containing 670 kg of waste paper, 300 kg of plant stems (with a moisture content after drying 10%), 30 kg of polypropylene, received a solid fuel with a moisture content of 8.9% in the form of granules, which was sustained for three months on the open ground at the fuel depot. Humidity after exposure was 9.5%. Solid fuel burned in the boiler "Altai". The granules were fed into the gasification chamber. The chamber temperature was 600°C. Insufficient amount of air in the chamber caused the flow of a gasification process in which solid fuel is transformed into synthesis gas. The combustion of the synthesis gas temperature was 1250-1450°C. Specific heat of combustion of fuel with a moisture content of 8.9% is 25.2 MJ/kg of fuel with a moisture content of 9.5 per cent to 24.9 MJ/kg.

Hardwood briquettes made from organic materials, mainly of foliage, are produced by compressing the foliage at a pressure of about 120 kg/cm2. With this giving�starting from 20% sawdust and 80% of the foliage sticky substance secreted lignin of natural origin. Therefore, the pellets do not disintegrate after removing the pressure.

Thus, a mixture of 20% sawdust (200 kg) and 80% of the leaves (800 kg), passed through a large sieve to remove large items load in the drum dryer to further reduce the moisture content to an acceptable 10%.

The technology of production of fuel briquettes from foliage is the process of compacting finely ground wood waste (sawdust) 20% and 80% of leaves under high pressure when heated to 250-350°C with a minimum access of air. Received fuel briquettes do not include any binders, but one of the natural lignin contained in the cells of plant waste. The temperature during compaction contributes to the melting of the surface of the briquettes, which is thus becomes more durable, which is important for transportation of briquettes.

Process chain: procurement of raw materials (waste recycled), the preparation of the bioenergy component (shredder/fine grinding, drying), mixer, heating, forming a rectangular shape with rounded edges - agglomerate, extruder. It is possible to use a drying-pereulochny boiler high power, to avoid problems due to 4 hazard class urban foliage

It is advisable to use the foliage of conifers. It is also advisable to add sawdust�and belonged to coniferous due to the high content of lignin and a high energy capacity.

Describes the briquette can be used as fuel in boilers, and in home use with boilers of closed type and flue direct output.

The briquette will help to solve including seasonal problem of fallen leaves.

Sources of information

1. RF patent Fuel briquette and method thereof, No. 2130047, IPC6C10L 5/02, C10L 5/44, C10L 5/12, C10L 5/14, Appl. 06.04.1998.

2. RF patent Fuel briquette and method thereof, No. 2205205 (C1), IPC 7 C10L 5/44, C10L 5/46, C10L 5/48, C10L 5/1 6, Appl. 28.03.2002.

1. Method of deep processing of wood sawdust and leaves no chemical bonding of the components, characterized by the fact that they pass through a sieve to remove large-size elements, is loaded into the dryer to reduce the moisture content to 10%, pulverized to obtain a mixture of particles less than 15 mm and the volume of individual particles is not more than 0.5-1.0 cm3, shaped, pressed under a pressure of 120-140 kg/cm2and a temperature of 250-350°C without access of air.

2. A method according to claim 1, in which process a mixture consisting of 80% leaf and 20% sawdust.

3. The preform obtained by the method according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains leaves and sawdust, has melted the surface.

4. The briquette according to claim 3, characterized in that it comprises the leaves and softwood sawdust in the ratio of respectively 80% and 20%.

5. The briquette according to claim 3, ExC�featuring the that has a rectangular shape.



 

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Solid fuel // 2542363

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to solid fuel from wood and paper, composition of which includes wood chips with size from 1 to 50 mm (component A), paper cuttings with size from 1 to 50 mm (component B), binding substance in form of starch, obtained from sea algae (component C-1), shape-forming substance in form of natural caoutchouc (component C-2) and increasing calorific ability additive in form of substance, which contains vegetable oil (component D); said mixture of components is subjected to press moulding, with the total quantity of components A and B constituting from 15 to 45 weight parts counted per 100 weight parts of mixture, the total quantity of components C-1, C-2 and D constitutes from 55 to 85 weight parts counted per 100 weight parts of mixture, and weight ratio of component A to component B constitutes from 20:80 to 80:20.

EFFECT: reduction of formation of harmful gases and harmful residual products in the process of burning, as well as in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions.

10 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: inventions can be used for the lignocellulosic material processing. The lignocellulosic material roasting method involves drying of the lignocellulosic material in a dryer (2). The dried lignocellulosic material is supplied to a roasting reactor (5), where a reaction is performed at the pressure of 1 to 50 bars and at a temperature of 100 to 1000°C with the formation of the roasted biomass and roasting gas. The roasting gas is returned to the roasting reactor (5) via pipelines (7). The roasted biomass is cooled in a cooler (29) operating at the absence of oxygen and containing an inert gas supply line (17). Additional inert gas is supplied to the cooler (29) as well. The inert gas is supplied from the cooler (29) in a flow (31) to a cyclone (32), where it is separated from solid particles, and then, it is returned to the cooler in a flow (36) and to the roasting reactor (5) in a flow (18).

EFFECT: inventions allow increasing the operating safety of a unit, its efficiency and environmental friendliness of the process.

20 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of fuel briquettes including grinding of wood wastes, their mixing, drying and pelletizing. Note here that briquette comprises an extra element composed of core of compacted asp saw dust with hole for drawbar.

EFFECT: higher calorific capacity, higher ecological and fire safety at application, transportation and storage.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics; control.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to systems for controlling pressure and temperature of a reactor and can be used in reactors containing an aqueous solution at temperature close to the boiling point of the solution. The system for controlling pressure and temperature of chemical reactor, in which a hydrothermal biomass carbonisation reaction takes place, includes: a) a reservoir 21 with at least one pressure control device, b) a connecting pipe between the reservoir 21 and the reactor 18 and c) a device for injecting condensates into the reactor.

EFFECT: invention enables to use process water to reduce reactor temperature, reduces the cost of cleaning and maintaining the system and provides pressure and temperature stability.

24 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of manufacturing briquettes of straw of grain crops, which is shredded and then compacted, at that the shredded straw is preliminary dried to a moisture content of 15-20%, and then is fed to a screw extruder and is gradually compressed up until it is heated to a temperature above the 290°C and its density is no more than 1.3 g/cm3, then the resulting mass is extruded in the form of a cylinder having a uniform structure, and during the extrusion a constant temperature not exceeding 340° is maintained in the forming die of the extruder. Also the device for manufacturing briquettes from shredded straw is disclosed.

EFFECT: resulting briquettes have a uniform stable form, which does not change during long-term storage.

3 cl, 2 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: heating.

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EFFECT: present invention can be used to facilitate ignition of wood, coal and other combustible materials in furnaces, fireplaces, fires, etc.

10 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to making the granules or briquettes from lignine-bearing material. Proposed process includes the steps that follow. Said lignine-bearing material with moisture content under 30 wt % is fed into reactor. Said material is heated to 180-235°C by steam injection into reactor for 1-12 minutes. Pressure is dropped to form processed material to granules or briquettes. Invention relates also to lignine-bearing granule or briquette used as fuel source and produced as indicated above. Besides, it relates to production of granules or briquettes from biomass. This process includes the steps that follow. Material with moisture content under 30 wt % is fed into reactor, said material is heated to 180-235°C by steam injection into reactor for at least 1 minute, pressure is dropped to form processed material to granules or briquettes.

EFFECT: better physical properties, ease of transportation and storage, higher output power of fuel combustors.

24 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device for briquetting of biowaste of animals and birds, comprising a loading hopper, a conical auger installed in the hollow body, a scraper conveyor arranged in the lower part of the body, a spring-loaded plate in the form of a ski is installed at the side of the conical auger top at the outlet from the body. It additionally comprises a mixer made of a body, nozzles for input of a filler and an aggregate, besides, along the vertical axis of the mixer body there is a rotor with blades arranged at the angle to each other, the lower part of the mixer via the gate and the pipeline is connected to the lower part of the device for mixing of the material with the binder made of a body and a nozzle of binder injection, inside the body on its opposite sides there are two augers in the form of a spiral with the opposite winding rotating with the help of electric motors, at the outer side of the device body for mixing along its perimeter there is a coil with a coolant. Blades installed on the rotor of the mixer have the shape of a rectangular triangle. Application of the proposed device makes it possible to use biowaste of animals (manure, dung), and also to use local resource in the form of easily available and environment-safe materials.

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2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: briquette consists of a pressed lignocellulose body, containing: (a) 60-90 wt % cuttings of grass stalks and (b) 10-40 wt % scutched lignocellulose binder with degree of scutching of 38-75°RS (Shopper-Rigler degrees), preferably 45 70°RS, (said percentages being expressed in dry weight relative the dry weight of the sum of (a) and (b)) and from fuel which is liquid at room temperature, having a flash point of 30-150°C, which saturates the pressed lignocellulose body, wherein said briquette has a substantially cylindrical shape and has a central smoke conduit with a star-shaped cross-section. The method of making the briquettes comprises the following steps: (1) mixing an aqueous suspension of lignocellulose binder (b) with cuttings of grass stalks (a) in such proportions that the ratio (per dry weight) of the lignocellulose binder (b) to the cuttings of the grass stalks (a) ranges from 10/90 to 40/60; (2) moulding the mixture obtained in a suitable unit of the mould (encircling part)-anti-mould (encircled part) type at temperature of 40-120°C at pressure of 3-12 bar, applied for 5-120 s; (3) removing the obtained pressed body from the press mould; and (4) saturating the pressed body removed from the press mould with fuel which is liquid at room temperature, having flash point of 30-150°C.

EFFECT: obtaining a solid fuel briquette with low weight and a shape which provides multiple points of ignition, concealed inside the central smoke conduit.

15 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of fuel from compacted biomass whereat moist biomass is dried prior to compaction. Before drying, biomass is mechanically dewatered for decrease in moisture content and ground before mechanical dewatering. Note that biomass is ground to puree state, rubbed to obtain fiber and subjected to fine grinding to destruct cellular structures to biomass consistency varying from paste to fluid. Invention relates also to appliance for producing fuel from compacted biomass. Fine grinding allows better removal of water either mechanically or at preliminary dewatering.

EFFECT: decreased amount of contaminants released in combustion and boiler corrosion, higher combustion heat and ash fusion point.

11 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: heating, drying.

SUBSTANCE: invention describes a system of super-drying biomass which comprises a plurality of tanks, comprising at least one drying tank containing molten salt as the liquid agent of heat transfer, which is in contact with the biomass and converts it into biochar; and at least one water tank containing water for washing the salt, which is in contact with the biochar and cools the biochar to remove the salt adhered to the biochar, and the transportation system that moves the biomass through a plurality of tanks in the first direction while moving the biochar in the second direction opposite the first direction, so that at least one water tank containing water for washing the salt preliminary heats the biomass and simultaneously cools the biochar.

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17 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an agent for ignition, comprising a plurality of spiral twisted fibres of combustible material coated with agent improving combustion, applied by spraying method, at that the means for ignition comprises an inner part and an outer part, and the outer part density ranges from 0.03 to 0.13 kg/m3, and the inner part density is from about 0.15 to 0.5 g/cm3, at that the fuel material is wood, a the agent improving combustion is wax. The invention also relates to a method of manufacturing the agent for ignition, according to which the initial twisting of fibres of combustible material is carried out to obtain a rope, the agent improving combustion is applied to the rope by spraying method, the final twisting of the rope is carried out to the desired density, and the rope is divided into pieces of suitable length.

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10 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermal treatment of biomass. Particularly, it relates to the process including feed of biomass (6) into reactor (16). Biomass (6) is heated in said reactor to 180-350°C at low oxygen concentration. Here, components are produced that feature inertia relative to biological decomposition with formation of gaseous reaction products (10) and heat-treated biomass (8). Reaction gaseous products (10) are fed for combustion (13) while hot flue gases (11) of said combustion (13) are fed into reactor (16) for thermal treatment process. Combustion process (13) is executed in boiler (14) that combusts extra fuel (15) in amount not over 20%, preferably, not over 10% of the fuel energy equivalent are obtained from reaction gaseous products (10) in reactor (16). Biomass is heat treated in continuous action reactor 16 while flue gas flow flows in the same direction with biomass flow in reactor (16).

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8 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

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23 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of fuel from compacted biomass whereat moist biomass is dried prior to compaction. Before drying, biomass is mechanically dewatered for decrease in moisture content and ground before mechanical dewatering. Note that biomass is ground to puree state, rubbed to obtain fiber and subjected to fine grinding to destruct cellular structures to biomass consistency varying from paste to fluid. Invention relates also to appliance for producing fuel from compacted biomass. Fine grinding allows better removal of water either mechanically or at preliminary dewatering.

EFFECT: decreased amount of contaminants released in combustion and boiler corrosion, higher combustion heat and ash fusion point.

11 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to production of fuel pellets including mixing of filler that contains wood processing waste, combustible component in the form of oil waste and binding agent where fat and oil waste from food industry are also used as combustible component and such combustible component serves simultaneously as binding agent; powdered thickener from combustible material is added to the mixture, at that at first mixing of thickener and binding agent is made in ratio of 0.2-1.0:1 during 1.5-2 minutes in order to thicken the latter, thereafter filler is introduced step-by-step into the thickened mixture and filler takes ratio of 0.5-1.0:1 to the binding agent, then mixture is stirred during 35-40 minutes till pellets of stable shape appear; then thickener is added again in quality of 10-20% of its initial weight in order to prevent sticking of pellets and the mixture is stirred for another 2-4 minutes till finished product of round pellets is received. Received fuel pellets are used for household and municipal boilers for firing up purpose.

EFFECT: claimed method is simpler, more cost effective and ecologically safe.

15 cl

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to usage of an extrusion-type briquette (BREX) produced by the method of stiff vacuum extrusion, including coal dressing wastes and, if required, coal siftings, a mineral binder and a concrete stone, as fuel for industrial furnaces and domestic ovens. BREX briquettes are characterised by the fact that size of materials included into a mixture for production of briquettes does not exceed 5 mm.

EFFECT: application of stiff vacuum extrusion makes it possible to produce BREX briquettes with sufficient strength and optimal dimensions for solid fuel, with minimum consumption of a binder.

3 cl

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to procedure and method for production of solid hydrocarbon fuel. For this purpose the procedure of solid hydrocarbon fuel production involves the following: saturation of hydrocarbon raw material with water; dispersion of the raw material saturated with water up to ultrafine condition in result of volumetric cavitation under ultrasound; dispersed raw material is extruded through magnetoacoustic coagulator made as a thin-wall metal tube; formation of ring eddy currents in metal of the magnetoacoustic coagulator which are directed around it longitudinal axis and have frequency approximately equal to the frequency of free radial mechanical oscillation of the magnetoacoustic coagulator; output from the magnetoacoustic coagulator of solid hydrocarbon fuel obtained in result of ultrafine mixture coagulation under influence of magnetoacoustic resonance processes in magnetoacoustic resonator.

EFFECT: use of the device allows simplification of more efficient solid hydrocarbon fuel from any organic raw material.

12 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: material cells are mechanically disintegrated; lipids are extracted using a Folch method, involving extraction of lipids with a mixture of chloroform and methanol (2:1 by volume), followed by washing the extract with KCl solution (0.88%) and, after demixing and removing the top phase, with a mixture of 0.88% KCl solution and methanol (1:1 by volume); the KCl solution and the mixture are added in an amount of 1/4 part of the obtained and remaining volume of extract, respectively; the ready lipid extract is dried by passing through a layer of anhydrous Na2SO4; the dry extract is then re-esterified with a mixture of methanol and acid catalyst, where the methanol is mixed with the catalyst in ratio of 50:1 by volume; biodiesel is extracted from the reaction mixture with hexane; the biodiesel extract is dried by passing through a layer of anhydrous Na2SO4.

EFFECT: obtaining biodiesel using a cheap and simple method by processing mud or sludge from treatment facilities.

1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to production of solid fuel, in which there described is solid-fuel granulated composition based on carbon-containing component, where as carbon-containing component, there added is disperse activated product of low-temperature pyrolysis of wastes of technical rubber products and polymer wastes (pyrocarbon with specific surface S=5000-8000 cm2/g), and wood dust is added as plant waste. At that, as the component that initiates combustion, there added are nitrogen-containing components, and binding agent is added in the form of water solution of polymer plasticising additive with total initial humidity Winitial =10÷35 wt %. Peculiar feature of granulated solid-fuel composition and method for its obtainment is increase in thermal power due to considerable acceleration of fuel combustion at reduced quantity of hazardous gaseous emission to atmosphere. Proposed ratios of components and added quantity of NH4NO3 as an oxidiser instead of hydrogen at combustion provides formation of NO3, N2 and H2O. Excess oxygen is supplied to oxidation of fuel components.

EFFECT: obtaining fuel briquettes with high reactivity ability, increased thermal power and high strength of briquettes.

2 cl, 4 cl

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to usage of an extrusion-type briquette (BREX) produced by the method of stiff vacuum extrusion, including coal dressing wastes and, if required, coal siftings, a mineral binder and a concrete stone, as fuel for industrial furnaces and domestic ovens. BREX briquettes are characterised by the fact that size of materials included into a mixture for production of briquettes does not exceed 5 mm.

EFFECT: application of stiff vacuum extrusion makes it possible to produce BREX briquettes with sufficient strength and optimal dimensions for solid fuel, with minimum consumption of a binder.

3 cl

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