# Method of contactless measurements of geometric parameters of object in space and device for its realisation

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of contactless measurements of geometric parameters of an object in space. During realisation of the method on the surface of the object they identify one and/or more separate areas, for which one may in advance make several different simplified mathematical parametric models on the basis of previously known geometric laws of the investigated object, which characterise shape, position, movement, deformation. Markers are applied onto the object surface, grouping by separate areas into separate groups. Then they register images of central projection of the specified markers. And on their basis with account of previously known geometric laws of the investigated object and using methods of multidimensional minimisation of differences they determine sought for geometric parameters of the object.

EFFECT: increased accuracy and validity of measurements of geometric parameters of an object when using one chamber, especially under conditions of restricted surrounding space and limited optical access.

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The invention relates to the field of optical non-contact measurement of geometrical parameters of shape, position, motion and deformation of objects in space, in particular, to near photogrammetry and videogrammetry, and can be used in scientific research, engineering, construction, medicine, and other fields for measurements of geometrical parameters of objects in a constrained surrounding space and limited optical access.

Known for numerous optical devices and methods for contactless measurement of geometrical parameters of objects. The most widely known are the methods of photogrammetry [Lobanov A. N. Photogrammetry. - M.: Nedra, 1984]. The main purpose of photogrammetry is the measurement of geometrical parameters of the surface areas of the earth at the aerial photos and imagery from space, i.e. from a great distance. This so-called photogrammetry far zones. Also these methods are used for contactless measurement of geometrical parameters of objects at short distances in units and tens of meters is photogrammetry a near-field or near-field photogrammetry. Recently photogrammetry methods are implemented with the use of digital means of recording images and are called digital photogrammetry or videogrammetry. The pictur�metry near-field range is widely used in scientific research, industrial production, construction, medicine and other fields.

The essence of photogrammetry is to determine the three coordinates x, y, z point on the surface of the investigated object by two coordinates u, v of the Central projection on flat image. The General formulation of this problem is ill-posed: for each point there are three unknowns and only two equations. In near photogrammetry it is possible to formulate three ways to resolve the uncertainty of the task of rebuilding coordinates:

The first optical satellite imagery. In this case, record two images of the object from different perspectives (points of observation) and restore three coordinates by combining the coordinate values of points in two images [RF Patent №2173445 C1, IPC G01C 11/00, 2000]. In more complex cases it may take three or more images from different angles. For implementing the method of stereo photography is required, at least two

image recording the camera or getting two shots with a single camera sequentially from different angles, if the object is static.

The second way is the use of structured lighting of the investigated object, in particular, clipping a light plane or collimated beam of light rays [RF Patent №2105265 C1 IPC G01B 11/24, 1994]. In this case the system of equations are supplemented by the equation describing a known path�AI distribution of light rays. To implement the methods of structured illumination, only one camera, but additionally, you need a projector for forming beam structured illumination.

The third way is the use of a priori information, i.e., data obtained from other sources. This can be, in particular, the pre-known information about the limited degrees of freedom of the object on the mutual location of a number of salient points about the nature of the movement or deformation of the object, etc. Implementation of this direction is often reduced to a method of marker points at which the surface of the investigated object are applied with special markers, clearly visible on the resulting image [RF Patent №2316726 C1 IPC G01B 11/16, 2006]. Markers can be circles, crosses, lines, and more complex coded labels and targets [Tuflin Y. S., and D. G. Russian Academy, Prince V. A., Zheltov S. Precalculating the accuracy of determination of coordinates of points of the object in near photogrammetry // Geodesy and cartography. - 2004. No. 11. - P. 29-32]. Information about the original coordinates of these markers on the surface of the object is usually sufficient to resolve the uncertainty problem of recovering the three coordinates of the surface points of an object in space by two coordinates response of these points on the images.

There are many ways and Optionals�PTS designed for non-contact measurement of geometrical parameters of objects. Most of them are based on the method of stereo photography and is intended for measurement of geometrical parameters of contours and terrain through aerial photography or satellite imagery of the earth's surface [Bruevich P. N. Photogrammetry. Textbook for universities. - M.: Nedra, 1990, P. 285].

There are a large number of commercial devices digital photogrammetry for measurement of geometrical parameters of objects in the near zone (1-5 m), built according to the scheme both with one and with two or more cameras for registration with the Central projection in the form of images, containing a means of measuring the coordinates of the projections of the markers on the image information and United through USB, GigE, or otherwise interface with the device registration with the Central projection and means of determining the exterior orientation parameters (high-performance laptop and software) [Prospect systems SmartSCAN and StereoScan firm Cybercom Ltd." //<http://www.cybercom.EN>].

A common drawback of the methods and devices stereo imagery and devices with the use of structured illumination is the necessity of using two or more devices registered by the Central projection or projectors are structured illumination in multiple positions (points in space). However, in �experimentalnoy aerodynamics, industrial production and in some other cases, the object is usually in the constrained conditions of the surrounding space and the limited optical access, for example, in the working section of the wind tunnel, or in a test cell with a limited number of optical Windows, either on the machine, the conveyor or stand. The placement of two cameras for stereo or camera and projector, as in the method using structured lighting is often an intractable problem. In addition, specific features of the investigated object can also prevent the application of these methods. For example, in studies of fast dynamic processes due to the inevitable delays of the pulses in electronic circuits of the synchronization system is strictly impossible providing simultaneous actuation of two cameras or a camera and projector, resulting in the combination of data from different devices can lead to significant measurement errors.

Another disadvantage of the known methods of solid geometry is that it is designed for measurement of geometrical parameters of a rigid static objects on the earth's surface, characterized by a single mathematical model. Most of the tasks of scientific research is linked with the objects, poderia�governmental significant deformations, or even with the composition of individual pieces of an object having different geometrical regularity of form, movement, and deformation. Application of the method to studies of such objects results in uncontrolled measurement errors or impossible.

The most effective method of contactless measurement of geometrical parameters of an object in such conditions is a method of markers using only one camera. The known method and device for measuring small deformations of structural material [RF Patent №2316726 C1 IPC G01B 11/16, 2006], in which the surface of the test object applied markers, in a given time moment register Central projection of these markers in the form of images and determine the material deformation of structures by the displacement of the projections of these markers on the images.

Methods and devices using a priori information in the most simple technical realization - they require only one digital camera and one observation point. This fact provides a significant advantage in the application of these methods, especially in a constrained around the object space or the limited optical access, which is typical, for example, aerodynamic, strength, flight or other experiment, industrial �operating procedures of the control.

The closest solution is the method of contactless measurement of geometrical parameters of an object in space using a single camera [A. W. Burner, N. Liu. "Videogrammetric Model Deformation Measurement Technique". Journal of Aircraft, vol.38, No. 3, 2001], selected as a prototype, in which the surface of the object at the given points is applied markers, register the Central projection of these markers in the form of an image, define the parameters of exterior orientation of the Central projection, and image processing to measure the two-dimensional coordinates of the projections of the markers on the image, of which the Central projection formulas using some of the exterior orientation parameters calculated coordinates of the markers in space, and from them find the desired geometrical parameters of an object in space.

A device for implementing this method, selected as a prototype [A. W. Burner, N. Liu. "Videogrammetric Model Deformation Measurement Technique". Journal of Aircraft, vol.38, No. 3, 2001], includes a means of applying markers to the surface of the investigated object, the device registration with the Central projection markers in the form of image, means for determining the parameters of the exterior orientation of the device registration in the Central projection, the unit of measurement of the coordinates of the projections of the markers on the image and the block of calculation of desired geometrical parameters �the object.

The disadvantage of this method and device is that it provides measurement only of the coordinates of the surface points of an object in space, whereas the aim of any research is the definition of the generalized geometric parameters appropriate to the selected hypothesis or model of the investigated process, object. For finding the generalized parameters from measured coordinates requires additional information, additional procedures and additional calculations, which leads to increased measurement error. This is especially true when the optimization of research results, as the measurement point coordinates without taking into account the model of the process requires some optimization criteria, and the binding process to coordinate others. These optimization criteria are often mutually incompatible, which can often lead to conflict in a multidimensional minimization and, as a consequence, in uncontrolled measurement errors and reduce their reliability.

The technical result of the invention is improving the accuracy and reliability of measurements of geometrical parameters of an object using a single camera, especially in a constrained surrounding space and limited optical access.

The technical result is achieved in that the FPIC�baie contactless measurement of geometrical parameters of an object in space, wherein on the surface of the object at the given points is applied markers, register the Central projection of these markers in the form of an image, define the parameters of exterior orientation of the Central projection, and image processing to measure the two-dimensional coordinates of the projections of the markers on the image, of which the Central projection formulas using some of the exterior orientation parameters calculated coordinates of the markers in space, and from them find the desired geometrical parameters of an object in space, according to the invention, based on the previously known geometrical patterns of the investigated object on its surface emit or create another separate area, characterized by its own geometry parameters, for each of them set their own coordinate system, form their own mathematical parametric model, own parameters which are associated with the desired geometric parameters of the object of known geometric regularities, and attach their own mathematical parametric model to the Central projection formulas, except when applied markers on the surface they are grouped in separate areas or in isolated groups, and the processing of images for each of these separate group� allocate two-dimensional coordinates of the projections of the markers on the image define your own parameters exterior orientation of the Central projection and the Central projection formulas and attached their own mathematical parametric model using your own exterior orientation parameters calculated by the methods of multidimensional minimization of divergences own parameters corresponding mathematical model, and the required geometric parameters of the object is found using the calculated own parameters of mathematical models and pre-defined geometric patterns.

Additionally, the technical result in the method is achieved in that on the basis of pre-known geometric patterns of the investigated object one of the individual zones allocate or create advanced so that it was possible to count the points of its surface are mutually fixed, accept it for the base, define the parameters of the relative position of the markers in their own coordinate system and its own exterior orientation parameters of the Central projection of the base zone, as you develop your own mathematical parametric model of the underlying zone take into account the relative position of the markers in it, and the own parameters of all other own mathematical models calculated with use�Itanium own exterior orientation parameters of the Central projection of the base zone and the desired geometrical parameters of the object are in the coordinate system of the base zone.

In many cases to improve measurement accuracy also contributes to the fact that based on pre-known geometric patterns of the investigated object allocate separate areas or create additional sections so that each of them could be considered a point on the surface mutually stationary and moving as a whole, as you develop your own mathematical parametric models of cross-sections define the parameters of the relative position of the markers in their own coordinate systems, their own mathematical parametric model form in the form of the equations of the position and movement of these own coordinate systems section and the processing of images define their own parameters of exterior orientation of the Central projection of the desired cross-sections and geometric parameters of the object are from the own values of the exterior orientation parameters of each section.

Said technical result is achieved in that the device for the contactless measurement of geometrical parameters of an object in space that contains a means of applying markers to the surface of the investigated object, the device registration with the Central projection markers in the form of image, means for determining the parameters of exterior orientation registration device Central �roccii, the unit of measurement of the coordinates of the projections of the markers on the image and the block of calculation of desired geometrical parameters of the object according to the invention, additionally introduced as a means of creating separate groups of markers associated with means for applying markers to the surface of the investigated object, a means of determining the parameters of the relative position of the markers in a separate group, the means of formation of mathematical parametric models for marginalized groups of markers, information associated with the means of creating separate groups of markers and a means of determining the parameters of the relative position of the marker block of segregating groups of projections of the markers on the image, connected to the unit of measurement of the coordinates of the projections of the markers on the image and the block of the multidimensional minimization of differences for each separate group of markers connected with its input to the block of segregating groups of projections of tokens and information associated with the means of formation of mathematical parametric models and means of determining the exterior orientation parameters, and output - block computation of the desired geometric parameters of the object.

The technical effect of the method and the device in all cases is achieved through the optimal use of prior Informatica to resolve uncertainty the problem of recovering the coordinates of an object in space, and for the harmonization of geometrical parameters of individual zones with the General parameters of the position, movement and deformation of objects in space. In addition, the mathematical regression for multidimensional minimization is proposed to formulate in connection with a mathematical model of the investigated process, which leads to a reduction in the number of integral transformations, the number of degrees of freedom in the regression tasks and, thereby, to minimize the methodological and computational errors in the determination of the desired generalized geometric parameters.

List of figures illustrating the operation of the proposed method and device.

Fig.1 shows a block diagram of the device for contactless measurement of geometrical parameters of an object in space for the implementation of said method.

Fig.2 shows a schematic diagram illustrating the proposed method of contactless measurement of geometrical parameters of an object in space with the release of separate zones, each with its own geometric parameters.

Fig.3 shows a diagram of segregating zones on the surface of a model of an airplane wing.

Fig.4 shows a diagram of the device with the release of separate sections on the model surface of the wing and the base zone on the basis of fixing the model.

Fig.5 shows an example of the working zobrazeniphoto wing model in the wind tunnel T-103 TSAGI and graph of the results of measurements of the bending deformation at different values of the flow velocity.

Fig.6 shows a device for measuring deformations of both the upper and lower surfaces of a model aircraft wing.

Fig.7 shows photos of the installation for research of deformation of the upper and lower surfaces of the model airplane wing in a wind tunnel T-101 TSAGI.

Fig.8 shows the measurement result of the shape of the aircraft wing slat rejected in PA and the provisions in 10 sections of the wing (280 points).

Fig.9 shows an example implementation of a method and apparatus for deformation studies hogging large scale models and construction elements of strength research.

Fig.10 shows the measurement result of the field normal deformations of the structural panel of the aircraft.

Fig.11 shows a diagram of a contactless measurement of distributed shear deformation of structural elements in their tensile strength studies with the addition of the base zone.

Fig.12 shows the result of measurements this way the fields of the two components of the tangential deformation structural panel made of composite material with a slit on the static test stand for strength.

Fig.13 shows a device for implementing the method of contactless measurement of geometrical parameters of an object's position in space.

Fig.14 shows a work�their helicopter images of the device in two angular positions and graphs of the results of measurements of linear displacements and angles of orientation of the model in different modes in the flow of the wind tunnel T-104 TSAGI.

Block diagram of the device for implementing the proposed method of contactless measurement of geometrical parameters of an object in space is shown in Fig.1. The diagram shows:

1 the object of interest;

2 a means of applying markers to the surface of the investigated object;

3 tokens;

4 the means of creating separate groups of markers associated with the tool 2 of the application of markers on the surface of the investigated object;

5 a separate group of tokens;

6. the base panel of markers;

7 a means of determining the parameters of the relative position of the markers in a separate group,

8 device registration with the Central projection markers in the form of an image camera;

9 a means of determining the parameters of the exterior orientation of the device 8 registration with the Central projection,

10 Central projection image;

11 the projections of the markers on the image;

12 means of formation of mathematical parametric models for marginalized groups 5 and 6 markers, information associated with the tool 4 create separate groups of markers and a means 7 determine the parameters of the relative position of the marker

13 the unit of measurement of the coordinates of the projections of the markers on the image;

14 block of segregating groups of projections of the markers on the image, connected to the block 13 measured�I projected coordinate reference markers;

15 block of the multidimensional minimization of differences for each separate group of markers connected with its input to the block 14 of segregating groups of projections of tokens and information associated with the vehicle 12, the formation of mathematical parametric models and means 9 determine the exterior orientation parameters;

16 block calculate the desired geometrical parameters of the object, connected with its input to the block 15 multidimensional minimization of the discrepancy;

17 is a subsystem of gathering and processing of images, combining blocks 13-16;

18 the basis of the investigated object;

19 the light source.

Functional blocks 13-16 forming subsystem 17 of the collection and processing of images, typically implemented on a personal or mobile computer.

When you register the Central projection of the desired functional dependence of the coordinates x, y, z points in space measured from the image coordinates u, v are the projections of these points has the form

Here: x_{0}, y_{0}, z_{0}coordinates of the center of projection in the coordinate system of the object

u_{0}v_{0}, w_{0}- the coordinates of the coordinate system (SC) of the image in the camera's coordinate system,

M_{ij}(i, j=1, 2, 3) - elements of the matrix guides of the cosines of the coordinate system of the camera consecutively on angles α,β,
γ around the axes of the IC object. The matrix guides of the cosines can have a few different options for submission through the corners consecutive turns in a matrix of rotation, in particular, such a

Thus, the functional dependence (1) is defined by a set of at least nine constants. Six of them x_{0}, y_{0}, z_{0}and α, β, γ determine the position and orientation of the device's registration with the Central projection in the coordinate system of the object. In photogrammetry they are called the exterior orientation parameters and the three remaining u_{0}v_{0}, w_{0}the interior orientation parameters. The parameters u_{0}v_{0}are the coordinates of the principal point of the image, and w_{0}- rear conjugate distance of the lens. When registering a remote object the value of w_{0}close to the focal length of the lens. When used as a registration device Central projection in digital cameras interior orientation parameters is more convenient to Express in terms of discrete image - pixels. The interior orientation parameters identify the parameters of the geometric distortion of the image, such as the coefficients of distortion, of different sizes, etc.

The interior orientation parameters are ha�acteristics registration device Central projection (camera). They usually define a separate procedure when setting up the device for registration with the Central projection.

The markers on the surface of the test object is applied by a variety of means. It may be laser printers, paint with stencils, brushes with paint, markers and other tools. Well-proven technique, in which a single or group of markers to be printed using a laser printer for self-adhesive paper, and then glued them to the surface of the object. The markers 3 may have any shape to be flat lumped labels, small regular or irregular structures, three-dimensional targets distributed over the surface systematically or randomly. They must be clearly visible on the images and be identifiable, i.e. to establish an unambiguous correspondence of their spatial coordinates and two-dimensional coordinates of their projections in images.

The Central projection is recorded in the form of an image through various means, conventionally called cameras. This can be, for example, photos, film, video or digital camera, recording the image of the object in the optical, infrared, ultraviolet, or other spectrum, can be optical, laser, radar, acoustic scanners Il� other devices forming a Central projection of an object in an image.

The parameters of the exterior orientation of the Central projection is determined, as a rule, in the calibration procedure with the help of additional funds, called control devices or test objects containing a set of markers with known coordinates in space. The test object is placed in the space of measurements, register it with the Central projection in the form of an image and measure the two-dimensional coordinates of the projections of the markers on the image. Knowing the initial coordinates of these markers, the test object and the measured coordinates of the projections of these markers in the image, by the methods of multidimensional minimization of the discrepancies between the Central projection formulas (1) compute the numerical values of the exterior orientation parameters of the Central projection.

When processing digital images of two-dimensional coordinates of the projections of the markers on the image is measured in the computer using specialized software, which provides measurements of two-dimensional coordinates of the given image feature analysis methods group statistics, correlation analysis, consistent tracking, etc. These methods allow to measure the coordinates of points in the image with sub-pixel accuracy, up to 0.1-0.01 fraction of a pixel.

Usually these coordinates by the formulas of the center�encourages creativity projections using some of the exterior orientation parameters calculated coordinates of the markers in space, and of them find the desired geometrical parameters of an object in space.

However, the functional dependence (1) is not sufficient to reliably find the desired coordinates x, y, as in the right part of the equations is unknown z coordinate. According to the method of a priori information system (1) must be supplemented with another equation representing the mathematical model of the shape, position, movement or deformation, for example, in the form

where P is the own vector of parameters characterizing the studied object or process in whole or its individual area.

When processing the data dependence (3) is attached to the working characteristic (1) and solve the resulting system of equations for x, y and z.

In General, the entire surface of the investigated object a single mathematical model (3) to make in advance is not possible, because often this is the ultimate purpose of research and measurements. However, always based on pre-known geometric patterns of the investigated object on its surface it is possible to allocate one, two or more separate zones, each with its own distinct geometric parameters for which you can pre-make several different simplified mathematical parametric models. Therefore, to stand�to address the accuracy and reliability of measurements of geometrical parameters of an object in space based on pre-known geometric patterns of the investigated object on its surface emit or create another separate area, characterized by its own geometric parameters of shape, position, motion and deformation. For each of them set their own coordinate system, form their own mathematical parametric model (3), own parameters P which are associated with the desired geometric parameters of the object of known geometric regularities, and attach their own mathematical parametric model to the Central projection formula (1). When applied to markers on the surface they are grouped in separate areas or in isolated groups, and the processing of images for each of these marginalized groups allocate two-dimensional coordinates of the projections of the markers on the image to define your own parameters exterior orientation of the Central projection and the Central projection formulas (1) and attached their own mathematical parametric model (3) using your own exterior orientation parameters calculated by the methods of multidimensional minimization of divergences own parameters corresponding mathematical model.

The required geometric parameters of the object is found using the calculated own parameters of mathematical models and pre-defined geometric patterns.

Shamana Fig.2 illustrates the essence of the method. The diagram shows the object 1, the markers 3, groups of markers 5, the device (camera) 8 for registration with the Central projection in the form of an image and a Central projection (image) 10. Let the monitoring surface 1 does some complex motion and deformation. The diagram shows two States of this surface. To formalize these movements a single equation is not possible. However, on the surface of the investigated object is isolated zones I to VII, for example, that the zone can be considered as stationary, area II as making a parallel move, the zone III as making angular bends, zones IV and V performing linear and bending, and zone VI and VII - linear displacements, tilts and bends. For each zone are its simplified mathematical parametric model (3).

When applied to markers on the surface they are grouped on the highlighted areas, and the processing of image allocate appropriate groups of projections of the markers in an image and measure their two-dimensional coordinates. Then for each group of markers consists of mathematical nonlinear regression, linking the measured coordinates of the markers on the image with the desired coordinates of the markers in space by means of the system of equations (1) and (3) using the previously defined parameters of exterior orientation. �yeshiva regression methods multivariate minimize discrepancies (usually least squares), find the desired coordinates of the markers in space, as well as the values of separate parameters of the corresponding mathematical models. In some cases, found the coordinates of the markers in space are the final result of measurement. In other cases, the greater the interest generalized geometric parameters that are found using the known regularities of the separate parameters P of appropriate mathematical models. Regression can be constructed, in particular such that the result of her decision to become your own parameters of exterior orientation in the coordinate system of the corresponding zone.

The most urgent task of the experimental aerodynamics associated with the measurement of deformation of bearing elements of the structure with aerodynamic profile: wings, tail elements, controls, air blades and rotors, etc. All of them are characterized by a high aspect ratio and stiffness along the longitudinal axis, exceeding many times the stiffness of the two other axes. Fig.3 shows a circuit implementing the method of contactless measurement of geometrical parameters of the deformation model of an airplane wing in the flow of the wind tunnel. The diagram shows the object 1, the markers 3, groups of markers 5, the device (camera) 8 for the registration of the Central PR�ecchi in the form of an image and selected area of the surface of the object I to III. Will send the Oz axis along the axis of the stiffness of the wing. We can assume that along this axis deformation is negligible and the cross section as a whole are becoming linear Δ, Δy and angular displacement Δα in perpendicular to the axis Oz plane. The z coordinate of the cross sections in the General case cannot be considered constant, but due to the smallness of its changes mathematical models can be set in the form of an expansion in a series in powers of small deviations of the axes ox and Oy

where the coefficients a_{x}, a_{y}b_{x}b_{y}, ... are set according to the known stiffness matrix of the object. Thus on the axis Oz, we can identify several areas in which mathematical models have simple form:

- in the zone z=z_{01}=const;

- in the zone z=z_{02}+a_{x}·Δx_{2}+a_{y}·Δy_{2}

in zone IIIetc.

In problems near photogrammetry and videogrammetry device registration with the Central projection in the form of an image is usually a digital camera or camcorder. By means of creating and selecting groups of markers may be the means of inflicting markers directly on the surface of the investigated object paint (black on a light background or white on dark) in the form in the form of round, oval or other form of dots, crosses, lines, or marks a more complex shape. A convenient means of applying markers OK�out laser printer printing of a given shape markers on adhesive paper and then gluing. Often used means of applying markers in the form of self-adhesive retroreflective film, also affixed to the surface of the object. In this case, achieving a high luminous efficiency. This method of applying markers has advantages in studies of bulky objects when lighting it is a technical difficulty or fast processes when you need a very short exposure. In some cases, markers may be a separate structure (the target) that has the property of reflection, and fastened on the surface of the mechanical object.

Means 7 determine the parameters of the relative position of the markers in a group can be instrumental measurement tools, contact or optical, special test objects that are installed in place of the studied group of markers with a combination of coordinate systems.

Subsystem 17 of the collection and processing of images is usually a computer or laptop with the appropriate software package, however, possible to apply and means of recording and storing images, for example, in the memory of the camera itself, which is characteristic of high-speed cameras.

Means defined�in termination of the exterior orientation parameters (medium sized) is a special test objects, contains the group of markers whose coordinates are measured in advance with an accuracy that exceeds the planned accuracy of the measuring system. These test objects may have a linear shape with the location of the markers in one coordinate, a flat shape with the location of the markers by two coordinates, or a three-dimensional structure with handles that are located in space. Means for determining the exterior orientation parameters usually must be supplemented with the orientation of the test object and the reference of coordinate systems.

The light source 19 can be continuous, pulsed or stroboscopic depending on the nature of the problem being solved. They can vary the principle of action (incandescent, gas discharge, solid-state, spark, fluorescent, etc.) the power or energy and spectrum.

The proposed method of measurement in different designs passed testing at experimental aerodynamics in studies of aeroelasticity and strength of the aerodynamic model and the structural elements of aircrafts in the following crucial tasks:

- study of deformation "hard", progorodnyi and dynamitespoony models of the aircraft in the stream of the wind tunnel;

- measurement of provisions enshrined models APPA flying�ATA in the stream of the wind tunnel;

- measurement of motion in space Svobodnaya models;

- the study of motion and deformation of the rotating elements of construction: blades, blades, etc.;

research fields tangential deformations of the samples of new structural materials and structural members thereof;

- study of warpage and buckling of shells, skins and structural members of the aircraft.

Consider the most characteristic examples of the method and device.

(a) Measuring system (camera) and the base (mounting area) of the test object are mutually fixed, and the object has limited degrees of freedom. In this case, choose the direction in which the displacement of the minimum points of the object and Orient the axis OZ of the working coordinate system along this direction. When applied to markers on the surface of the sample they are grouped in sections perpendicular to the axis OZ. When writing a mathematical parametric model to measure the z coordinate of these tools sections, determine the equation (3) possible changes that coordinates movements of the object and complement their system of equations (1). Because of the smallness of the displacements along the axis Oz, this mathematical model can be very simple.

b) If for the same objects of study are not considered �Amer and the object are mutually fixed, the object or its base, according to claim 2 of the formula of the invention, allocate or create advanced base zone, which can be considered a point on the surface are mutually fixed (for example, zone I in Fig.2 and Fig.3). The three-dimensional coordinates of the markers on her pre-measure tools on its own or connected to the base of the object coordinate system. Create basic parametric model for the underlying group markers, represent and solve mathematical regression, and found from the regression parameters define the new parameters of exterior orientation for functional dependence (1), which are then used in the solution of the regressions for the other zones. As a result, the coordinates of the markers in space and geometrical parameters of the respective zones will be found in the native coordinate system of the base zone or associated with the object.

Fig.4 shows a diagram of a contactless measurement of the deformation of a model airplane wing in the air stream of the wind tunnel. The diagram shows: the test object 1, the markers 3, isolated groups of markers 5, applied to a measuring area of the object surface in the form of cross sections, core group of markers 6 device (camera) 8 for registration with the Central projection in the form of image, means 9 determine the parameters of the external read more�of the pit, subsystem 17 for collecting and processing images, the base 18 of the object. The model is mounted on a flat base 18. In the air flow under the action of aerodynamic loads and the model undergoes a displacement and deformation, and the base - only the offset as an integer. So the basic group of 6 markers selected on the base 18, and the results of measurements of linear and angular displacements of section 5 of the wing will be represented in the coordinate system associated with the base. An example of the working image (Central projection) ProgOptions wing model in the wind tunnel T-103 TSAGI and graph of the results of measurements of the bending deformation at different speeds of air flow shown in Fig.5. Black round shape markers were printed with a laser printer on white self-adhesive paper, cut into squares and the squares glued in defined sections on the bottom surface of the model. The bottom row of markers glued to the ground and serves as a base for measurements.

b) In studies of large objects or complex objects, when the area of research cannot be condensed into one Central projection (one camera), it is recommended to register two or more Central projections of different parts of the object surface in the form of individual images, but on its surface to cause �number of measurement groups of markers by the number of cells and one or more additional, base, so that measurement group markers came in each field of view of its camera, and the base is at least partially, in the field of view of two or more cameras simultaneously. Image processing cameras, covered by a single group of basic markers, it is useful to define additional functional dependence of the system of coordinates of points in space from the IC point of each image, and the coordinate system of points in space and mathematical parametric model to set a common for all Central projections, a mathematical regression to draw up, separately for each Central projection. Solving regression to determine the parameters of mathematical models from which to find the desired parameters of the shape, motion and deformation of all of the investigated object.

More work this way in the most typical embodiment, the application consider the example of measuring the elastic deformation of the slat large-scale model of an airplane wing in the flow of a large wind tunnel T-101 TSAGI. Based on the requirements of the objectives of the test were developed measuring system, which contains two identical channels for measuring deformation of the upper and lower surface of the sock patterns simultaneously. Fig.6 shows a diagram, and Fig.7 photos showing the implementation of the method for measurements �iformatsii both the upper and lower surfaces of the wing model in the stream of the wind tunnel. Dual cameras with 8 receiving lenses are arranged in the left-hand cutter top and bottom symmetrically chord of the wing. One camera to see both surfaces was not possible, therefore, were used two cameras, and IC are connected by a group of markers drawn on the basis and within the sight of both cameras simultaneously (see Fig.7, b).

An important element of the measuring system is a system of markers applied on the surface of the model. Here we have used markers in concentrated form on the surface of a model of white oval spots on a black background. The dimensions and orientation of the spots were chosen such that their Central projections in the image was circular and of the same specified diameter of about 5-7 pixels. The basic purpose of the system of markers is to ensure the possibility of combining the coordinate systems of the two cameras with the coordinate system of the model. In addition, in conditions when the cameras are not fixed by a General deformation models and cut-offs, the basic markers must perform the additional role of compensation offsets of the cameras.

Fig.8 shows a chart with measurements of the shape of an elastic sock slat in rejected and PA positions.

g) Another example demonstrates implementation of the proposed method for non-contact measurements distributed� normal deformation of structural panels in studies of its strength (Fig.9). Panel subjected to compression loading, undergoes warpage deformation in a local region of the surface, in the center of which is placed the coordinate system origin. The perimeter of this area, reinforced by stiffeners, is not experiencing warpage deformation. Therefore, the study area's surface is divided into two zones, one on the perimeter is taken as basic and the other in the mid - region measurements. Applying a variant of the method of measurement, will receive a distribution of normal deformation of warpage in the second zone in the coordinate system specified by the first area. An example of such measurements is shown in Fig.10.

e) there are cases when on the surface of the object does not have a non-deformable zone, which can be taken for the base. It is advisable in the camera field of view to enter additional object that is not subject to deformation, and on its surface to cause a core group of markers with a pre-measured three-dimensional coordinates. Fig.11 shows a diagram of a contactless measurement of distributed shear deformation of structural elements in their tensile strength studies with the addition of the base zone. Under load the entire sample is deformed, so as the base zone introduced an additional element 20, which contains a basic group of 6 markers. Additional semi-rigid element 2 is associated with the sample 1, but undeformed, he does not introduce distortion into the picture deformation. Fig.12 shows the result of measurements this way the fields of the two components of the tangential deformation structural panel made of composite material with a slit in tests of strength.

(e) In the particular case when all points of the object surface can be considered mutually stationary and moving as a whole, according to claim 2 of the formula, allocate one area, take it for a base when creating a mathematical parametric model to measure three-dimensional parameters of the relative position of the markers in their own coordinate system, and image processing methods multidimensional minimization of the discrepancy determines the values of the exterior orientation parameters, which represent the geometrical parameters of the position of the coordinate system of the camera in their own IC object. If the received parameters to pay according to the rules of coordinate transformation, we obtain six parameters of the position of the object in the coordinate system of the camera. To determine the parameters of the position of the object in the given coordinate system, not connected with the UK chamber, for example, laboratory, the following procedure is suggested. First, an object is placed in its initial position so that its coordinate system coincides with the specified one. Produce counting, according to str�the OBU according to claim 2,
and record the initial values of the exterior orientation parameters, the vector_{1}. Then during testing at specific points in time to produce samples of the current values of the exterior orientation parameters_{2}. The desired position of the object in the source SK can be found by using transformations of the form

where_{21}matrix guides of the cosines of the IC object at the current position in the source SC. The orientation angles of�of yekta in source IC can be determined from the matrix M_{
21}using the formula for the rotation matrix (2).

Fig.13 shows a device for implementing the method of contactless measurement of geometrical parameters of an object's position in space. During tests in the wind tunnel rotor blades of a helicopter model mounted on shock absorbers. Under the action of thrust of the main rotor and the aerodynamic forces from the incoming flow position of the model changes, in particular changes the angle of attack of the model, which leads to significant errors in the determination of aerodynamic characteristics. To correct the results of determining the aerodynamic characteristics necessary to measure the current values of the parameters of the model in the flow of the wind tunnel. Experience has shown that such measurements should be non-contact. To perform such measurements by the proposed method on the model create a baseline group of markers, their relative positions are not subject to change, measure three-dimensional parameters of the mutual arrangement of these markers, produce a count in the initial position of the model, and then in each current position. Fig.14 shows two working image of the model with basic markers in the provisions of the angles of attack α model 0 (a) and -10° (b), and linear graphs (a) and angular (d) parameters obtained via this method in with�theory test measurements of the orientation angles and linear displacements of the model helicopter of the device for different modes in the flow of the wind tunnel T-104 TSAGI. The measurement results showed that under the influence of the angle of attack is changed to 1-2°.

1. Method of contactless measurement of geometrical parameters of an object in space, wherein on the surface of the object at the given points is applied markers, register the Central projection of these markers in the form of an image, define the parameters of exterior orientation of the Central projection, and image processing to measure the two-dimensional coordinates of the projections of the markers on the image, of which the Central projection formulas using some of the exterior orientation parameters are desired geometrical parameters of an object in space, characterized in that on the basis of pre-known geometric patterns of the investigated object on its surface emit or create another separate area, characterized by its own geometry parameters, for each of them set their own coordinate system, form their own mathematical parametric model, own parameters which are associated with the desired geometric parameters of the object of known geometric regularities, and attach their own mathematical parametric model to the Central projection formulas, in addition, when applied markers on the surface of their group�irout in isolated areas or in isolated groups, and image processing for each of these marginalized groups allocate two-dimensional coordinates of the projections of the markers on the image to define your own parameters exterior orientation of the Central projection and the Central projection formulas and attached their own mathematical parametric model using your own exterior orientation parameters calculated by the methods of multidimensional minimization of divergences own parameters corresponding mathematical model, and the required geometric parameters of the object is found using the calculated own parameters of mathematical models and pre-defined geometric patterns.

2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that on the basis of pre-known geometric patterns of the investigated object one of the individual zones allocate or create advanced so that it was possible to count the points of its surface are mutually fixed, accept it for the base, define the parameters of the relative position of the markers in their own coordinate system and its own exterior orientation parameters of the Central projection of the base zone, as you develop your own mathematical parametric model of the underlying zone take into account the relative position of the markers in it, when treatment� own images, the parameters of all other own mathematical models calculate using your own exterior orientation parameters of the Central projection of the base zone and the desired geometric the parameters of the object are in the coordinate system of the base zone.

3. A method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that on the basis of pre-known geometric patterns of the investigated object allocate separate areas or create additional sections so that each of them could be considered a point on the surface mutually stationary and moving as a whole, as you develop your own mathematical parametric models of cross-sections define the parameters of the relative position of the markers in their own coordinate systems, their own mathematical parametric model form in the form of the equations of the position and movement of these own coordinate systems section and the processing of images define their own parameters of exterior orientation of the Central projection of the desired cross-sections and geometric parameters of the object are from the own values of the exterior orientation parameters of each section.

4. The device for the contactless measurement of geometrical parameters of an object in space that contains a means of applying markers to the surface of the investigated object, the device registration with the Central projection markers in the form of image, means for determining the parameters of the exterior orientation of the device registration in the Central projection, the unit of measurement �of coordinat projections of the markers on the image and the block of calculation of desired geometrical parameters of the object, characterized in that it additionally introduced as a means of creating separate groups of markers associated with means for applying markers to the surface of the investigated object, a means of determining the parameters of the relative position of the markers in a separate group, the means of formation of mathematical parametric models for marginalized groups of markers, information associated with the means of creating separate groups of markers and a means of determining the parameters of the relative position of the marker block of segregating groups of projections of the markers on the image, connected to the unit of measurement of the coordinates of the projections of the markers on the image, and the block of the multidimensional minimization of differences for each separate group of markers connected with its input to the block of segregating groups of projections of tokens and information associated with the means of formation of mathematical parametric models and means of determining the exterior orientation parameters, and output - block computation of the desired geometric parameters of the object.

**Same patents:**

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to information satellite systems (ISS) for various purposes, the tasks of which generally come down to scanning (continuously or periodically) a planet, particularly the Earth. In the disclosed ISS, satellites for scanning a region of a given latitude band with lower latitudes are taken to orbits with an inclination which is less than the inclination of the orbit to which satellites for scanning a region with higher latitudes are taken. High-latitude satellites also scan regions with said lower latitudes. Such an ISS design is preferable because scanning bands along adjacent satellite paths approach and overlap as the latitude rises. Satellite orbits can be selected close to circular with an average altitude which is different for high-latitude and low-latitude satellites. The essential condition of the ISS design is the equality between the regression velocities of the orbital nodal line for all satellites. This condition enables to maintain the structure of the ISS (given diversity of orbital planes on the longitude of the ascending node). Thus, the required number of satellites in the ISS and/or width of the scanning band is reduced. For a given number of satellites in the ISS and a fixed width of the scanning band, observation characteristics are improved (reduced scanning frequency, high accuracy of the navigation field etc.).

EFFECT: high efficiency of the ISS due to reduced non-uniformity on the width of conditions for scanning the surface of a planet with satellites.

10 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space engineering. Method for determination of geographic position of observed area of observation equipment being moved relative to SC includes navigational measurements of SC movement, determination of centre of mass position and SC orientation, determination of observation equipment spatial position. Additionally, control commands are generated for emitting pulse ultrasonic signals by at least three emitters located in spaced points on observation equipment freely moved relative to SC, emitted pulse ultrasonic signals are received by at least three ultrasonic receivers located in spaced points on SC. Ultrasonic signal delay time is measured on the basis of emitted and received ultrasonic signals. Synchronisation of pulse ultrasonic signal emission and receive times is performed via radio channel. Temperature measurement is performed at locations of ultrasonic emitters and at locations of ultrasonic receivers. On the basis of ultrasonic signal receive delay times and measured temperatures the distances form ultrasonic emitters to ultrasonic receivers are determined. Geographic position of observation area is determined on the basis of SC centre of mass position relative to planet, SC orientation relative to planet and spatial position of observation equipment relative to SC calculated from distances from ultrasonic emitters to ultrasonic receivers. System for determination of geographic position of observed area of observation equipment being moved relative to SC includes SC centre of mass position determination unit, SC orientation determination unit, observed area geographic position determination unit. Additionally, following devices are introduced: at least three ultrasonic emitters and at least one temperature sensor installed on observation equipment, at least three ultrasonic receivers and at least one temperature sensor installed on SC, emitter control command generation unit, controllers, radio transceivers, signal amplifier, automatic gain control unit, multichannel analogue-to-digital converter, signal delay time measurement unit, synchroniser, unit for determination of observation equipment spatial position relative to SC. Device for emitters arrangement on observation equipment contains detachable connection one of detachable parts of which is rigidly connected with observation equipment. Additionally, at least three pillars are introduced on each one of which ultrasonic emitters are installed. The pillars are rigidly connected with the other detachable part of detachable connection. Emission axes of ultrasonic emitters are parallel to observation equipment sensing axis. Distances from ultrasonic emitters to observation equipment sensing axis are selected by proposed formula depending on dimensions of observation equipment lens and SC window through which observations are performed and on minimum distance from observation equipment to the window.

EFFECT: highly precise determination of geographic position of area being observed through observation equipment freely moved in zero gravity conditions relative to SC and having no mechanical connection with SC, while providing possibility to use various exchangeable observation devices.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: based on multispectral satellite images obtained from public sources, preliminary geobothanical mapping is carried out with creation of maps of stock of separate groups of vegetable feeds of deer farms. The archival satellite images are collected and analysed to identify climatogenic and weather effects on vegetation in the considered years or series of years. The field studies of the territory are carried out on the model sites allocated in the process of preliminary geobotanic mapping. The said field studies include description of the flora and selection of the dominant classes of vegetation, soil within natural and disturbed communities of rangelands of the territory under area, aerial visual interpretation of landscape units and geobotanic borders in course of helicopter routes, identifying disturbed areas and successionally changing phytocenoses. The accuracy of classification is evaluated, made in the process of geo-botanical mapping, comparing it with the materials of the field studies. A single topographic basis for plan-mapping materials, archival data and the results of geobotanical mapping and fieldwork is created. The single topographic base is created in the form of separate vector layers and raster maps based on the hydrographic network, topographic contours, height (digital model of the relief), production facilities and infrastructure. Then these materials are integrated into a single geographic information system and produce a polygonal structure of economic and geobotanical contours of the rangelands of deer farms. The final phased classification of vegetation in program packages is carried out with raster satellite image processing. The geobotanic mapping of the territories of rangelands of deer farms is carried out while making an assessment of matrix of the data convergence between the selected vegetation classes based on satellite images materials and field research data. As a result of the above, the updated geobotanic maps with the estimated statistically significant level of convergence are obtained. Then the projective coverage of selected plant communities within the individual household geobotanic contours of rangelands of deer farms is calculated. The quantitative characteristics of the stock of feed units selected from the group are evaluated: lichenous and green shrubby feed, green herbal feed, using the decomposition method of spectral mixtures. This is based on the fact that the proportion of feed units is taken in proportion to their area in the projection on the Earth's surface. Assessment of individual parts of feed units is carried out. The spatially organised database is created, comprising polygonal structures of economic-geobotanic contours of rangelands of deer farms and attribute data connected with them through the personal identifier on the area of individual classes of vegetation inside the areas of deer farms, water surfaces, open grounds, soils of the disturbed areas, on average stock of feed units of the areas of deer farms. The economic maps of stock of feed units of deer farms are created and the project of development of rangelands of deer farms is formed.

EFFECT: improved accuracy and operational efficiency of resource assessment of the rangelands of reindeers.

5 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: coordinates of fault locations are determined based on coordinates of points of thermal images with high temperature. In a differential mode of a satellite radio navigation system, directional cosines of vectors from points of the centre and corners of the thermal image to the centre of the camera lens of the thermal imager are calculated in a coordinate system linked with an aircraft based on values of the viewing angles of the camera of the thermal imager; directional cosines of these vectors are determined in a topocentric coordinate system based on the measured spatial orientation angles of the aircraft and a rotation matrix, expressed through Euler angles; distance from the points of the thermal image to the centre of the camera lens of the thermal imager is determined based on information on the height of the diagnosed object above the earth, the altitude of the aircraft, measured by an altimeter.

EFFECT: broader functional capabilities.

4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: globe has a toroidal body which is a chamber made from one or more components made from elastic material. The chamber can be filled with working medium and has inlet and outlet elements on its side walls. A flat cover with a picture of the globe has a shape which corresponds to the shape of the toroidal chamber and is attached to the chamber on the perimetre.

EFFECT: ensuring compactness of the globe during transportation, easier installation at a location and possibility of easily changing the image on the surface of the globe.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method of making tidal charts involves determination of tidal height from a harmonic wave component bounded on the periphery of the water body, given by amplitude, position angle and period, and further processing, wherein the tidal height is determined taking into account angular velocity of the harmonic wave component, where real plane coordinates of points of the water body directed east and north, respectively, are determined, and tidal height values of the harmonic wave component at a fixed moment in time are determined through the projection of a point on a phase circle corresponding to said sea level, parameters of which are determined taking into account location of inner points of the water body and its periphery, and the oscillation amplitude of the harmonic wave component is determined from tidal height values at points with real plane coordinates for a sequential set of discrete time values, from the value of which the time for maximum tidal height is determined. Formation of observation rows in the disclosed method is carried out through decomposition of the oscillation spectrum at non-overlapping intervals and decomposition of the original row into components for each frequency interval, and harmonic constant estimation is carried out for each separate glow, wherein further estimation of stability of harmonic constants is performed, non-periodic tidal oscillations are determined, when constructing isolines, a proximity measure between two systems of isolines is determined, by constructing a Hausdorff metric, the time and spatial variability of the age of the tide between amphidromic points on the isolines is determined.

EFFECT: easier tidal chart plotting and high reliability of said charts.

7 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method of estimating distribution and reserves of resources and endangered species of plants in large territories involves making route field observations using GPS/GLONASS navigation receivers to determine areas where the investigated plant populations are growing, selecting and processing satellite imaging materials, detecting a link between spectral characteristics of the determined areas and field measurement results, modelling distribution and reserves, followed by checking the obtained results and estimating reserves of resources and endangered plant species.

EFFECT: method which enables to estimate density of cenopopulations and reserves of phytomass on large territories based on field investigation data and analysis of high-resolution spectrozonal satellite images Landsat, and the method also enables to forecast reserves of plant material for part of the territory.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method for detection of crushed rock grain size composition in mines includes application of photoplanogram of crushed rock surface and detection of grain size composition by means of classification into size grades. On surface of fallen rock mass dump in mine in any available space an intentionally oriented scaling rectangle is placed with intentionally selected lengths of sides. Then photographed at any angle, photoplanogram is introduced into computer to form a quadrangular design contour of intentional size, which is not related to dimensions and location of scaling rectangle. Areas of rock pieces are contoured, size grades are set within the limits of design contour, using software, grain size composition of crushed rock is determined by size grades of rock pieces areas ratio to area of design contour.

EFFECT: improved accuracy of grain size composition detection and reduced labour intensiveness of photoplanograms processing.

2 dwg

FIELD: information technologies.

SUBSTANCE: there is proposed hardware and software complex for making digital landscape models as per pictures and digital photos by special-purpose space complexes, and for obtaining digital and analogue orthophotomaps as per single photography images, and making landscape stereo models as per space pictures and aerophotos. Hardware and software complex includes the following: photo scanning working station (PSWS), photogrammetric working station (PWS), digital picture orthotransformation working station (DPOWS), telecommunication equipment and server intended for enduring information protection against unauthorised access, for storing the data required for operation of the complex working stations and for transmitting that data to the complex working stations.

EFFECT: enlarging functional capabilities, improving accuracy and quick operation and reliability of the devices for making digital plans and maps.

4 dwg

FIELD: physics; image processing.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns area of base maps creation by image processing. Essence: horizontals where hachures should be placed are selected in an interactive mode. The hachures are drawn from the specified points in the set direction. Slope directions in vicinities of the specified points are thus defined, using the information on adjacent horizontals, and as the specified set direction, the specified direction of a slope for correct direction of hachures concerning horizontals is used. For automatic arrangement of hachures are used: a computer way of recognition on the contour sheet of parts of the horizontals which are passing through areas with small biases, and a computer way of recognition of the minimum outlines left horizontals and the frame of the contour sheet.

EFFECT: development of an effective way of base maps creation by image processing.

12 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: metering instrument is installed in the working position in front of the reflecting surface, arranged in the vertical plane, and set for an autocollimation image, besides, the metering instrument is at least one autocollimation theodolite, residual sphericity is determined by measured values of angles read along the vertical circle of theodolite with combination of the theodolite grid with its autocollimation image, measurement of angles is done for two points of the reflecting surface, which are spaced on the surface to the maximum and are arranged on one vertical line, and the residual sphericity is calculated in accordance with the following formula:

EFFECT: reduced time for detection of residual sphericity due to reduction of time required to assemble a metering circuit.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the group of instrumentation, namely, it is a device for definition of initial geometric imperfections of a wall of cylindrical reservoirs (indents, cracks, ovalities, etc.). The device comprises a lifting-lowering and rotating mechanism of a platform, which includes upper and lower fixators, a pipe with a movable platform fixed to it. On the platform there is a camera and a projector. The platform is rotated by means of a step electric motor fixed inside the lower fixator. Lifting-lowering of the platform is carried out with the step electric motor fixed on the pipe and a belt, rope or chain mechanisms. The camera is rotated to adjust the device with the help of a step electric motor. Power supply to the camera, projector, electric motor for rotation of the camera, electric motor for rotation of the platform, electric motor for lifting-lowering of the platform is provided by means of a power cable laid inside the pipe. Control of step electric motors, projector and camera is carried out by means of a controller that receives signals via a modem communication line from a computer.

EFFECT: increased accuracy of measurement of geometric imperfections of cylindrical reservoirs.

3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: analysis method for obtaining phase information by analysing a periodic moire structure comprises steps of: subjecting a periodic moire structure to short-time Fourier transform using a window function; separating information on a first spectrum containing phase information from information on a second spectrum superimposed on information on the first spectrum to obtain phase information using an approximation of each of the forms of the first and second spectra to the form of a predefined function. The device comprises a diffraction grating for diffraction of X-rays from an X-ray source, an absorbing grid for screening part of the diffracted X-rays, a moire detector and a calculator which extracts a phase function based on the moire in accordance with the analysis method.

EFFECT: improved resolution when analysing phase information by eliminating spectrum overlapping.

12 cl, 15 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of measuring the profile of cylindrical bodies as measured objects using a two-dimensional slit method, wherein by using at least one laser, a fan-shaped laser line is projected as a slit line on the surface of a body and beams reflected from the surface of the body are picked up by at least one camera for photographing surfaces, wherein the laser and the camera are arranged at an angle of triangulation in the normal plane on the axial line of the cylinder. To measure the profile according to the method, the laser is rotated around the axis of the cylinder from the normal plane, wherein the angle to the normal plane is selected such that the optical axis of the camera for photographing surfaces, directed towards the surface of the cylinder, is in the region of sliding angles of reflected beams.

EFFECT: stronger reflection of laser beams towards the camera and from critical peripheral regions of the measured object.

6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a source of white light (1) in the form of an LED-strip (40), a collimation unit (4), a unit of a spectrometer for splitting of a white light beam (30) into a beam of multichromatic light (31), sent to a tested item (5) at the specified fall angle, and a chamber (3) for recording of the reflected beam of monochromatic light (32), so that information on the height of the surface along the axis z of the tested item (5) may be extracted from the value of the shade of the reflected beam (32) with relative displacement of the tested item (5) in direction (9) of scanning along the axis x. At least one microlens (41) is optically connected with at least one LED for preliminary straightening of the specified beam of white light (30). The collimating unit (4) is made as capable of collimation of the specified beam (30) of white light by 360° with collimation quality of 2° or less and formation of a tape beam of white light perpendicular to the scanning direction (9). The device comprises at least one lens (42, 43, 44, 45), preferably a cylindrical lens (42), and at least one aperture facility (50), preferably the controlled aperture of the slot membrane.

EFFECT: capability to measure item surface and to monitor paste for soldering with tinning melt, creation of a 3D-model of item surface.

15 cl, 21 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a camera, a projector and a computer connected to each other with a controller installed onto a platform. The camera and the projector are installed on the site capable of rotation by means of a step electric motor connected to the controller. The camera is capable of making rotary movements due to the step electric motor installed onto the site and connected to the controller. The site is connected with the platform capable of making reciprocal movements inside the pipeline by means of an electric drive with wheels connected with the controller. The stability of the position and protection against mechanical damage is provided by the system of levers and wheels, attached to the platform, power supply and autonomy of operation is provided by an accumulator battery installed onto the platform. Motion control is carried out via radio control through a controller that receives signals from a computer located outside the pipeline.

EFFECT: increased accuracy of measurement of geometric imperfections of a wall in manifold pipelines.

4 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: three-dimensional object measurement device includes the first projection device containing the first infrared radiation source for projection to the object of the first moving pattern; at that, the projected pattern manifests itself as on the object in the form of heating distribution; at least one camera device for taking pictures of heating distribution, which manifests itself on the object, in infrared range of spectrum; as well as an analysing device for analysis of pictures taken with the camera device, and determination of the shape of the object surface. Three-dimensional object measurement method involves projection of the first infrared pattern on the object by means of the first projection device; taking pictures of heating distribution of the object by means of at least one camera device, which is sensitive to infrared radiation; at that, pattern between shots are offset; analysis of pictures by means of a topographometric analysis method and determination of the object surface shape.

EFFECT: providing the possibility of increasing contrast of the projected pattern on objects transparent for visible light or strongly reflecting the light.

14 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: in the method, an autocollimation microscope is focused at the centre of curvature of the concave optical spherical surface at a fixed position thereof and the fixed autocollimation microscope. Distance to the concave optical spherical surface is determined by optical ranging using an optical beam passing on the same optical path as the visual beam of the autocollimation microscope. An object is placed at the centre of curvature of the concave optical spherical surface and distance to said object is also determined by optical ranging using an optical beam passing on the same optical path as the visual beam of the autocollimation microscope. The difference between said two distances is found and said difference is the radius of curvature of the concave optical spherical surface.

EFFECT: reduced uncertainty in determining radius when it is impossible to use a precision guide.

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: photographic camera and a projector are mounted on a platform. The platform is turned by a stepper motor. The platform is raised and lowered by a stepper motor. Turning the photographic camera in order to adjust the apparatus is carried out using a stepper motor. Electric power supply to the photographic camera, the projector, the motor for turning the photographic camera, the electric motor for turning the platform and the electric motor for raising and lowering the platform is carried out using a power cable lying inside a pipe. The stepper motor, projector and photographic camera are controlled by a controller which receives signals through a modem line from a computer.

EFFECT: high accuracy of measuring geometric defects of cylindrical reservoirs by adding a mechanism which enables raising, lowering and turning the platform, into which enters a pipe with a movable platform attached to it.

4 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: initial position and orientation of laser scanner relative to coordinate system of converter inclination axis is set by means of pre-determined permanent marks. First, scanning of refractory lining is performed by laser scanner in its initial position at orientation towards converter neck, at simultaneous scanning of several temporary marks. Position of temporary marks relative to coordinate system of laser scanner is determined so that position of temporary marks can be calculated in coordinate system of inclined converter axis. Then, laser scanner is moved to one or several new positions opposite the converter, and at the same time, temporary marks are scanned and positions of temporary marks are determined within the coordinate system of laser scanner. Also, calculation of position of temporary marks within coordinate system of laser scanner is made relative to the above calculated position of temporary marks relative to coordinate system of converter inclination axis and calculation of new position and orientation of laser scanner relative to the coordinate system of converter inclination axis is made. After that, inner profile of refractory lining of converter is formed of the data on the points, which is obtained by scanning with laser beam at various positions of laser scanner.

EFFECT: higher quick action.

15 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: this process relates to analysis of deformation of materials at cutting. Specimen surface strained at cutting is illuminated by coherent monochromatic radiation. Deformation process is registered by digital monochromatic chamber. Reference points are constructed at the image. Two sequential frames of video record are compared. This allows getting the characteristics of displacement of two points of strained materials in the area of chip formation. Measured displacements are used to define the deformation characteristics.

EFFECT: analysis of deformation of materials at cutting in real time.

8 dwg