# Method of coordinates determination of radio emission source

FIELD: radio-engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: results is achieved due to use during determination of the radio emission source (RES) bearings of the universal formula describing complex envelope of outputs of the antenna system elements, ensuring explicit expressions to calculate amplitude, bearings and initial phase of the signals. Based on bearings from different devices of RES signals registration using method of compensation analysis the equations of straight lines are obtained for plane and space, their crossings determine point estimations of coordinates of the emission source. To estimate bearings and coordinates of the emission source the covariance matrices of estimations scattering are obtained, and ellipse or ellipsoid of the measured values scattering are determined.

EFFECT: increased accuracy and decreasing of time for coordinates determination of the radio emission source.

1 dwg

Area of technology

The invention relates to radio engineering, in particular to direction-finding.

The level of technology

Direction finding sources of radio emission (IRI) occurs in the monitoring process electronic environment. Thus it is necessary to determine azimuth, pomestie bearings IRI and the amplitude of the signal, which specify the coordinates of the radiation source. The radar detects radiation by recording signals on the elements of the antenna system as, on the vibrators. Performing various actions on signals from the vibrators, determine the parameters of the radiation, and then the coordinates of the radiation source. The problem is, what action on the signals will be more effective.

There are patents on this issue. As a prototype the selected patent RU 2419106 Method and device for determining the coordinates of the radiation source (IPC G01S 13/46, publ. 20.05.2011), as more fully addressing the problem. In the prototype this object is achieved in that in the method of determining the coordinates of the radiation source, including reception of signals IRI in a given band of frequencies ΔF moving in space onboard radar on the flight-lifting means (LPS), the measurement of the spatial information parameters of the detected signals of the azimuth θ_{i}and angle of elevation β_{i}in the coordinate system of the antenna system with simultaneous determination of the location of LPS {B_{
lps}, L_{lps}, H_{lps}}, where B_{lps}, L_{lps}and H_{lps}accordingly, the latitude, longitude, and altitude FSC preliminary determination of the removal of Iran from FSC d_{i}and the coordinates of the IRI at time t_{i}_{ant}, l_{ant}, ζ_{ant}} by successive multiplication of the values of the coordinates$$$\overrightarrow{{V}_{Pi}}$$$corresponding to the Euler angle rotation matrix. Then determine the true geocentric coordinates of the location of the IRI_{i}spatial angle FSC: roll k_{lpsi}, pitch l_{lpsi}, course angle α_{lpsi}and declination ζ_{lpsi}and the coordinates of its location: latitude B_{lpsi}, longitude L_{lpsi}and height H_{lpsi}and declination ζ_{lpsi}defined as the difference between the roadway µ_{lpsi}and course of α_{lpsi}corners of LPS. Transform the true geocentric coordinates$$$\overrightarrow{{V}_{GCi}}$$$location in Iran geographic coordinates$$$\overrightarrow{{V}_{Gi}}={\{{B}_{0},{L}_{0},{H}_{0}\}}_{i}$$$. For the determination of the course angle of flight-lifting means accept radio signals from the SPACECRAFT (SC) global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), the apportionment of�Ute signal of the navigation message KA GNSS and perform their demodulation,
estimate the navigation parameters and calculate the array from the I state vectors LPS_{Xi}V_{Yi}V_{Zi}- values describing the vector_{i}and actual velocity V_{i}LPS, i=10, 11,^{...}, I, and the capacity of the array I define the required accuracy of measurement coursework angle α_{lpsi}. Depending on the geometry of the flight path of LPS evaluate the values of air velocities LPS_{lpsi}and declination ζ_{lpsi}in accordance with �ImageName:_{lps}=µ_{lps}-α_{lps}and found wind parameters U_{c}and δ_{d}use in the next measurement cycle course angle α_{lps}and declination ζ_{lps}as the average values of

In the prototype is achieved a more complete accounting of the spatial orientation of LPS (and therefore the antenna system direction finder), which causes a positive effect in the form of increased accuracy�spine positioning of the IRI. Listed set of essential features allows to increase the accuracy of positioning of the IRI due to a more complete and objective measurement of spatial parameters of LPS (angle of orientation of the antenna array of the meter) in the conditions of influence of disturbing factors (wind load, manoeuvring LPS, etc.).

For the determination of the course angle of flight-lifting means accept radio signals from the SPACECRAFT (SC) global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) and expect an array of I state vectors LPS_{Xi}V_{Yi}V_{Zi}- values describing the vector_{i}and actual velocity V_{i}LPS, i=10, 11,^{...}, I, and the capacity of the array I determine engine speed specified�th measurement accuracy coursework angle α_{
lpsi}. Depending on the geometry of the flight path of LPS evaluate the values of air velocities LPS

where V_{i}- i-e the value of the actual velocity, μ_{i}- i-e the value of the track angle, U_{l}- 1st evaluation, the value of the wind speed, l=1, 2,^{...}, L, δ_{k}- k-e estimated wind direction, k=1, 2,^{...}, K, assess the quality of the decision about the wind parameters in accordance with the expression$$$f({U}_{l},{\delta}_{k})=\mathrm{max}{\stackrel{}{B}}_{s}({U}_{l},{\delta}_{k})-\mathrm{min}{\stackrel{}{B}}_{m}({U}_{l},{\delta}_{k})$$$where_{l}and δ_{k}the calculation results f(U_{l}that δ_{k}) compared with the threshold value f_{ass}(U,δ), determining a priori given accuracy of the estimation of wind parameters U and δ, if the threshold conditions, the wind parameters U and δ assigns the next value and repeat the procedure for computing the set of evaluation values of air velocities, when executed on the next iteration threshold conditions, f_{for�}
(U,δ) for wind parameters accept the values of U_{c}and δ_{d}on the basis of the navigation triangle of velocities calculate the air speed B(U_{c}that δ_{d}), course angle α_{lps}and declination ζ_{lps}in accordance with the expressions:

and found wind parameters U_{c}and δ_{d}use in the next measurement cycle course angle α_{lps}and declination ζ_{lps}as the average values of_{i}and angle of elevation β_{i}.

The invention-prototype has drawbacks.

The definition of bearing by using a prepared table linking the evidence to the elements of AU and azimuthal angular bearings obtained by using external oscillator, including a flyby of LPS will not ensure high accuracy of the results.

The main purpose of the blocks 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, and 2, 3 in re�as,
implementing the prototype is to evaluate the degree of differences of the measured parameters Δϕ_{l,h,CH}(f_{v}) from the reference values Δϕ_{l,h,th}(f_{v}) calculated for all directions of arrival of a signal Δθ_{k}and Δβ_{c}and all f_{v}use the formula

But in this formula there is no information about the errors of the quantities involved.

There is no clear algorithm for determining the errors of the coordinates of the radiation source.

In the invention there are many mathematical operations with measured quantities (random variables). Errors in each mathematical operation accumulate, but the authors do not pay attention to this aspect.

Disclosure of the invention

The proposed method takes into account these shortcomings.

The method of determining the coordinates of the source of radio emission (IRI) is that accept signals IRI in a given band of frequencies ΔF ground or moving in space onboard finder mounted on the flight-lifting means (LPS), a measure of the spatial information parameters of the detected signals: the azimuth θ, elevation angle β and the initial phase of signals in a rectangular Cartesian coordinate system with simultaneous determination of the location of LPS, correct the coordinates of the IRI taking into account a priori known orientation'antin�Oh system airborne direction finder relative to LPS, then calculate the true geocentric coordinates of the location of the IRI based spatial angle measured LPS, for determining the course angle of flight-lifting means (LPS) accept radio signals from the SPACECRAFT (SC) global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). With each planguage device measured complex amplitude of each element of the AU and the function describing the complex envelope of the outputs of the elements AU, goes to the logarithm, then in a unit for comparing the real and imaginary parts of the analytic expressions of the natural logarithm of the complex envelope of the outputs of the elements AU and the natural logarithm of the measured complex amplitudes of the signals from each element of the MSS receive the signal amplitude and the system of equations to determine by explicit formulas that describe point estimates of the spatial information parameters of the detected signals: the azimuth θ, elevation angle β, the initial phase of the signal and their errors, are received in the transmitter 1 to determine the correlation matrix of the estimates, as function of random arguments, then in the base of bearings IRI and their uncertainties along with similar information from other Pelageya devices, based on the data base of the bearing are formed of a system of equations of the first private proizvodi�x functionality from orthogonal regression responsive to the error of all data, the coordinates of the IRI for straight lines in space and on the plane on which the computers 2 and 3 are determined by the point estimates of the coordinates of the IRI in space and in the plane using the inverse of the matrix composed of the negative values of all second partial derivatives of functions orthogonal regression on the coordinates of the IRI in the computers 4 and 5 are determined by the covariance matrix of the estimates of the coordinates of the IRI.

The choice of the type of direct - on the plane or in space on the basis of: if the IRI is in the air, straight line in space, and if on the ground - a straight line on the plane.

To determine the coordinates of the IRI, it is necessary to know the coordinates of the Registrar (direction finder). Both can be on the ground and in the air (such as drones). In the proposed method, they are not divided. The coordinates of the finders can be defined in different ways, including GNSS. These coordinates are known.

Direction finders need two or more. The random component of the error of the result is reduced proportionally to the root of the number of direction finders with approximately close errors in each case. Otherwise, we must take into account the error of each with a weight.

In comparison with the prototype of the proposed method has better performance (in the proposed method is according to the formula, and in protot�ne overfly the object) and the accuracy at least twice. Accuracy - there is both a fundamental point: no one takes into account the errors of all input data (consider only one value!), i.e. they become "side". It also follows and a sharp decline in the value of costs and equipment for the implementation of the proposed method.

In the implementation of the algorithm is first of all defined in advance, f-I complex envelope of the outputs of the elements of the speaker for each speaker. For standard types (linear, circular) functions are known. If another type, bring it to a known, often to line AC. To linear AC reduce and even circular AC. Looking at the speaker, and remembering, in which case You can get the bearing to the occasion and bring a specific AC. This is done once and for all in advance.

Fig.1. A block diagram of the algorithm of determination of the coordinates of the IRI

The implementation of the invention

Fig.1, reference numerals:

1. Planguage device

2. The complex amplitude from the outputs of the elements AU

3. The complex envelope of the outputs of the elements AU

4. Block logarithm

5. A unit for comparing the real and imaginary parts of

6. The amplitude of the registered signal

7. Formation of equations is equal to the imaginary parts of

8. Solver of systems of algebraic equations

9. Point estimates of the bearings and an initial phase of the signal

10. The transmitter 1. Calculation covariational matrix of ozena� bearings and an initial phase of the signal

11. Base bearings and their uncertainties

12. Choice: it's a straight line in space or on a plane

13. The formation of a system of equations for a line on plane

14. The formation of a system of equations for a line in space

15. The transmitter 2. Point estimates of the coordinates of the IRI on the plane

16. The transmitter 3. Point estimates of the coordinates of the IRI in space

17. The transmitter 4. The calculation of the covariance matrix of the estimates of the coordinates of the IRI on the plane

18. The transmitter 5. The calculation of the covariance matrix of the estimates of the coordinates of the IRI in space

19. Dispersion ellipse for the estimation of the coordinates of the IRI

20. Ellipsoid scattering to estimate the coordinates of the IRI

21. The output results

22. Outlet

The definition of asimuthal and elevation bearings

The procedure of determining the coordinates of the IRI is based on the definition of asimuthal and elevation bearings on the basis of which are determined by the equations of straight lines in the plane and in space. The point of intersection of the latter determines the coordinates of the source of the cure. Consider the proposed method of determining bearing of a light source. As shown in the prototype, the results obtained in the same coordinate system, are easily translated into other coordinate systems. We choose a Cartesian rectangular coordinate system.

The proposed method of determining bearing on �With any configuration is the AU of any configuration can be reduced to linear, to circular system AC with common phase center, etc. obtained From functions describing the complex envelope of the signal IRI at the output of the elements AU, and complex numbers on the elements of the AU natural logarithm is taken. Equal the relevant real and imaginary parts. From the equality of the real parts is determined by the amplitude of the signal, and from the equality of the imaginary phase. Recording of the equality of the imaginary parts of all elements of the AU, we obtain the system of algebraic equations from which the designated asimuthal and elevation bearings, and the initial phase of the signal. For the proposed method it is necessary to have at least two elements AU, spaced at different angles from the direction of reference.

The proposed method of determining bearing of a light source will show on the example of circular (annular) AC.

1. In circular AC each element is offset at some angle from the other, i.e. circular AC automatically divided into a number of regions equal to the number of vibrators. Recovering the vector of complex amplitudes of signals y=[y_{1}y_{2...}y_{M}]^{T}obtained from the output of each element of AC.

2. We write the nonlinear system of equations, the right side which is an analytical expression of the complex amplitude of the signal at m-th element of AC, .�resonant envelope of the outputs of the elements of the circular AC

where m=1, ..., n;

j - imaginary unit,

θ is the azimuthal bearing,

β - plamisty bearing,

γ_{m}- the angle between the m-th vibrator and direction of reference

f_{0}- frequency signals emitted by the processed emitter,

u - the amplitude of the signal

φ_{0}- the initial phase of the signal

t - time, in this case it can be put equal to zero,

λ - wavelength signals IRI,

R is the radius of the antenna system.

3. We write the natural logarithm of the expression (1), get

We denote argy_{m}=P_{m}and let's equate, respectively, real and imaginary parts. The real part u=|y_{m}|; the amplitude of u is determined.

Equate imaginary parts:

or

where; γ_{1}=0, the origin.

4. We set up a system of equations for the bearing θ, β and the initial phase of the signal$$${\stackrel{\u2322}{\varphi}}_{0}$$$:

Solve the system (3) can different methods - matrix and nematicides, as someone familiar.

We give the following.

maths num="35"> $${\stackrel{\u2322}{\varphi}}_{0}$$to the right you divide the first equation. Get a new system

or in matrix form:

where

Hence the decision

Immediately obtain the initial assessment phase signal φ_{0}then Dene the estimate of the azimuthal bearing of θ from the found values of_{0}azimuth, the bearing θ, and then pomestnogo bearing β, it is enough for them simply to calculate the variance for the random function argument [3].

Solve the system (3) in another way. Subtract the first equation from the other (exclude the initial phase φ_{0}), we obtain a new system

Divide all the equations for one of them and carry out conversion to�of. Find estimates of the azimuthal bearing of θ and pomestnogo bearing β. Let us demonstrate this procedure on the first two equations of the new system. Divide the first equation into second

Reduce to cos β

We denote

;

A and b are known constants, i.e., we get

From the condition

when known get θ

The bearing θ and β are determined for each element of AC. From the resulting set of values is determined by the average value of the bearings, their variances and correlation coefficients.

It should be noted that the operations occurring in the formulas (2) and (3), (5) and (6) does not represent a great computational complexity and, accordingly, require a small investment of time and reduces the error in the determination of bearings, since the proposed algorithm takes into account or exclude the initial phase of the signal φ_{0}affecting the value of the bearing.

The proposed method can be used in conjunction with any method of direction finding (if any configuration AU) upon registration of a signal on a selected frequency to determine the values of the azimuthal and Ploesti� bearings IRI,
because the calculation of the products of the cosines of the azimuth and pomestnogo bearings are much less complex operation than computing the mentioned bearings separately. Moreover, the proposed method does not apply to one -, two - and three-dimensional grid of values of θ, β, φ_{0}.

Implementation of algorithm for determining bearings:

1. For a functioning AC (before measuring) analytically calculates the natural logarithm (2) of the function describing the complex envelope of the outputs of the elements of AC (1).

2. The natural logarithm of the measured complex amplitudes of the signals from each element of AC.

3. Real and imaginary parts of the analytical expressions of the natural logarithm of the complex envelope of the outputs of the elements of AC (2) are equal respectively to the real and imaginary parts of the natural logarithm of the measured complex amplitudes of the signals from each element of AC.

4. Get a system of algebraic equations (3), which are defined by analytical expressions to calculate the azimuth, the bearing θ, pomestnogo bearing β, the initial phase signal φ_{0}.

5. According to the formulas (4) or (5), (6) are computed azimuth bearing θ, the initial phase signal φ_{0}and then plamisty bearing β.

6. Because the known analytical formulas for computing the initial�phase signal φ_{
0}azimuth, the bearing θ, and then pomestnogo bearing β, we compute their variances, as for the function of random arguments [3].

Independent variables the variance of the function f(x) is calculated with the formula

In our case, as f(x) are formulas for cosβ, tgθ, φ_{0}. As x_{i}perform all other variables included in the formula. For example:; then f(x)=cosβ, P_{1}≡x_{z}; φ_{0}≡x_{2}; cosθ≡x_{3}.

The computer sets the matrix and the formula (3), the computer generates two numbers with their standard deviations:_{0}=α_{2}. Thenand φ_{0}=α_{2};.

You can do anything else, record the functionality of the method of least squares for second system:

to minimize

Then the value tgθ is found from the condition$$$\frac{\partial F}{\partial tg\theta}=0$$$
; φ_{0}- from the condition.

In the computer the bearings and an initial phase signals and their errors are calculated by explicit formulas and do not require much time.

Let's see the results the obtained values of the azimuthal bearing of θ and pomestnogo bearing β of the proposed method using three elements of the MSS (the first three equations). According to the proposed method, the bearing θ is equal to

Let us consider a numerical example.

On circular AC of radius 50 m at a frequency of 1 MHz when the ratio signal/noise ratio equal to 10, the registered signal. On the first three vibrators registered the following phases: P_{1}=35 deg., P_{2}=P_{3}=45,98 deg. The angle between the elements of the AU γ_{m}equal to 30 degrees. Insert the source data into the formula

For a first vibrator will receive:

Similarly, for the second - 45,98=60 cos(θ-30)cosβ+φ_{0};

for third - 45,98=60 cos(θ-60)cosβ+φ_{0}.

By the formulas (4) is obtained: θ=45 deg., β=45 deg., φ_{0}=5 deg.

The mean square deviation (RMSE) of θ is 0, 006 deg., RMSE of β is equal to 0.009 to hail.

With increasing values of φ_{0}the error increases dramatically.

Model calculation of the bearing were conducted on a PC with a processor with a clock frequency of 2 GHz. The time of the order of 0.001 sec. �ri manual account will require approximately 1 min,
because in each dimension change only P_{m}.

Determination of the coordinates of the radiation source by combining all information on bearings

We know the set of bearings and their uncertainties from different sources. Coordinates registrars signals and the error of these coordinates are also known. Asimuthal and elevation bearings determine the coordinates of the transmit beamforming vector of a line in space passing through a point with known coordinates (Registrar of signals), and through the point with unknown coordinates X and Y (the radiation source). Canonical equation of a line in space passing through the point M_{1}(x_{0}, y_{0}, z_{0}) parallel to the vector

The equation of the same line can be written as the intersection of two planes

The equation of a line in the plane (e.g. XY plane)

We introduce l=cosα; m=sinα. Then

xsinα-ycosα=x_{0}sinα-γ_{0}cosα or after dividing by cosα,

xtgα-y=x_{0}tgα-y_{0}; or xtgα-y=b, where b=x_{0}tgα-y_{0}.

In this adjusted�and direct two random variables: tgα and b.
With known variances σ^{2}(x_{0}); σ^{2}(y_{0}); σ^{2}(α) we obtain the dispersion

Collecting data on bearings with different sources, we get the system of equations

xtgα_{i}-y=(b_{i}; i=1, ..., N,

in which it is necessary to determine the coordinates (x, y) of the radiation source. The least squares method cannot be applied, because it is applicable only in the case that the left side of the equation has no random variables. If we write the equation with right-hand sides b_{i}and tgα_{i}you will get two intersecting straight lines. In this case, it is necessary to apply the methods of confluent analysis is to build a line orthogonal regression, which takes into account the uncertainty of all input data. Get the following features

the minimum point which defines the point estimates of the coordinates of the radiation source. For this we need to solve a system of two equations with two unknowns X and Y:

Covariance matrix of point estimates X and Y - matrix M

The equation of a line in spaceequivalent to the system of equations of the planes m(x-x_{0})-1(y-y_{0})+0z=0

0x+n(y-y_{0})-m(z-z_{0})=0

The system to determine the coordinates (x, y, z) of the radiation source in this case will have 2N equations three unknowns (x,
y, z) and contains four random variables: σ^{2}(b_{1i}), σ^{2}(b_{2i})

(m_{i}/l_{i}), (n_{i}/m_{i}), where b_{li}=(m_{i}/l_{i}x_{0}-y_{0}b_{2i}=(n_{i}/m_{i})y_{0i}-z_{0i}

Obviously, this system splits into two systems of equations: XY plane and YZ plane.

Functional confluent apalsa in this case has the following form:

The coordinates of the IRI Ichikawa from the system of equations

Covariance matrix of point estimates x, y and z - matrix M

The coordinates of the IRI and their errors are calculated by explicit formulas and do not require much time.

The implementation of the algorithm

1. First of all is pre-determined function of the complex envelope of the outputs of the elements of the speaker for each speaker.

2. Planguage devices transmit the complex amplitude from the outputs of the elements of the AU in block logarithm, which is entered and the function of the complex envelope of the outputs of the elements of the speaker for each speaker.

3. After logarithm data in the block of comparison of real and imaginary parts, where is determined by the amplitude of the registered signal, the equations are formed from the equality of imaginary parts.

4. Formed Nernst equation� enter the solver of systems of algebraic equations, where are point estimates of the bearings and an initial phase of the signal.

5. In the computer 1 when the obtained point estimates of the bearings and an initial phase of the signal covariance matrix is computed estimates of the bearings and an initial phase of the signal.

6. Data about bearings and their errors are received in the base of bearings and their uncertainties, which received similar data from other Pelageya devices.

7. You should select direct: on the plane or in space. The choice of the type of direct - on the plane or in space on the basis of: if the IRI is in the air, straight line in space, and if on the ground - a straight line on the plane. Respectively formed system of equations for a straight line on a plane or in space.

8. Accordingly, in the transmitter 2 or 3 are determined by the point estimates of the coordinates of the IRI on the plane or in space.

9. At a known point estimates of the coordinates of the IRI in the 4 or 5 computers are determined by the covariance matrix of the estimates on a plane or in space.

10. By covariance matrices are constructed dispersion ellipse for the estimation of the coordinates of the IRI on a plane or ellipsoid scattering to estimate the coordinates of the IRI in space.

Get detailed information about the coordinates of the IRI, allowing to make decisions on further actions.

Example. When two dimensions of the bearings from one of the IRI obtained equations�Oia of two straight lines in space: (10-x)/-5=(1-y)/4=(-3-z)/8 and (1-x)/4=(6-y)/-1=(15-z)/-10.

The corresponding equations using intersecting planes are of the form:

40-4x=-5+5y; 2-2y=-3-z

-1+x=24-4y; 60-10y=15-z.

It is easy to check that the lines intersect at the point(5, 5, 5).

Thus, we developed an effective method of determining the coordinates of the radiation source upon reception of signals from a single source of radio emission (IRI) using a nonlinear (including circular), antenna systems (as) of an arbitrary shape consisting of near-omnidirectional and directional elements (vibrators), as well as other methods of determining bearing, for example duplexing, radio imaging, etc. are Used multiposition registration system, placed on the ground, on aircraft. Improving the accuracy and speed of determining the coordinates of the radiation source is achieved through the use in determining the bearing characteristics of the nonlinear AC, allowing to reduce the impact on the value of bearing unaccounted for interference by information algorithm for determining the parameters of the signal to a direct calculation on the basic formula. The definition of point estimates of the coordinates of one radiation source according to the available set of measurements of bearings of different methods with respect to the error of all measurements and obtaining ellipsoid scattering coordinates of the radiation source.

Method of determination of coordinates of East�the source of radio emission (IRI), namely that accept signals IRI in a given frequency band ∆F ground or moving in space onboard finder mounted on the flight-lifting means (LPS), a measure of the spatial information parameters of the detected signals: azimuth, elevation and initial phase of signals in a rectangular Cartesian coordinate system with simultaneous determination of the location of LPS, correct the coordinates of the IRI taking into account a priori known orientation of the antenna system airborne direction finder relative to LPS, and then calculate the true geocentric coordinates of the location of the IRI based spatial angle measured LPS, for determining the course angle of flight-lifting means (LPS) accept radio signals from the SPACECRAFT (SC) global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), characterized in that with each planguage device measured complex amplitude of each element of the AU and the function describing the complex envelope of the outputs of the elements AU, goes to the logarithm, then in a unit for comparing the real and imaginary parts of the analytic expressions of the natural logarithm of the complex envelope of the outputs of the elements AU and the natural logarithm of the measured complex amplitudes of the signals from each element of the AU, receives the amplitude si�Nala and point estimates of the spatial information parameters of the detected signals: azimuth, the elevation is, the initial phase of the signal and their errors, which are fed into the transmitter 1 to determine the covariance matrix of the estimates, as function of random arguments, then in the base of bearings IRI and their uncertainties along with similar information from other Pelageya devices, based on the data base of the bearing are formed of a system of equations of the first partial derivatives of functions orthogonal regression, which allows to take into account the errors of all data, the coordinates of the IRI for straight lines in space and on the plane on which the computers 2 and 3 are determined by the point estimates of the coordinates of the IRI, respectively, on the plane and in space, using the inverse of the matrix composed of the negative values of all second partial derivatives of functions orthogonal regression on the coordinates of the IRI in the computers 4 and 5 are determined by the covariance matrix of the estimates of the coordinates of the IRI, respectively, on the plane and in space.

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FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method involves breaking a controlled area in space into position resolution elements; determining amplification coefficients generated by a receiving antenna for each resolution element for selected directions of the axis of the beam pattern of the antenna; forming n amplification matrix

where W_{i}(e_{j}) is the power amplification coefficient generated by the antenna when receiving radiation from the i-th resolution element for the direction of the axis of the beam pattern e_{j}; measuring power at the antenna output for selected directions of the axis of the beam pattern; estimating the signal vector based on an equation of measurements p=Wf+n, where p is the power measurement vector, n is the power measurement error vector at the output of the receiving antenna, f is the source power vector, the component number of which is equal to the number of the resolution elements, where the i-th component is equal to zero, if there is no radiation source in the i-th resolution element, and is equal to radiation source power if there is a radiation source in the i-th element; determining the position and power of radiation sources based on the source power vector estimate.

EFFECT: wider range of using the method of determining the position of sources on passive single-position local systems, easier measurement and high information content owing to determination of the power of the sources.

1 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: inventions can be used for determining the location of radio-frequency radiation sources (RFRS) from the flying vehicle by using angle-distance finding method. At preparatory stage the orientation of antenna array of position finder is considered in three planes relative to the flying vehicle (FV) board. During operation together with measurement of spatial parametres: of azimuth θ_{i} and elevation angle β_{i} on radiation source there evaluated is location of FV in space and its orientation through angle parametres: roll k_{lpsi}, pitch l_{lpsi} and heading angle α_{lpsi} (deflection ζ_{lpsi}). Positive effect is achieved by successive refinement of measurement results of θ_{i} and β_{i} with simultaneous transition from one system of coordinates to the other one. Device for determining coordinates of radiation source, which implements the method, includes two-channel phase interferometre, the first, the second, the third and the fourth evaluators, memory unit, radio navigator, five input mounting buses, output bus and angular orientation device of FV, which are attached to each other in certain way.

EFFECT: improving accuracy of position measurement of radiation source.

3 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method involves a process of determining the quantity of elementary zones and volumes of bindings and the coordinates of their centres, calculation and storage of reference values of primary space-information parameters for all possible angles of arrival of the signal with a given discreteness. The method also includes a process of receiving signals from selective dissemination of information with a mobile direction finder, measuring of primary space-information parameters at the output of antenna elements, simultaneous determination of the position of the direction finders in space, formation of a three dimensional matrix of the mutual angles of the direction finders and the elementary zones and volumes of bindings, and based on it, the three dimensional matrix of measurements. The device which implements the method consists of a navigation device, a clock-pulse generator, two computer-shaping units, four memory devices, a device for measuring primary space-information parameters, an evaluation unit, a unit for determining coordinates, a display, first adder, two pulse counters, first shift register, pulse divider, decoder, K units of AND elements, K five memory units, K secondary shift registers, and three delay elements, connected in a well defined way.

EFFECT: high accuracy determination of the location of a source of radio emissions.

3 cl, 19 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, possible use for determining location of radio radiation emitter.

SUBSTANCE: method for determining position of radio radiation emitter is based on measuring intensity of field in an area with a device which moves along free trajectory, and determining on basis of resulting data of gradient vector of electromagnetic field of radio radiation emitter being researched in different points of an area. Coordinates of intersection of electromagnetic field gradient vector are assumed to be coordinates of radio radiation emitter being researched, which are determined from a set of measured values of electromagnetic field intensity and geographical coordinates of measurement points, produced by moving the measuring device along free trajectory in zone of radio-accessibility of radio radiation emitter. Method is invariant to technical characteristics of radio-receiving device and antenna, radiation frequency and polarization and type of modulation of signal being received, resulting in expanded functional capabilities of measuring device.

EFFECT: expanded arsenal of technical instruments for determining position of radio radiation emitter in an area.

2 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, possible use in navigational, direction-finding, locating devices for determining position of a priori unknown sources of radio radiations by means of one direction-finder.

SUBSTANCE: device for determining coordinates of radio radiation source, realizing the method, contains navigation device, first calculator-generator, first recognizing device, generator of synchronization impulses, estimation block, block for determining coordinates, imaging device, and additionally introduced are device for measuring primary spatial-informational parameters, shift register, second memorization device, second computer-generator, impulse counter, third and fourth memorization devices and adder.

EFFECT: increased precision of position finding due to utilization of one-step processing.

2 cl, 44 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, possible use in navigational, direction-finding, locating devices for determining position of a priori unknown sources of radio radiations by means of one direction-finder.

SUBSTANCE: device for determining coordinates of radio radiation source, realizing the method, contains navigation device, first calculator-generator, first recognizing device, generator of synchronization impulses, estimation block, block for determining coordinates, imaging device, and additionally introduced are device for measuring primary spatial-informational parameters, shift register, second memorization device, second computer-generator, impulse counter, third and fourth memorization devices and adder.

EFFECT: increased precision of position finding due to utilization of one-step processing.

2 cl, 44 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, possible use for determining location of radio radiation emitter.

SUBSTANCE: method for determining position of radio radiation emitter is based on measuring intensity of field in an area with a device which moves along free trajectory, and determining on basis of resulting data of gradient vector of electromagnetic field of radio radiation emitter being researched in different points of an area. Coordinates of intersection of electromagnetic field gradient vector are assumed to be coordinates of radio radiation emitter being researched, which are determined from a set of measured values of electromagnetic field intensity and geographical coordinates of measurement points, produced by moving the measuring device along free trajectory in zone of radio-accessibility of radio radiation emitter. Method is invariant to technical characteristics of radio-receiving device and antenna, radiation frequency and polarization and type of modulation of signal being received, resulting in expanded functional capabilities of measuring device.

EFFECT: expanded arsenal of technical instruments for determining position of radio radiation emitter in an area.

2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method involves a process of determining the quantity of elementary zones and volumes of bindings and the coordinates of their centres, calculation and storage of reference values of primary space-information parameters for all possible angles of arrival of the signal with a given discreteness. The method also includes a process of receiving signals from selective dissemination of information with a mobile direction finder, measuring of primary space-information parameters at the output of antenna elements, simultaneous determination of the position of the direction finders in space, formation of a three dimensional matrix of the mutual angles of the direction finders and the elementary zones and volumes of bindings, and based on it, the three dimensional matrix of measurements. The device which implements the method consists of a navigation device, a clock-pulse generator, two computer-shaping units, four memory devices, a device for measuring primary space-information parameters, an evaluation unit, a unit for determining coordinates, a display, first adder, two pulse counters, first shift register, pulse divider, decoder, K units of AND elements, K five memory units, K secondary shift registers, and three delay elements, connected in a well defined way.

EFFECT: high accuracy determination of the location of a source of radio emissions.

3 cl, 19 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: inventions can be used for determining the location of radio-frequency radiation sources (RFRS) from the flying vehicle by using angle-distance finding method. At preparatory stage the orientation of antenna array of position finder is considered in three planes relative to the flying vehicle (FV) board. During operation together with measurement of spatial parametres: of azimuth θ_{i} and elevation angle β_{i} on radiation source there evaluated is location of FV in space and its orientation through angle parametres: roll k_{lpsi}, pitch l_{lpsi} and heading angle α_{lpsi} (deflection ζ_{lpsi}). Positive effect is achieved by successive refinement of measurement results of θ_{i} and β_{i} with simultaneous transition from one system of coordinates to the other one. Device for determining coordinates of radiation source, which implements the method, includes two-channel phase interferometre, the first, the second, the third and the fourth evaluators, memory unit, radio navigator, five input mounting buses, output bus and angular orientation device of FV, which are attached to each other in certain way.

EFFECT: improving accuracy of position measurement of radiation source.

3 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method involves breaking a controlled area in space into position resolution elements; determining amplification coefficients generated by a receiving antenna for each resolution element for selected directions of the axis of the beam pattern of the antenna; forming n amplification matrix

where W_{i}(e_{j}) is the power amplification coefficient generated by the antenna when receiving radiation from the i-th resolution element for the direction of the axis of the beam pattern e_{j}; measuring power at the antenna output for selected directions of the axis of the beam pattern; estimating the signal vector based on an equation of measurements p=Wf+n, where p is the power measurement vector, n is the power measurement error vector at the output of the receiving antenna, f is the source power vector, the component number of which is equal to the number of the resolution elements, where the i-th component is equal to zero, if there is no radiation source in the i-th resolution element, and is equal to radiation source power if there is a radiation source in the i-th element; determining the position and power of radiation sources based on the source power vector estimate.

EFFECT: wider range of using the method of determining the position of sources on passive single-position local systems, easier measurement and high information content owing to determination of the power of the sources.

1 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: inventions may be used to detect location of radio-frequency emission sources (RFES) from an airborne facility (AF) by a rho-theta method. Orientation of a direction-finder antenna array is taken into account relative to the AF board, as well as location and internal orientation of the AF in the space, and features of measurements area relief. In process of operation simultaneously with measurement of spatial parameters of RFES: azimuth θi and tilt angle βi; AF location in the space is assessed, as well as its orientation via angular parameters: list k_{lpsi}, pitch l_{lpsi} and declination ζ_{lpsi.}, and also an underlying surface with application of a digital map of the measurement area. The specified result is achieved also by serial confirmation of a vector value of a direction at s RFES with a simultaneous transition from one system of coordinates to the other. The device to detect RFES coordinates, implementing the method, comprises a double-channel phase interferometer, eight calculators, five memory devices, a radio navigator, an angular orientation device of the AF, a control unit, a comparison unit, a switching unit, six inlet adjustment buses and an outlet bus, connected to each other in certain manner.

EFFECT: improved accuracy of RFES location detection.

2 cl, 20 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in breaking of a controlled area of space into resolution elements by location, identification of signal weakening coefficients due to propagation from each element of resolution to a receiving antenna array (AA) _{kn}, where k - number of the resolution element, n - number of the AA element, determination of coefficients of spatial conversion of signals _{xx}, making for all components z_{im} of this matrix the equations of the type

EFFECT: simplified measurements and reduced time of measurements due to elimination of an operation of antenna directivity pattern formation in specified directions, increased information value of produced data due to estimation of mutual correlation characteristics of source signals.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics, navigation.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in radar and radio navigation systems, as well as in mobile communication systems to locate objects. The result is achieved by emitting probing signals at each position; receiving signals reflected from the target emitted by that position; measuring, based on the received signals, the range from that position to the target; determining coordinates of the target, wherein the rate of change of range is further measured at each position; receiving signals reflected from the target, emitted by two other positions; separating the received signals according the position emitting said signals; measuring, based on the received signal, two sums of ranges and rate of change thereof from that position to the target and from the target to two other positions and three paired differences of ranges and rate of change thereof from the first, second and third positions to the target; transmitting signals corresponding to the measured values of range and rates of change thereof, the sum and difference of the ranges and rate of change thereof to two other positions; measuring three differences of the sum of distances and rate of change thereof between positions of the system; calculating refined values of range and rate of change thereof from the first, second and third positions to the target using corresponding formulae.

EFFECT: high accuracy of determining coordinates of a target in a three-position ranging radar system.

6 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: result is achieved by forming of the reference vector-contours of the set objects in combination with their first n members of convolution of autocorrelation functions (ACFs) with further recognition of the detected objects based on selective (two-stage) analysis of ACF and mutual correlation function. Device for object coordinates determination implementing this method contains M identical air drones comprising propulsion system, autopilot, block of video monitoring, memory store, air drone navigation unit, controller, rudders gear, first receiving/transmitting module, aerodynamic rudder, transmitting module, ground control station comprising the first and second control units, and also made with M channels first and second information processing and displaying devices, second receiving/transmitting module, receiving module, second memory store and recognition device. These devices are connected by definite method.

EFFECT: assurance of simultaneous effective detection and recognition of the set objects based on video images supplied from board of several air drones.

2 cl, 21 dwg

FIELD: radio-engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: results is achieved due to use during determination of the radio emission source (RES) bearings of the universal formula describing complex envelope of outputs of the antenna system elements, ensuring explicit expressions to calculate amplitude, bearings and initial phase of the signals. Based on bearings from different devices of RES signals registration using method of compensation analysis the equations of straight lines are obtained for plane and space, their crossings determine point estimations of coordinates of the emission source. To estimate bearings and coordinates of the emission source the covariance matrices of estimations scattering are obtained, and ellipse or ellipsoid of the measured values scattering are determined.

EFFECT: increased accuracy and decreasing of time for coordinates determination of the radio emission source.

1 dwg