Nozzle head

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices to speed up a gas-dynamic (compressible) flow to supersonic velocities in different spheres of technical activities (sand blasters, vacuum cleaners, dust extractors, gas catchers, phase separators, oil cracking etc. equipment for chemical industry and household appliances). At least one nozzle in the nozzle head is made as a tapering part with critical section. The critical section enters the expanding part with a gap communicated with a cavity. The expanding part is set inside the nozzle head starting from the first to the last but one nozzle, in the form of an expanding shell. At the nozzle head outlet in the last nozzle the expanding part is made as an expanding shell or a concave or convex lip.

EFFECT: reduced power consumption in start-up and operation modes, provision for more stable operation mode, expanded range of application.

4 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to a device for gas-dynamic acceleration (compressible) flow to supersonic velocities in various branches of engineering (for peskostruy, dust collectors, air collectors, phase separators, oil cracking equipment, etc. of chemical technology and household appliances).

Prototype

Known nozzles to disperse the gas stream to supersonic to hypersonic velocity and local velocity inside the nozzle containing a nozzle, hermetically United with each other, and at least one cavity which communicates with at least one gap between nozzles.

(N. And. Sestrenka. Nozzle and nozzle Nicholas Sestrenka. Energy from the environment. The new generation of flying machines and technological equipment. 260 p. M.: Publishing house of WHITE BEACH, 2009 the first Book. Part two. Page. 53-168).

The disadvantage of the prototype is the following.

1. When the first nozzle is made tapering, and the critical section in the smallest nozzle, the gap with the next nozzle cannot be made optimal, as the following nozzle critical cross-section larger to which the nozzle tapers from clearance. And it reduces and limits the effect of the vacuum cavity and the receipt of this additional pressure drop in the first Contracting nozzle.

2. Protection from atmospheric pressure�, which propagates at the speed of sound is supersonic flow, which is braked to skew the races seals and should not go to a direct jump, i.e. should not become subsonic. This requires precise adjustment and fitting geometry nozzles that when heterogeneous gas-dynamic flow is very difficult to do. And as a result, to maintain the operating mode has inlet nozzles to keep a relatively large pressure.

Analogue

Known supersonic nozzle containing supersonic tapered portion with a critical section and an extending part, or in the form of concave or convex visor, or in the form of an expanding shell, or in the form of a widening of the convex shell.

(N. And. Sestrenka. Nozzle and nozzle Nicholas Sestrenka. Energy from the environment. The new generation of flying machines and technological equipment. 260 p. M.: Publishing house of WHITE BEACH, 2009 the first Book. Part one. Page. 9-52. Aut.St. The USSR №812356 and No. 899151).

The disadvantage of analog is the need to run and maintain the operating mode of the supersonic pressure drop and the inability to apply them independently for particle concentration of the aerosol.

The aim of the invention is to improve the efficiency.

The objective is achieved as follows.

1. Nozzles for the Accel�and gas flow to supersonic to hypersonic velocity and local velocity inside the nozzle, containing the nozzle, hermetically United with each other, and at least one cavity which communicates with at least one gap between the nozzles, characterized in that, for the purpose of increase of efficiency of not less than one nozzle made in the form of the tapered portion with the critical cross-section with a gap communicating with the cavity, included in the expanding portion, wherein the expanding portion is formed inside the nozzle from the first to the last nozzle in the form of an expanding shell, and the output from the nozzle to the last nozzle or in the form of an expanding shell, or in the form of concave or convex visor.

2. Nozzles according to claim 1, characterized in that at least one edge of the expanding portion in the gap or flush to the critical cross section of the tapered portion, or shifted back.

3. Nozzles according to claims. 1 and 2, characterized in that at least one extending portion is divided by at least one slit which communicates with an additional cavity.

4. Nozzle according to claim 3, characterized in that the slit of the at least one extending portion is shifted back.

The invention is shown in Fig.1-5.

Supersonic nozzles, Sestrenka consists of the first along the tapering nozzle 1, which is included with a gap 2 in the expanding shell 3, 4 and the edge of the gap 2 of the expanding shell 3 or flush a critical slashing�July 5 tapering nozzle 1, or offset (Fig.1) back toward the cavity 6 which communicates with the gap 2. On expanding the sidewall 3 installed converging nozzle 7, which is included with the gap 8 in the expanding shell 9, 10 and the edge of the gap 8 of the expanding shell 9 or mounted flush to the critical-section 11 tapering nozzle 7, or backwards, ( towards the cavity 12 which communicates with the gap 8. On expanding the sidewall 9 is installed supersonic converging nozzle 13 with a critical section 14, which is included with the gap 15 in the expanding part, made in the form of a convex visor 16. The gap 15 is communicated with the cavity 17.

And the edge 18 of the gap 15 convex visor 16 or mounted flush to the critical-section 14 of convex visor 16, or shifted back toward the cavity 17. Cavity 6, 12, and 17 on the outside are closed respectively by technological shells 19, 20 and 21.

Expanding the sidewall 9 is separated by at least one slit 22 which communicates with an additional cavity 23, which is outside the closed technological sidewall 23a.

An expanding portion formed in the form of convex visor 16 separated by a gap 24 which communicates with an additional cavity 25, which is outside the closed technological sidewall 26.

The gap 24, the convex portion of the visor 16 is shifted back toward the additional cavity 25.

Fig.2 with the nozzle 26 with a gap 27 is set not less�her than one of such nozzles 28, but with a large critical section 29 of the first tapered nozzle 30.

Fig.3 nozzles 26 is mounted on the shoulder to the axis 31 of rotation, and the input section 32 of the first tapered nozzle 33 is located closer to the axis 31 than other nozzle nozzle 26. The establishment of the following nozzles 28 with a gap 27 in Fig.3 is not shown.

Fig.4 at least one of the nozzles 26 is introduced into the container 34 output 35 the last section of the Laval nozzle 36 so that the gas-dynamic flow in the vessel 34 is facing the gas-dynamic flow, and from the tank 34 has at least one solution in the form or nozzle 37, or nozzle (Fig. not shown).

Fig.5 the nozzle 26 of the first converging nozzle 33 recessed input section 32 in the liquid to create a post of gravitational pressure, but not less than one cavity 38, buried in the liquid, supplied by the gas supply system 39.

For the nozzle 26 with a gap 27 is set to not less than one of such nozzles 28, but with a large critical section 29 of the first tapered nozzle 30, and a first converging nozzle 30 recessed input section 40 in the liquid to create a post of gravitational pressure, but not less than one cavity 41, buried in the liquid, supplied system 42 of the gas supply.

The boundary flow 43 on all the figures depicted by the dotted line.

Fig.5 surface 44 of the water is also depicted with a dotted line.

NASA�OK may be in the form of a body of rotation or in the form of a slit.

The invention operates as follows.

Due to the pressure created by the compressor (Fig. not shown) in the first Contracting nozzle 1, the gas-dynamic flow is accelerated and enters the expanding shell 3. Depending on the pressure of the possible modes of flow. If the pressure is sufficient, in the critical cross section is set to the speed of sound, followed in expanding the sidewall 3 is formed from a stream of supersonic barrel. Upstream of this barrel, if there were no walls, was repeated several times. In the ideal case all subsequent nozzle would have to repeat them with a small gap, but in metal. Through the gap 2 in the cavity 6 due to the effect ejection occurs, the pressure (vacuum). The waves of rarefaction in turn through the gap 2 of the act on the flow, causing greater expansion and acceleration. The walls of the expanding shell limit this expansion. Thus in the cavity 6 is mounted a sustained vacuum, rarefaction waves which create sustainable perenashivanie flow or sustainable increase of the kinetic energy of the flow. In Contracting nozzle 7, the flow is retarded. Wall tapering in the nozzle 7 and the critical section 11 are made in the form of a supersonic diffuser in which the flow does not flow to subsonic flow, and the critical cross-section 11 in an expanding obec�ice 9 again by inertia creates a supersonic barrel.

Through the gap 8 in the cavity 12 due to the effect ejection occurs, the pressure (vacuum). The waves of rarefaction in turn through the gap 8 of the act on the flow, causing greater expansion and acceleration. The walls of the expanding shell 9 limit this expansion. Thus in the cavity 12 is mounted a sustained vacuum, rarefaction waves which create sustainable perenashivanie flow or sustainable increase of the kinetic energy of the flow. In Contracting nozzle 13, the flow is retarded. Wall tapering in the nozzle 13 and the critical section 14 are made in the form of a supersonic diffuser in which the flow does not flow to subsonic flow, and the critical cross-section 14 in the expanding part, made in the form of convex visors 16, again by inertia creates a supersonic flow, which is similarly affected by the rarefaction wave coming from the cavity 17 through the gap 15. The law of Prantl-Meyer supersonic flow turns, following the configuration of convex visors 16.

If the pressure is not sufficient to create a supersonic flow in the critical section 5 is set to subsonic speed, and behind him in expanding the sidewall 3 of thermal expansion of the shell 3 is braked. In a critical section 5 the maximum speed. With this speed ejection effect creates in the cavity 6 of the rarefaction wave which�and affects the process flow. The rarefaction wave moving in all directions at the speed of sound. They penetrate into the converging nozzle 1 and are an additional source of pressure differential, causing the critical-section 5 the acceleration of the flow. The latter enhances the effect of the ejection and the vacuum in the cavity 6, which in turn increases the intensity of the action of rarefaction waves. And so it is until, while in a critical section 5 flow rate by sound. The rarefaction wave cannot penetrate through the critical section 5 in the converging nozzle 1. They affect the flow through the expanding shell 3, giving depression necessary for the formation of a supersonic barrel (or disperse the flow to supersonic speeds). Further, as described above.

There is a threshold pressure at the inlet nozzles, below which the speed in the critical section 5 is not sufficient, and in the cavity 6 the vacuum is too small. It is not able to create such a wave of rarefaction, which would allow to overcome the opposition of the atmospheric pressure acting through the exit section of the nozzle. And then the additional acceleration in the critical section 5 cannot occur. Therefore, the nozzles can only operate at a higher pressure than this threshold. The prototype working pressure is much higher than that of the proposed device. Therefore, in the invention the technical�m effect is the conservation of energy.

Fig.2 with the nozzle 26 with a gap 27 is set to not less than one of such nozzles 28, but with a large critical section 28 of the first tapered nozzle 30. In the gap 27 is drawn additional mass of gas-dynamic flow in the converging nozzle 30.

Fig.3 nozzles 26 is fastened to the axis 31 of rotation, and the input section 32 of the first tapered nozzle 33 is located closer to the axis 31 than other nozzle nozzle 26. The axle 31 is rotated. Gas-dynamic flow by centrifugal force enters the converging nozzle 33. What happens next is the same as that described when considering Fig.1.

Fig.4 at least one of the nozzles 26 is introduced into the container 34 output 35 the last section of the Laval nozzle 36 so that the gas-dynamic flow in the vessel 34 is facing the gasdynamic flow with the same speed from the same nozzle, if the nozzle is made in the form of a body of revolution, or of such nozzles. In the area of maximum compression hypersonic flow part (very minor) it is completely converted into energy, part of the large molecules break down into smaller molecules. The volume of the gas increases. From the tank 34 the resulting product comes out through the nozzle 37. You can use this option for cold cracking of gas.

Fig.5 the nozzle 26 of the first converging nozzle 33 recessed input section 32 in the liquid to create a post grave�operating pressure, and not less than one cavity 38, buried in the liquid, supplied by the gas supply system 39. The gas and the liquid, when mixed, form a foam that behaves as a compressible fluid. The pressure is constantly pushing on the foam. Further there is the gasdynamic flow the same as that in the considered variants. In the result of running the air pump.

Fig.5 for the nozzle 26 with a gap 27 is set to not less than one of such nozzles 28. In the gap 27 under pressure enters the critical section 40 of the fluid. the first tapering of the nozzle 30 and into the cavity 41 through the system 42 under pressure is a gas, with which a complementary part of the liquid forms a foam. Then it repeats.

To increase the flow rate of the nozzle can be formed as a slit.

The technical effect

The technical effect is that a supersonic barrel (or supersonic flow) from the beginning of its formation (starting from the critical section) sustained vacuum vacuum cavity. Thus aerosol particles and droplets of liquid concentrate in the center of the stream, and the gas expands and locks supersonic flow gap communicating with the cavity, reducing the pressure on the operating mode (energy saving), as well as the mode of operation becomes significantly mustache�kicivee by what a supersonic barrel protects the source of rarefaction waves from the effects of atmospheric pressure. It is not necessary to keep on all modes throughout the nozzle supersonic flow, because every critical section in the case of the transition of the flow to subsonic speed it again due to the rarefaction waves accelerates and approaches the sound speed, greatly easing the impact of atmospheric pressure. Then there is the healing of supersonic flow around the nozzle, which is very important for the inhomogeneity of the gas flow when the aerosol particles can temporarily disrupt the oblique shocks in a narrowing nozzle parts. As a result, if the speed is enough, the effect of atmospheric pressure on the workflow and no to maintain the operating mode does not require high pressure.

Design does not require precise adjustment of orifice sizes, thus expanding the application fields. Overall design more effective.

To the above technical effect, you can add the following.

The nozzle, made in the form of the tapered portion with the critical cross-section with a gap communicating with the cavity, enters the flared portion formed

or in the form of an expanding shell,

or in the form of concave or convex visor,

Il� in the form of a widening of the convex shell,

allows for optimizing the gap size to ensure maximum evacuation of the cavity and thereby increase the additional pressure drop in the tapered portion and the output nozzle becomes supersonic. Widening part it allows you to develop a better flow and overclock it to a higher supersonic speeds.

Each subsequent nozzle goes supersonic with significantly less pressure drop, which reduces the risk of transition from supersonic flow to subsonic regime. The design of the nozzle in the invention fully emits the supersonic barrels supersonic flow, eliminating unnecessary losses from the imperfections of the design. At the same time allowed inside the nozzle before the last nozzles of the local transition of a supersonic flow to subsonic, and then re-supersonic due to the pressure of braking, making nozzles less capricious in operation and adjustment of the nozzles and significantly reduced pressure drop throughout the nozzle. And this saves energy on start-up and operation.

1. Nozzles to disperse the gas stream to supersonic to hypersonic velocity and local velocity inside the nozzle containing a nozzle, hermetically United with each other, and at least one cavity which communicates with at least one �the Azor between the nozzles, characterized in that at least one nozzle made in the form of the tapered portion with the critical cross-section with a gap communicating with the cavity, included in the expanding portion, wherein the expanding portion is formed inside the nozzle from the first to the last nozzle in the form of an expanding shell, and the output from the nozzle to the last nozzle or in the form of an expanding shell, or in the form of concave or convex visor.

2. Nozzles according to claim 1, characterized in that at least one edge of the expanding portion in the gap or flush to the critical cross section of the tapered portion, or shifted back.

3. Nozzles according to claims. 1 and 2, characterized in that at least one extending portion is divided by at least one slit which communicates with an additional cavity.

4. Nozzle according to claim 3, characterized in that the slit of the at least one extending portion is shifted back.



 

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