Method of mapping of anticlinal domes in the top part of sedimentary cover and forecasting of superviscous oils

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: electromagnetic waves are radiated and the signals reflected from boundaries of interface of layers of the probed medium then the results of measurements are processed. The structural maps of a dome, and also temporary seismic sections of the reflected boundaries of the top part of the sedimentary cover are pre constructed, the materials of geophysical surveys of wells, core materials are studied. The lines of profiles are marked on the surface taking into account the structural maps of the dome and temporary seismic sections of the reflected boundaries of the top part of the sedimentary cover. Lines of profiles are drawn in mutually perpendicular directions through the drilled wells with passing outside the dome contour no less than by 500 m. The coordinates of extreme and critical points of lines of profiles are added into the database. The possible external disturbance are considered, the necessary corrections of coordinates of lines of profiles are added. The lines of profiles are located, the altitude and coordinate points of study are determined. Test studies are conducted in one line of profiles. The duration of record of the reflected wave of measurement of set of the electromagnetic signals registered in a reception point during the pre-set time after the radiation of electromagnetic wave as exceeding a double transit time of an electromagnetic wave to the deepest object of studies is assigned experimentally. On the basis of data on depths and supposed or in advance known values speeds of propagation of electromagnetic waves in the medium received during the analysis of geophysical surveys and core materials the fixed time during which the receiver receives the reflected signals is selected. The sampling step is selected sufficient for the detailed description of the electromagnetic reflected signal in a quantity from 10 to 20 points for the central frequency period. During field observations the radiation of electromagnetic waves from the 10 MW transmitter and reception of the reflected signal is performed consistently by three antennas at three frequencies: 50 MHz, 25 MHz and 10 MHz in the linear and logarithmic modes of record and registration with a step 4-6 m. The impulse received at the highest frequency is considered as reflecting the detailed nature of studies and high resolution, and at the lowest frequency - as the maximum depth of sounding. In the linear mode of impulse registration the reflected signal of the lower part of the section is separated and digitised. In the logarithmic mode the registration of "desensitisation" of high amplitude of a signal and amplification of low amplitude record of the top part of the section is performed. As a result of processing of field materials the temporary sections are constructed on which the wave picture displays the features of the geological structure and composition of rocks. By change of properties of dielectric permeability the boundaries of the interface of layers and the diffracting objects in the fields of electromagnetic waves pre-determined by an axis of phase synchronism of the reflected waves are separated. For visualisation the separation of the return reflection field from the set of the obtained data using the frequency and spatial filtration is used. The summation-subtraction function for radargrams, recorded in the linear and logarithmic modes by means of which the detailed partition of the lower part of a radarogram is achieved. For lithologic- stratigraphical binding of boundaries of the reflected waves the correction of high-speed characteristics of electromagnetic impulse and materials of geophysical surveys of wells and coring data is performed. From this the regularities in nature and distribution of an electromagnetic signal are identified. The objects with weak and transitional reflecting characteristics are separated. The search indicator of the deposit boundary on the temporary section is a reduction of time of passing of the boundary of the separated oil layer and increase of the signal amplitude with respect to indications out of the deposit. The maps of time electromagnetic impulse reflections are constructed, on the basis of which the stratigraphical surfaces of the reflecting horizons of the top part of the sedimentary cover are mapped. By changes of amplitude and sign of electromagnetic signal in various mediums over a deposit, at transition and outside the deposit the maps of oil saturated depths are constructed.

EFFECT: forecasting of deposits of superviscous oils.

11 dwg

 

The invention relates to oil industry and can find application in the study of deposits of heavy oil.

A method of geoelectrics oil and gas fields with the prediction of hydrocarbon saturation, namely, that in the investigated profile excite a pulsed electromagnetic field. In the pauses between the pulses of the exciting current measures the overall transient response of tension full electromagnetic field. About the presence of hydrocarbon deposits is judged based on the comparison of measured pauses between the current pulses, the magnitude of the induction components induced polarization of the electromagnetic field with theoretically calculated value. Additionally measured the values of the components of the electromagnetic field caused by the process of induced polarization, at a predetermined interval linear profile and the background value caused by polarization at the same interval. The identification of the type of hydrocarbons is carried out at high or low relative to the background of the anomalous values of the measured parameters of induced polarization (Patent RF №2391684, publ. 10.06.2010).

The closest to the proposed invention the technical essence is a method of radar sensing of the earth's interior, which consists in the fact that the shape of�irout and radiate in the direction of the sensed depths of the pilot tone, accept signals of electromagnetic pulses reflected from subsurface structures, allocate the signals in the spectrum which is observed the maximum amount of resonance bursts, the selected parameters of the signals used for sensing (Patent RF №2436130, publ. 10.12.2011 - prototype).

A common disadvantage of known methods is the inability to search and exploration of deposits of heavy oil such as bitumen.

In the proposed invention solves the problem of prospecting and exploration of deposits of heavy oil.

The task is solved in that in the method of mapping structural culminations in the upper part of the sedimentary cover and prediction of heavy oil, including radiation of electromagnetic waves and reception of signals reflected from interfaces in the sensed environment, and processing of measurement results according to the invention pre-construct structural maps of uplift, build temporary seismic sections of the reflected borders the upper part of the sedimentary cover, study the materials of geophysical research wells, core materials, the surface outline of the line profiles based on the structural maps of lifting and temporary seismic section of the reflected borders the upper part of the sedimentary cover, line profiles is carried out in mutually perpendicular direction through about�wrennie well with the contour of the raising of not less than 500 m, perform logging to a database of coordinates of the extreme and inflection points of the lines profiles, conduct consideration of possible external interference, the introduction of the necessary adjustments of the coordinates of the lines profiles, conduct reference lines profiles of the terrain, the definition of high-rise and the coordinate points of the investigation, conduct a test study on one line profiles, experimentally assign the recording duration of the reflected wave measuring aggregate of electromagnetic signals recorded at the point of reception within a predetermined time after the emission of electromagnetic waves, as more than double the running time of an electromagnetic wave to the deepest of the research object, on the basis of information about the depths and estimated or known values of the velocities of propagation of electromagnetic waves in the medium, obtained in the analysis of geophysical survey and core materials, conduct the selection of a fixed time during which the receiver receives reflected signals, wherein the sampling time is chosen sufficient for a detailed description of the reflected electromagnetic signal in an amount of from 10 to 20 points for the period of the center frequency, during field observations, the radiation of electromagnetic waves from the transmitter 10 MW and reception of the reflected signal back�Ute consistently three antennas on three frequency ranges 50 MHz, 25 MHz and 10 MHz in linear and logarithmic modes records with a pitch of 4-6 m, the momentum gained at the highest frequency, take into account as reflecting studies details and high resolution, and in the low as the maximum probing depth, while in linear mode register pulse is carried out the selection and sampling a reflected signal of the lower part of the section, in logarithmic mode completes registration "zagrublenija" high amplitude signal and the amplification of low amplitude recordings of the upper section, as a result of processing of field materials build time sections, at which the wave pattern shows the features of the geological structure and composition of rocks to change the properties of dielectric permittivity allocate boundary layers and diffracting objects in the fields of electromagnetic waves, defined by the axis of correlation of the reflected waves, to visualize using the selection field back reflection from the aggregate data obtained using frequency and spatial filtering, use the function addition-subtraction for GPR data recorded in linear and logarithmic modes by which we achieve a detailed dissection of the lower part of the radargram, for litho-stratigraphic reference boundaries reflected waves �avodat correction speed characteristics of electromagnetic pulse and materials of geophysical research wells and data coring, this set of patterns in the nature and propagation of electromagnetic signal, allocate the objects with weak and transient reflectance, search sign border deposits on time section select time decrease of the boundary of the allocated oil reservoir and increase the amplitude of the signal relative to the outside readings deposits, build maps time reflections of electromagnetic pulse on the basis of which chart the reflecting surface of the stratigraphic horizons of the upper part of the sedimentary cover, and the changes in the amplitude and sign of the electromagnetic signal in different environments over the reservoir, during the transition and beyond deposits build maps of net pay thickness.

Summary of the invention

Known methods geoelectrics oil deposits are being successfully applied in the search for deposits of low viscosity oils, however they are not designed for the search of high-viscosity oil such as bitumen. The aim of the proposed invention is the search for and exploration of deposits of heavy oil.

To achieve the objective of the invention in the proposed method solves the following tasks:

mapping structural culminations in the upper part of the sedimentary cover, which may be the main in the preparation of prospective heavy oil exploration drilling; provide for�scovo exploration Fund structures or traps another type where can be found the industrial clusters of heavy oil,

- identification of stratigraphic unconformity and violations of sedimentation, karst formations and Neogene valleys, tectonic dislocations, structural and stratigraphic traps, which are favorable for the accumulation of heavy oil, determination of the depth and nature of occurrence of geological boundaries by examining the velocity of propagation of ultra-wideband electromagnetic waves and patterns of sign changes of the electromagnetic impulse

- definition of the frequency spectrum and intensity of passing electromagnetic pulse in the upper layer of the sedimentary cover and, as a consequence, direct search and delineation of deposits of heavy oil,

- provision of additional information by updating inventory and optimize the development of existing deposits of heavy oil at the stages of exploration when confirming the forecast of petroleum potential of deep drilling,

- increase the accuracy of finding deposits of heavy oil and reduce the risk of drilling dry holes when conducting exploration and evaluation activities.

Thus, the research results will allow to study the lateral geologic structure of the upper part of the sedimentary cover, given the influence of topography and velocity anomalies, to construct structural maps of the Mature trainsimcentral electromagnetic pulse, to highlight the oil-saturated thickness of deposits of heavy oil.

Technology mapping by structural uplifts in the upper part of the sedimentary cover and forecasting of deposits of heavy oil includes the following steps:

- pre-acquisition preparatory work;

field work;

- interpretation and mapping.

Pre-acquisition preparatory work consists of the following steps:

- preparation of topographic material to the performance of GPR research includes the study of landscape and morphological features of the study area, taking into account the terrain; gully and river network. Determine the category of the complexity of the GPR works on the site of the study for the planning of the work schedule, time and scope of work: the intensity of land use, forest coverage rate, activity-traffic roads, human settlements development, the values of absolute marks of the relief and the intensity of the ruggedness of the terrain, the density of gully and river network, water logging, development of technogenic interference, primarily the network of power lines,

- preparation of geological and geophysical material includes the construction and study of structural maps of the study raise on the basis of structural data and deep exploration �of Quain, temporary seismic section of the reflected borders the upper part of the sedimentary cover, the materials of geophysical researches of wells, materials of the core. Build schematic litho-stratigraphic section of the studied area with the aim of obtaining information about the occurrence of layers of the anticipated depths to correct known values of the velocities of propagation of electromagnetic waves in the environment,

- network plan GPR profiles taking into account the geological and topographical materials. To do this on a topographic map of the project works put a contour lift, highlighted by a sparse grid of structural drilling or contour lifting by the first reference to the reflected seismic horizon research. Put everything drilled in the study area wells (structural, deep, exploratory). Lines of GPR profiles were planning on a dense network passing through drilled well; the density of the network of project profiles define the size of the structure, lines of GPR profiles are paving the intersection and exit from the outline of the structure by no less than 500 meters For accurate binding of each measurement is carried out a breakdown of the profile from the starting point with coordinate X1Y1to final XnYnwith the same stride length, you get the estimated coordinates of the measurements to (k=1, 2,......n) profile in the form�e

,,

- perform database filling extreme and inflection points of the coordinates of the design lines of GPR profiles.

Field work

Perform preliminary visual inspection of the site of research, directions and photographs of the whole area, consideration of possible external interference, the introduction of the necessary adjustments of the coordinates of the profiles.

Carry out breakdown and bind lines profiles of the terrain in accordance with the exploration plan, fulfill the definition of high-rise and a coordinate sensing points, securing lines of profiles on the ground using a GPS device. Pickets along the lines of profiles register optional GPS Navigator every 100 m. the Accuracy of determination of coordinates of points of support areas ±2.5 m.

To select the optimal resolution GPR research measurements performed on the test line of the profile.

The reason for the choice of a fixed time during which the receiver receives reflected signals, are used information about the depths and anticipated or known in advance the values of the velocities of propagation of electromagnetic waves in the medium, obtained in the analysis of geophysical research and materials of borehole cores, wherein the step of time discretization is chosen sufficient for a detailed OPIE�position of the reflected electromagnetic signal (10 to 20 points for the period of the center frequency),

Experimentally assign the recording duration of the reflected wave measuring aggregate of electromagnetic signals recorded at the point of reception within a predetermined time after the emission of electromagnetic waves, which should exceed twice the run time of the electromagnetic wave to the deepest of the research object,

The basis for this scanner are used information about the depths and anticipated or known in advance the values of the velocities of propagation of electromagnetic waves in the environment. In this case, the sampling time should be sufficient for a detailed description of the signal (10-20 points for the period of the center frequency). The choice of amplification of the detected signal, a constant ratio and automatic gain control is carried out directly during field observations. The optimal gain settings should provide the record without off-scale values of the amplitude and comparable in intensity of the signals at the beginning and at the end of the registration interval.

The measurement direction is carried out in automatic mode in a vehicle with a step of 5 m with a serial arrangement of three antennas on the low frequency ranges: 50 MHz, 25 MHz and 10 MHz, with the pulse obtained at the highest frequency, reflects studies details and high resolution, and low - �aximum depth sensing.

Measurement rotates antennas:

3 meters - 50 MHz for a detailed dissection of the layers in the upper part of the section to a depth of 25 meters,

6 meters - 25 MHz - to break up the layers to a depth of 75 m,

15 meters -10 MHz for the subdivision of strata in the lower part of the section to a depth of 200 meters.

For each set of antennas is carried out recording the measurement in linear and logarithmic modes.

1) in the linear mode to carry out the registration for the selection and sampling of the reflected signal in the lower part of the section. In the upper part of the section amplitude peaks with a low level difficult to determine.

2) in logarithmic mode register is "desensitization" of high amplitude signal in the upper part of the section and strengthening of low amplitude recording.

Fig. 1 shows that the multiplication of a signal by a constant value reflects the shift of the spectrum without changing its shape and ratios between the amplitude-frequency components.

Interpretation and mapping

For data processing software is used KROT.

The result of field processing are time sections in which the wave pattern reflects the characteristics of the geological structure and composition of rocks to change the properties of dielectric permittivity. Image borders section and diffracting objects in electric fields�electromagnetic waves are determined by the axis of correlation of the reflected waves.

For visualization use the following tools: selection fields back reflection from a set of observed data is performed by using means of processing frequency and spatial filtering. Applying the addition function-subtraction for GPR data recorded in linear and logarithmic modes, it becomes possible detailed dissection of the lower part of the radargram, highlighting objects with a weak and transient reflecting characteristics. The result of processing of the GPR data shown in Fig. 2, where the resulting improvement in visualization of the aggregate peaks and structural construction more clearly.

Dielectric permeability of heavy oil is about 2.5-3. In relation to the search for and delineation of deposits of heavy oil, this means that when you change the saturation of the reservoir rock with water on extra-viscous oil changes and a dielectric constant of from 25 to 2.5. Based on the fact that with decreasing dielectric constant increases the speed of the waves and decreased attenuation, search sign border deposits on time section will be reducing the time of passage of the edges of the selected oil reservoir and increase the amplitude of the signal relative to readings outside of the reservoir.

The result of processing of field m�materials are temporal sections, at which the wave pattern reflects the characteristics of the geological structure and composition of rocks to change the properties of dielectric permittivity. Image borders section and diffracting objects in the fields of electromagnetic waves are determined by the axis of correlation of the reflected waves.

Velocity heterogeneities of the geological environment are displayed on the GPR data and time cards time cards reflect electromagnetic pulse. Areal interpolation of the obtained velocities is carried out primarily in accordance with the regularities of variations of interval times between the reflecting horizons, and also taking into account the geological situation in the wells.

In the analysis of materials of the regularities in the nature and propagation of electromagnetic signal.

On time section of Fig. 3 shows the change in the amplitude and sign of the electromagnetic signal in different environments: on the heavy oil reservoir, in the transition and beyond deposits. In this case, the transmission time of the productive formation is increased in the transition zone, a decrease transit time and amplitude of the electromagnetic signal, outside the deposits of extra-viscous oil is a change of sign of the amplitude on the opposite and decrease transit time of the electromagnetic wave signal.

Primersecretario run

The specific implementation of the study the upper part of the sedimentary cover is shown in the example Berry uplifts Strawberry fields cervasca oil.

On Berry raising planned GPR 6 areas with a total length 9580 Pogue. m: one of the areas No. 1 (PC. YA1-YA2-YA3-YA4-YA5-YA6-YA7-YA8-YA9) from North-West to South-East with a length of 2750 m, and 5 perpendicular directions: №2 (PC. YA10-YA3-YA11) - 840 m, No. 3 (PC. YA12-YA13-YA4-YA14-YA15) - 1500 m, No. 4 (PC. YA16-YA-17-YA5-YA18) - 1770 m, No. 5 (PC. YA19-YA6-YA21-YA22) - 1070 m, No. 6 (PC. YA23-YA24-YA7-YA25) - 1650 m. the outside contour lift was 500 m. Fig. 4 shows a scheme of mutually intersecting directions, passing through a deep and structural wells drilled at the site of the study. Field work performed in automatic mode, the car with the step of sensing 5 m.

In the process of interpretation corrects the amplitude of the signal from the function time-corrected average velocity of wave propagation in the depth interval defined by the values of the hodograph and stratigraphic markers for the description of a core in the wells and the results of hydrodynamic investigations in the wells.

Fig. 5 shows the stratigraphic control of amplitude-frequency signal. Fig. 6 made the correlation of the changes of the amplitude-frequency spectrum of the signal and the change in lithology in the district�trese.

In accordance with the reference wave in the electromagnetic field on the GPR data tracked main reflecting boundaries, having the following stratigraphic confinement:

Q - roof Quaternary deposits;

P2kz2 - roof sediments verkhnekazanskogo substage;

P2kz1 - roof sediments nizhneleninskogo substage;

P2uf2 the top of the tier Ufa, chesmenskoj retinue;

P2uf1 - sole deposits tier Ufa, chesmenskoj retinue.

The color palette reflects the signal amplitude: the maximum amplitude of "+" phase (suspended) piped in black, minimum amplitude-phase reflected white. Compliance with certain amplitude and phase of the color signal conditionally. Color representation reflects a clear picture of the amplitude-phase characteristics of the time section.

Sole deposits nizhneleninskogo substage (P2kz1) is characterized by a steady pulse shape and correlated without much difficulty in the automatic mode, the negative extremum in the interval 1064-1832 nc.

The lower boundary of the sediment nizhneleninskogo substage bounces on aged stratum lingualy clays. The average velocity in the layer is 5.9 cm/nc.

Chelminski horizon Ufa tier. Sole deposits sechinskogo horizon Ufa tier bounces in the time interval 1312-2512 nc, surveillance�reduction of the speed of the signal due to the saturation of the rocks. The average velocity in the layer is 2.6 cm/nc.

Plot studies within Berry deposits reflecting boundaries consistently traced in the reflected electromagnetic wave field. There is a change of thickness correlated phase, it can be explained predominantly consonant lithological variability of the host rocks and thickness of layers.

Fig. 6 and 7 presents the temporal incision profile Y12-Y15 obtained in the data area. The wave pattern shown in vertical cross section, is of acceptable quality tracking and dynamic expressiveness of reflections in the recording of reflections mapped boundaries from the surface elevation to tier Ufa. On a temporary profile Y12-Y15 (Fig. 7), a picture of lithological corner of disagreement in the interval from hole 126 to 129 wells.

The supporting surface for structural models was adopted reflecting boundary soles nizhnechutinsky deposits, as the most seasoned and clearly reflected in the study controlled regional seasoned with a pack of lingualy clays". To clarify the occurrence of geological boundaries built structural maps on the roofs nizhnechutinsky and Ufa deposits. To clarify the contour of oil-bearing deposits of oil allocated oil patch�and sechinskogo horizon and a map of power-saturated packs of sechinskogo horizon Ufa tier.

Fig. 8 displayed a structural plan for the roof nizhneleninskogo substage upper Permian in absolute elevation of 120 m, contoured Berry raised in the form of brachiation, the size of the structure 2.2×1.3 sq km, the amplitude of up to 25 m.

Dome, shaped Berry mapped anticlinal uplifts reflected by the roof edge tier Ufa. Fig. 9, the circuit structure is mapped on isohypse 60 m, the maximum amplitude is observed at the Central dome of the mount up to 30 m. Wrong form positive patterns due to the complication of the geological structure, bulges temporary capacity sand packs sechinskogo horizon.

Fig. 10 cross-section of the 2 m contour map of net pay thicknesses packs sechinskogo horizon.

Fig. 11 shows a comparison of oil-saturated thickness maps of productive deposits sechinskogo horizon Ufa storey built by drilling data and according to the proposed method, the obtained oil content contour map and power Berry oil-saturated thickness of the reservoir.

Thus, it is shown that the proposed method has the potential of further information in the geological study of the characteristics of structural uplifts the upper part of the sedimentary cover, namely the refinement of the structure studied previously with�nocturna drilling elevations, the operational forecast of oil and gas, assessment areas was done and the choice of priority oil-promising objects.

Application of the proposed method will allow to solve the task of prospecting and exploration of deposits of heavy oil.

Method of mapping structural culminations in the upper part of the sedimentary cover and prediction of heavy oil, including radiation of electromagnetic waves and reception of signals reflected from interfaces in the sensed environment, and processing of measurement results, characterized in that the pre-build structural maps of uplift, build temporary seismic sections of the reflected borders the upper part of the sedimentary cover, study the materials of geophysical research wells, core materials, the surface outline of the line profiles based on the structural maps of lifting and temporary seismic section of the reflected borders the upper part of the sedimentary cover, line profiles is carried out in mutually perpendicular directions through a drilled well with the contour of the raising of not less than 500 m, to perform recording in the database the coordinates of the extreme and inflection points of the lines profiles, conduct consideration of possible external interference, the introduction of the necessary adjustments of the coordinates of the lines profiles, conduct reference lines profiles of the terrain, the definition in�Sotnik and coordinate points of the study, conduct a test study on one line profiles, experimentally assign the recording duration of the reflected wave measuring aggregate of electromagnetic signals recorded at the point of reception within a predetermined time after the emission of electromagnetic waves, as more than double the running time of an electromagnetic wave to the deepest of the research object, on the basis of information about the depths and estimated or known values of the velocities of propagation of electromagnetic waves in the medium, obtained in the analysis of geophysical survey and core materials, conduct the selection of a fixed time during which the receiver receives signals in this case, the step time discretization is chosen sufficient for a detailed description of the reflected electromagnetic signal in an amount of from 10 to 20 points for the period of the center frequency, during field observations, the radiation of electromagnetic waves from the transmitter 10 MW and reception of the reflected signal consistently perform three antennas at three frequencies: 50 MHz, 25 MHz and 10 MHz in linear and logarithmic modes of recording and registering with the step of 4-6 m, the momentum gained at the highest frequency, take into account as reflecting studies details and high resolution, and in the low as the maximum depth zones�of debugger, while in linear mode register pulse is carried out the selection and sampling a reflected signal of the lower part of the section, in logarithmic mode completes registration "zagrublenija" high amplitude signal and the amplification of low amplitude recordings of the upper section, as a result of processing of field materials build time sections in which the wave pattern shows the features of the geological structure and composition of rocks to change the properties of dielectric permittivity allocate boundary layers and diffracting objects in the fields of electromagnetic waves, defined by the axis of correlation of the reflected waves, to visualize using the selection field back reflection from the aggregate data obtained using frequency and spatial filtering, use the function addition-subtraction for GPR data recorded in linear and logarithmic modes by which we achieve a detailed dissection of the lower part of the radargram, for litho-stratigraphic reference boundaries of the reflected waves, a correction of the speed characteristics of electromagnetic pulse and materials of geophysical research wells and data coring, establish patterns in the nature and propagation of electromagnetic signal, allocate the amount�you with a weak and transient reflectance, search tag border deposits on time section select time decrease of the boundary of the allocated oil reservoir and increase the amplitude of the signal relative to the outside readings deposits, build maps time reflections of electromagnetic pulse on the basis of which chart the reflecting surface of the stratigraphic horizons of the upper part of the sedimentary cover, and the changes in the amplitude and sign of the electromagnetic signal in different environments over the reservoir, during the transition and beyond deposits build maps of net pay thickness.



 

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2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: high-speed and miniature detection system, particularly for detecting electromagnetic radiation in the gigahertz and terahertz range, has a semiconductor structure, having a two-dimensional layer of charge carriers or a quasi-two-dimensional layer of charge carriers with one defect or multiple defects, at least first and second contacts for the charge carrier layer and a device for measuring the photoelectromotive force between the first and second contacts. Operation of the system according to different implementations is based on resonant excitation of plasma waves in the semiconductor structure.

EFFECT: enabling detection of electromagnetic radiation in the gigahertz and terahertz range using a high-speed and miniature detection system.

36 cl, 32 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method includes regional gravitational and magnetic survey, as well as magnetotelluric sounding of the territory. Zones characterised by local positive anomalies of gravitational and magnetic fields, as well as local fall of electroconductive layer under the trap-rock are identified as inflow channels of magmatic substance in plain view.

EFFECT: accurate mapping of inflow channels of magmatic substance into trap-rocks.

FIELD: physics; geophysics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to geophysics and can be used to measure geophysical and hydrophysical parameters in near the bottoms of seas and oceans. The underwater observatory (1) comprises a seismometer consisting of seismic and seismoacoustic modules, a hydrophysical module, a magnetic field sensor, a hydrochemical measurement unit, a methane detector, a pressure sensor, a spatial orientation sensor, a nuclear magnetic resonance sensor, side-looking sonar, connected to a recording and control unit, as well as means of communicating with shipborne equipment, a ballast and a ballast opening switch. The underwater observatory (1) is in the form of a vertically profiling module placed on a moving line (2) between an upper buoy (3) and a lower buoy (4). The moving line (9) is tied through an anchored unit (5) to the ballast (6), and a supporting unit (7), mounted on a sea terminal (8) is connected to a windlass (10), mounted on the sea terminal (8).

EFFECT: broader functional capabilities and high reliability during operation.

2 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: multifrequency-phase sounding method includes an impact by an electric field and a seismic wave on oil and gas deposits (OGD), in result the electric polarisation and movement of oil and gas fluid particles is initiated in a reservoir rock thus forming an electromagnetic field (OGD-response) adequate to the above impact. Parameters of the OGD-response are measured and recorded; the above parameters reflect the changes in phase-frequency characteristics of the seismic wave spectrum when the wave passes through OGD thus enabling the recording of the OGD availability and determination of their characteristics.

EFFECT: improved efficiency and probability of the proved detection of oil and gas deposits.

12 cl, 21 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: anchored profiling underwater observatory is linked with a control station and consists of: a subsurface buoy anchored by a steel buoy line which serves as the moving line for the profiling carrier, having a set of measuring sensors, a central microcontroller unit, an electric drive, and which moves on the moving line; a system for digital communication via a contactless inductive tap-in on the moving line, a surface buoy-guidepost with modems for transmission of data and telemetric information via a radio link, a hydroacoustic opening switch of the anchor ballast. On the moving line, over the hydroacoustic opening switch of the anchor ballast, there is a lower spherical buoy, having a modem for a hydroacoustic link inside it, an electric drive linked to a telescopic device, at the end of which a seismometer is mounted. The profiling carrier further includes sensors for determining content of hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, alpha-, beta- and gamma-radioactivity.

EFFECT: improved operating conditions, broader functional capabilities of the underwater observatory.

2 dwg

FIELD: physics, acoustics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to marine geophysics and can be used to prospect for gas hydrates at the bottom of water bodies. An acoustic emission sensor is placed on the shore in a fault area. Daily changes in elastic vibrations of the acoustic emission are recorded. The time of maximum tidal forces in the operating area is determined from the energy of the elastic vibrations. The activation time of the fault area and the "calm" time are determined. Pulses of the magnetic component of the electromagnetic field are detected on the water surface during the activation period of the fault. Anomalies of the electromagnetic field pulses are determined. Samples are collected at the centre of each anomaly or group of identical anomalies. The samples are analysed for the presence and content of the useful component. The boundaries of the deposit are determined from the contours of the anomaly or groups of anomalies in which anomalous content of gas hydrates was detected.

EFFECT: easier prospecting for gas hydrate deposits.

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method includes successive operations for acquiring and preparing data by a common-depth-point method, seismic logging, vertical seismic profiling, acoustic logging, gamma-ray density logging and verifying the quality of said data, and obtaining reference values of interval velocities; obtaining an initial hodograph and calculating a synthetic seismogram; performing quality control and inputting a constant time adjustment for landing on the upper reference horizon of the lithologic and stratigraphic system; recalculating the synthetic seismogram and performing quality control again; calculating and inputting an adjustment for landing on the lower reference horizon of the lithologic and stratigraphic system; recalculating the synthetic seismogram and performing quality control; transferring the point of the obtained hodograph to the nearest acoustically weak boundaries; recalculating the synthetic seismogram, followed by quality control and obtaining an apriori hodograph.

EFFECT: high reliability and accuracy of alignment of horizons of a time section and geologic marks of a well.

11 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics, geophysics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of geophysics and can be used for determination of structural features, lithology and type of fluid saturation of reservoirs. According to the offered method the time-space and/or spatial - frequency data of electromagnetic measurements are obtained with the subsequent reconstruction of volume distribution of conductance of geological model of medium. Then the interval aggregate longitudinal electrical conductance of medium are calculated, the identification in the medium of reservoir beds with abnormal aggregate longitudinal electrical conductance is performed, the positions of axial surfaces of reservoir beds are determined, the thickness of reservoir beds corresponding to positions of axial surfaces is determined, the resistivity is determined using the value of interval aggregate longitudinal conductance of the film inside the bed for each point of measurements. The initial geo-electric model of medium is verified and disagreements are corrected. The variations of interval values of resistivity are determined. In the zone band of sharp decrease of specific resistance the coefficient of porosity of selected layers is determined, using which the capacity of reservoir bed, and also the nature of saturating fluid on the basis of interval resistivity ρp and petrophysical or statistical data are determined.

EFFECT: improvement of accuracy of the prospecting data.

5 cl, 8 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method includes constructing a "zero" depth model for potential ore-bearing areas based on a database of physical properties of rocks making up the model section, and materials of small-scale gravitational and magnetic exploration. The "zero" depth model is in the form of depth sections on which all detected bodies are assigned corresponding intervals of variation of density and magnetic characteristics. The depth model is interactively selected by solving a series of inverse problems. When selecting the depth mode, the shape of separate model bodies and physical parameters thereof (density and magnetisation) are varied until the calculated gravitational and magnetic fields almost match the observed fields. The obtained non-uniform distribution of rock density and magnetisation is interpreted using reference genetic models of the ore-magnetic systems, with construction of geologic-geophysical profiles. On -geophysical profiles with a sharp change or displacement of isolines of the density and magnetisation fields, large faults and regions of low-density nonmagnetic rocks are selected as residual sources of cotectic granites (sources of fluids, ore substances and energy), and off-shoots therefrom are delineated as the predicted ore deposit zones.

EFFECT: predicting a blind ore body associated with granitoids with high reliability.

8 dwg

FIELD: physics; geophysics.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to geophysics and can be used in field studies for different purposes. Each of the systems includes gravitational acceleration sensors (1-1 - 1-3) on three components, magnetic field sensors (2-1 - 2-3) on three components, ground seismic vibration sensors (3-1 - 3-3) on three components, a unit (15) for determining coordinates of the system and accurate time, and a control, processing and recording unit (11) connected to all said devices. The control, processing and recording unit (11) has a function for measuring gravitational acceleration parameters and magnetic field parameters synchronously with measurement of seismic vibration parameters. The gravitational acceleration sensors (1-1 - 1-3), magnetic field sensors (2-1 - 2-3) and ground seismic vibration sensors (3-1 - 3-3) are placed in a sensor unit (4), which also includes a temperature sensor (21). All sensors in the sensor unit (4), except the temperature sensor (21) are placed in a space whose geometric parameters are comparable with the sum of geometric dimensions of said sensors. In one version, the system includes a controllable heater (22) which maintains temperature in the sensor unit (4) using a signal coming from the temperature sensor (21). In another version, the temperature sensor (21) is connected to the control, processing and recording unit (11), which has a function for correcting measured parameters according to temperature changes in the sensor unit (4).

EFFECT: high accuracy of determining physical characteristics of investigated rock in a measurement space, smaller dimensions of the systems.

12 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises the following elements: sensors (1-3) geoacoustic signals, first switch (4), first amplifier (5), filter unit (6), rectifier unit (7), second switch (8), analogue-digital converter (9), (10) digital signal transmission unit, (11) susceptometer, magnetometer measuring circuit (12) , analogue storage devices (13, 14), subtracting amplifier (15), rectangular voltage generator (16), ferrite antenna (17), third switch (18), three capacitors (19), second amplifier (20), mixer (21), low frequency filter (22), switchable generator (23), rectifier (24), control unit (25), power supply unit (26).

EFFECT: improvement of informativity of studies.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics, computer engineering.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to designing systems and methods of processing seismic data. The disclosed group of inventions includes computer-implemented methods of processing seismic data, systems for processing seismic data and computer-readable data media storing commands which, upon execution by a processor, carry out steps in any one of the methods. Methods and means of preprocessing data before interpreting seismic data include converting voxel connectivity, reducing seismic reflections, suppressing voxels and determining voxel density. Voxel connectivity is used to facilitate removal of insignificant data.

EFFECT: reduced seismic response of a given reflecting horizon in a beam lobe, such as a main lobe, by reducing seismic reflections, as well as highlighting and amplifying lithologic boundaries to facilitate interpretation by a person and a computer through voxel suppression.

55 cl, 30 dwg

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