Lamp and optical element therefor

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: optical element for a lamp is made in the form of a sheet with pyramidal depressions with a different number of faces, preferably four, each shape of the depressions having a flat bottom located at a depth from the surface of the sheet or plate on the side of said depressions which is equal to 60-90% of the height of the imaginary untruncated pyramid, the faces of which match the faces of said depression, and the lamp consists of a light source and said optical element.

EFFECT: improved performance.

6 cl, 13 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of optics, in particular to optical devices for forming a directional beam of light from the ambient light.

In the lamps there is a problem: how to change the curve of luminous intensity so that the lamp meets the criteria for maximum brightness of the light source when the axis deviation of the observation from the normal lamp at an angle greater than 60°. In this direction the light should be dim.

The brightness of the light source is the luminous flux of a source in a given direction, divided by a small (elementary) the solid angle around this direction and the projection area of the light source in a plane perpendicular to the axis of observation. In other words is the ratio of the luminous intensity emitted by a surface to the area of its projection on a plane perpendicular to the axis of observation.

The optical system of the human eye is designed so that natural light does not prevent us to consider the surrounding objects. We used to see in reflected light. The bright sun is directly overhead of the person and direct sunlight never reaches the eye (almost never). Our vision is configured to daytime brightness of the world reflected light or dusky light of evening, though the daylight and evening sun differs in hundreds of times. We clearly see in the midday sun, but St�it us to enter the dark room - and it takes a while for our eyes got used to darkness, and Vice versa. This is due to the adaptability of view to the General background lighting. Healthy vision is strained and does not get tired in day and evening light, but the brightness of the surrounding objects should be uniform.

In an environment with artificial lighting, the human eye is experiencing discomfort. On the dimly lit background (compared to sunlight) of the items are bright headlights of cars, lights, advertising lights, video monitors and televisions. Irritated eyes, irritated by the man himself.

From Wikipedia: the sensitivity of the eye depends on the completeness of adaptation, the intensity of light source, wavelength and angular dimensions of the source and the time of the stimulus. The sensitivity of the eye decreases with age due to the deterioration of the optical properties of sclera and pupil, and receptor-level perception.

To improve comfort of living and working indoors with artificial lighting the National standard of the Russian Federation (GOST R-2011 "lighting Devices. Lighting requirements and test methods"), as well as other, earlier standards, and determines the brightness of light sources: "6.1.7 overall Value of brightness hanging and ceiling lamps for General lighting of premises with discharge lamps and svetodiodnaja to be no more than 5000 CD/m 2in the restricted area brightness 60°-90°...". Fig.1 presents an illustration showing the angle limiting brightness according to the standards GOST R-2011.

Requirements not only to the brightness of the light source, but also to the direction of the reflected light contained in the Western standards, and presented clearly, for example, in the article "Lighting Ergonomics - Survey and Solutions)), published on the website "Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety" on the Internet in a mode on-line access at the address http://vmw.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/ergonomics/lighting_survey.html where the effect of different light sources on vision working person (Fig.2). Standards set the standard brightness, which limits the blinding of the person in the room, especially in offices, classrooms, and other big space with lots of light sources: the light should not irritate a person's vision must not be recognised ("flash") from the monitors.

Manufacturers of housings of lamps fluorescent tubes forced to put up additional partitions in the lamp housing (Fig.3) to limit the brightness of the panel. This solution allows to reduce the overall brightness level and to meet the standard, but this is purely a formal decision. The brightness of individual dots lamp still exceeds the permitted limit.

Some manufacturers of lighting fixtures demonstrate in promotional materials curve of intensity, proving, if luminous intensity at an angle more than 60° decreases, then the brightness in this direction is minimal. This is a controversial statement! Consider the standard toolbar. In order to achieve uniform illumination, the manufacturer builds into the panel of the diffuser (diffuser). This panel emits light according to Lambert's law, i.e. according to the standard CIL (Curve intensity) with double angle half power lamp light equal to 120° (Fig.4 - showing the spread of radiation according to Lambert's law). Lambert's law is the physical law according to which the brightness L of the light-scattering (diffuse) surface is the same in all directions. For example, the law obeys Lambert's radiation is the most common, devoid of a lens of the led (Fig.5 - the diagram of radiation of the led SAMSUNG LM561A, angle of half intensity from the led is 60+60=120°) and the absolute majority of other LEDs with lens or without lens.

The brightness formula - B(θ)=dI(θ)/dσcosθ - indicates that the intensity decreases along with the projection of the square (as seen in KSS). Thus, at an angle to the panel decreases the intensity of the light but not the brightness! That is, for lamps, emitting by Lambert's law (and it is all luminaires with diffuser), brightness in the direction of 60°, and further equal brightness in the normal direction.

Let's calculate for a specific example:

Standard panel 3200 LM = 3801 candelas in the direction normal

Taking �a horse lamp 0.55 m x 0.55 m = 0,30 square meters (the size of the light field minus the frame for lamp 0.6 m × 0.6 m), the resulting brightness in the direction of 60° (or in the defensive zone 60-90°):

3801/0,30=12670 CD/m2that in two and a half times violates the requirements of GOST R-2011 on lighting.

There are two solutions to this problem.

The first solution is to limit the rays of light emitted from the luminaire at angles greater than 60° to the normal of light (perpendicular to its plane), and install on the lamp surface raster grid as it is forced to do manufacturers of lighting fixtures for fluorescent tubes. This decision applies to, but is not satisfied with the designers of the premises. Lamps take up much space (height) and look outdated.

The second solution is to install a special lamp glass with the micro, as does the Austrian firm Zumtobel, defended their decision by the US patent 6700716, G02B 5/04, publ. 02.03.2004.

Known optical element in the form of flat panels used in lighting fixtures and introducing a plate of transparent material, one side of which is formed a protrusion in the form of pyramids with sharp edges and non-planar top, the protrusions are arranged in rows horizontally and vertically and separated by a triangular shape in cross-section grooves, the width of which in the place of coincidence with the apex of each pyramid is equal to 160 microns in the transverse size of the top of the pyramid of 540 microns. Thus, mo�but consider, in this optical element of the pyramid layout is sealed to a state where the gap between them is reduced to virtually zero. In the overlapping areas of each other two adjacent pyramids is formed triangular in cross section, the recess with a sharp apex and the corner in the top 15°. In this optical element is used, the refraction of light rays passing through the inclined wall of the pyramids and emerging on the other side of the plate.

Adopted as a prototype for the claimed objects.

From the information available from the patent and from the promotional material of the company Zumtobel it is clear that for lenses optics selected protrusions or recesses in the transparent material (glass, polymer material) in the form of pyramids with sharp edges. Also from the patent it is clear that the vertex of each pyramid will always be acute, convex or concave form, but never flat (it is specified in the formula of the patent). On the basis of the required parameters of this lens is to compress the beam of light - the top of the pyramid is convex, that is, the manufacturer uses a simple non-truncated pyramid, with no gap between their bases. That is, the pyramidal protrusions (or indentations) are located close to each other.

The tabs in the glass in the form of pyramids, as stated in the patent, it is very difficult to do due to the narrow gap between the faces of the pyramids and Otsu�tion of the gap between their bases. In the patent it is proposed to use for cutting the pyramids, for example, a laser that will increase the cost of production.

The notches in the glass in the form of a simple non-truncated pyramids, especially the required size of 1.5 by 1.5 mm is also quite hard to do, as a depression in the softened glass, or a heated polymer glass made by a punch of the same shape as the indentation that you want to obtain. Punches with a sharp top, size 1,5×1,5×0.75 mm, in the existing technology of manufacturing such a micro glass - rolling sheet glass cylinder made it with punches - requires about 500...600 thousand. Moreover, each face of each punch must be carefully, to optical quality Polish, so still need to keep a sharp peak and the sharp edges of the pyramid. While sharp as a needle, the top quickly blunts and distorts the optical properties of the array of lenses. Punch have to redo or at least, to repair, which increases the cost of production.

The present invention is directed to the achievement of the technical result consists in simplifying the design of the optical element and the manufacturability of its manufacture and improved optical properties when used in lamps.

Said technical result is achieved in that in the optical�commercial element, used in lamps, and represents a sheet or plate of transparent material on one side formed a pyramid-shaped recesses with the number of faces at least three, each pyramid-shaped recess is made with a flat bottom located at a depth from the surface of the sheet or plate with sides of these recesses is equal to 60 to 90 percent of the height of the imaginary non-truncated pyramid, the faces of which coincide with the edges of the specified deepening.

Said technical result is achieved in that in the lamp containing a light source that directs radiation towards the optical element, the optical element is in the form of a sheet or plate of transparent material on the side of the sheet or plate opposite to the light source, formed a pyramid-shaped recesses with the number of faces at least three, each pyramid-shaped recess is made with a flat bottom located at a depth from the surface of the sheet or plate with sides of these recesses is equal to 60 to 90 percent of the height of the imaginary non-truncated pyramid, the faces of which coincide with the edges of the specified deepening.

These features are essential and interrelated with the formation of a stable combination of essential features, sufficient to obtain the desired technical result�.

The present invention will be explained a specific example of execution, which, however, is not only possible, but clearly demonstrates the possibility of achieving the above combination of features required technical result.

Fig.1 presents an illustration showing the angle limiting brightness according to the standards GOST R-2011;

Fig.2 - the effect of different light sources on vision working person;

Fig.3 is shown a raster grid lamp;

Fig.4 - showing the spread of radiation according to Lambert's law;

Fig.5 - the diagram of radiation of the led SAMSUNG LM561 A, angle of half intensity from the led is 60°+60°=120°;

Fig.6 - layout of the pyramids at optical simulation shows a portion of the array;

Fig.7 is a diagram of the mutual placement of glass and light sources;

Fig.8 - shows the influence of the angle at the vertex of the pyramid relative to the number of passes through the array of light;

Fig.9 - shows the dependence of light transmission through an array of the height of the pyramid;

Fig.10 - shows the dependence of light transmission and the width of the CIL of the height of the pyramids;

Fig.11 is shown the width of the CSS depending on the density of the pyramids. Also shown is the intensity of the light passing through the array with different density of the pyramids. 100% matched with�comfort full closure of the pyramids (probable case of lamp company Zumtobel);

Fig.12 is a diagram of an orientation of the lamp with the glass, made in accordance with the simulation results. The base of the pyramids is 1.23 mm, the gap between the pyramids - 0.28 mm, the original height of the non-truncated pyramid 0,615 mm, the tops of the pyramids are cut by 18 percent from the original height (0.11 mm), i.e. the height of the truncated pyramid represents 82% of the height of an imaginary non-truncated;

Fig.13 - the glass with square indentations made according to the present invention, visible flat top (bottom) pyramidal indentations and margins between pyramidal indentations.

According to the present invention considers the design of the lamp (Fig.7), consisting of a light source 1, the guide light toward the optical element 2, which on the side opposite to the light source, formed a pyramid-shaped recesses. The optical element used in this lamp, made in the form of a transparent sheet for transmission of light radiation of sheet or plate with pyramidal recesses with different numbers of lateral sides (three, four or more), preferably four. Pyramid-shaped indentations are made with a flat bottom located at a depth from the surface of the sheet or plate with sides of these recesses, ravneet 60 to 90 percent of the height of the imaginary non-truncated pyramid, faces of which coincide with the edges of the specified deepening.

Under the imaginary apex of the pyramidal recesses (the top of the imaginary pyramid, the faces of which coincide with the faces of the pyramidal indentations) refers to the vanishing point of the triangles, in which the side faces are made, if it was about non-truncated pyramid. The terminology used of used in geometry for truncated cones (see Article "the Architectural definition of the pyramid", the authors E. A. Pavlov, N. And. Eremina, published in the journal. "Global scientific potential", №6, 2009 and posted on 07.09.2012 site "Construction" on the Internet at the following address: http://i-postroika.ru/?p=2889) (the Pyramid is in the first place ... the construction of natural or artificial stone material. The pyramid has a strictly geometric form. The top of the pyramid is located on the straight line perpendicular to the center plane of the base. Not all pyramids have a clear-cut top, or the top part (truncated pyramid). In this case, can be defined more precisely: the imaginary peak is located on the straight line perpendicular to the center plane of the base).

In the optical element of pyramid-shaped recesses can be located with a gap relative to each other with a density of not less than 60 percent of the area of the sheet or plate or pyramid-shaped recesses can b�you are without a gap relative to each other (i.e. with a density of 100 percent of the area of the sheet or plate).

A feature of the present invention is that it is proposed to perform the top of the pyramid micro-optics are not sharp, and flat-top, and push the pyramid at a certain distance, which facilitates the manufacturing technology of the punch and makes the finished product cheaper but no less quality.

Consider the reasons why it could and should be done. This was produced by optical simulation of the array of micro pyramids, as well as on the obtained size and shape was made of real glass with the micro. The simulation was created an array of micro pyramids with a base of 1.5×1.5 mm, the number of pyramids - 9000 (plate glass is made in the shape of a square arrangement of recesses 300×300 pieces in mutually perpendicular directions, the array size 450×450 mm). Glass thickness - 2.8 mm (Fig.6). Further, under the array of micro pyramids (under glass) was placed light source 1 with the distribution of luminous intensity (CIL) by Lambert's law (in real life it will be led without lens (see above diagram for the led by Samsung), and under the light source 1 was placed reflecting plane 3, simulating the bottom of the lamp (Fig.7).

Then changed some settings in the micro pyramids, and calculated the passage of light rays through the simulated array. The refractive index for the material of the array �was selected as optical polycarbonate - 1,49.

First of all, when you change the angle at the apex of the pyramid was found maximum at the angle equal to 90°, and the maximum is sharp enough. In further calculations we recorded the angle at the vertex of 90° (Fig.8 - shows the influence of the angle at the vertex of the pyramid relative to the number of passes through the array of light). Further, it is possible to shorten the pyramid, cutting off the top of her plane. The results obtained can be seen in Fig.9, which shows the dependence of light transmission through an array of the height of the pyramid. From the graphs of Fig.8 and 9 shows that the maximum light transmission is observed when cutting the top of the pyramid 1/6, i.e. 17 percent of the height. Technologically it is possible, and certainly easier than doing the pyramids on the punch is quite sharp. Also, when cutting of the pyramids by the specified amount CIL of the array becomes as sharp as possible, and what is required (Fig.10 - shows the dependence of light transmission and the width of the CIL of the height of the pyramids). To extend the radiation pattern (KCC), we need to push the pyramids, and some of the light will go past them that will affect the curve in the direction of its extension (see Fig.11, which shows the width of the CSS depending on the density of the pyramids, also shows the intensity of the light passing through the array with different density of the pyramids, 100% corresponds to complete your chants�aniu pyramids (likely the case company Zumtobel).

Because we need the width of the diagram KCC approximately 85°, the optimum density of the pyramids in the array will be approximately 82%. Experimental data show that the optical quality is stored in the optical element, if the pyramid-shaped recesses are arranged with a gap relative to each other with a density of not less than 60 percent of the area of the sheet or plate, or pyramid-shaped recesses are arranged without a gap relative to each other.

The simulation results were produced glass made of PMMA (optical polycarbonate with a refractive index approximately equal to 1.49), and the measurement results of the KSS led lamp with glass in the form of an array of micro pyramids of the specified size accurately confirmed by the simulation results (Fig.12 - shows a directional pattern of light with glass, made in accordance with the simulation results. The base of the pyramids - 1.23 mm. Clearance between the pyramids to 0.28 mm., the Original height of the non-truncated pyramid 0,615 mm, the tops of the pyramids are cut by 18 percent from the original height (0.12 mm). Fig.13 demonstrated glass with square indentations made according to the present invention. Visible flat top pyramidal indentations and margins between pyramidal uglublenie�mi.

Thus, the present invention technically applicable and allows to achieve the stated results.

1. The optical element used in luminaires representing a sheet or plate of transparent material, one side of which formed a pyramid-shaped recesses with the number of side faces of at least three, wherein each pyramid-shaped recess is made with a flat bottom located at a depth from the surface of the sheet or plate with sides of these recesses is equal to 60 to 90 percent of the height of the imaginary non-truncated pyramid, the faces of which coincide with the edges of the specified deepening.

2. Optical element according to claim 1, characterized in that the pyramid-shaped recesses are arranged with a gap relative to each other with a density of not less than 60 percent of the area of the sheet or plate.

3. Optical element according to claim 1, characterized in that the pyramid-shaped recesses are arranged without a gap relative to each other.

4. A lamp containing a light source that directs radiation towards the optical element, characterized in that the optical element is in the form of a sheet or plate of transparent material on the side of the sheet or plate opposite to the light source, formed a pyramid-shaped recesses with the number of side faces m not�her three, each pyramid-shaped recess is made with a flat bottom located at a depth from the surface of the sheet or plate with sides of these recesses is equal to 60 to 90 percent of the height of the imaginary non-truncated pyramid, the faces of which coincide with the edges of the specified deepening.

5. The lamp according to claim 4, characterized in that the pyramid-shaped recesses are arranged with a gap relative to each other with a density of not less than 60 percent of the area of the sheet or plate.

6. The lamp according to claim 4, characterized in that the pyramid-shaped recesses are arranged without a gap relative to each other.



 

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