Method of detection of peat fire
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: method of detection of peat fire comprises identification of the most fire-hazardous parts of peatlands and placement in the part area of vertical wells. The perforated tubes are mounted in the wells, the tubes are filled with smoke-generating pyrotechnic composition and the wellheads are covered with granulometric material. The coordinates of the wells are recorded on the forest fire map. The boundaries of the fire are determined by the smoke location over the wells and its coordinates are recorded on the map. In the well cavity simultaneously with feeding the exhaust gases of internal combustion engine the fine powder of calcium carbonate is fed.
EFFECT: in comparison with the analogue, the method provides the ability of use of signal wells on peatlands with high content of ferrous iron due to feeding into the well cavity of exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine and powder of calcium carbonate that suppress the vital activity of iron bacteria.
The present invention relates to the field of forestry and agriculture, and more specifically to methods of detecting mainly peat fire on forest lands.
A method of detecting a peat fire, including the determination of the azimuth observation of smoke from observation towers, built on the plan of planted forests azimuthal lines and the coordinates of the intersection points determine the location of a forest fire (presented by E. A. Protection of forests. - Pushkino: VNIILM, 2001. - P. 139-141). A disadvantage of the known method is the low accuracy of determining the boundaries of an underground peat fire, which is formed within the area of the burning surface fire, due to a low level of smoke in the fire area and uniform smoke over the entire area.
The closest in technical essence and the objective of the proposed technical solution is the method of establishing the location of a forest fire, including the device wells, installation in wells perforated pipes, smoke filling piracetam, filling the mouths of the wells-grained material, the fixation of coordinates of the wells on the afforestation plan, monitoring of smoke, the determination of the location of a forest fire by coordinates fuming wells (Pat. RF 2294782, IPC AS 3/00, AS 23/00. Method of establishing the location of the fire / A.�.Kasyanov. Application 2005126967/12, Appl. 26.08.2005; publ. 10.03.2007, bull. No. 7).
A disadvantage of the known method is limited functionality. Peat bogs containing soluble ferrous iron of the perforations of the pipes clog the deposits of insoluble iron oxide. Ignition of the pyrotechnic composition becomes impossible. Deposits of iron oxide create iron bacteria that convert soluble form dioxide iron into insoluble ferric form.
The aim of the invention is the extension of functionality.
The inventive method of detecting a peat fire peat bogs containing ferrous iron, including the selection of the most fire-hazardous areas of peatlands, the device vertical wells, installation in wells perforated pipes, filling pipes smoke-forming pyrotechnic composition, filling the mouths of the wells-grained material, the fixation of coordinates of the wells on the forest fire map, a breakdown patrol routes, patrol observation of smoke, the definition of the boundaries of a fire at the location of the smoke of the wells, fixing its coordinates on the forest fire map, is that in the cavity of the borehole simultaneously with the filing of the exhaust gas of the internal combustion engine serves a fine powder of calcium carbonate.
The proposed method is implemented as �the Braz. Identify the most fire-hazardous areas of peatlands. Evenly over the area of the selected areas of peatlands are placed at a distance of 100 to 200 m vertical well. Vane borer drill up to mineral soil bore diameters 10 cm In diameters smaller than 10 cm, in wells, it is difficult uniformly in height to accommodate piracetam. The increase in the diameters of the wells more than 10 cm increases the volume of work without a dramatic increase in the uniformity of placing of pyrotechnic composition. Then, alternately, at the mouth of each well is set the shutter is provided with a pipe. On the place the nozzle spout, the volume of which is filled with fine powder of calcium carbonate. The pipe connecting the pipe with the exhaust pipe of the internal combustion engine of a tractor or car. The engine should run at low speed, providing elevated concentrations of iron bacteria toxic to compounds in the exhaust gases. Pipe length shall not be less than 2 m. With a smaller length of tubing may be exposed in the cavity wells of incandescent soot particles. The duration of flow of the exhaust gas is set in the range of from 3 to 7 minutes If the duration of the flow of the exhaust gas is less than 3 min toxic to compounds of iron bacteria do not have time to fill the micropores of the walls of the well. The increase in long�ti of the exhaust is more than 7 min increases the volume of work without a significant increase in the intensity of suppression of iron bacteria. Increased time intervals the flow of exhaust gases take on peatlands with a high content of ferrous iron.
At the time of filing of the exhaust gas into the cavity of the well open a shutter of the dispenser, a powder of calcium carbonate is captured by the flow of exhaust gas enters the cavity of the well and spread a layer on the walls. Calcium carbonate suppresses the activity of iron bacteria, increasing the toxic effect of exhaust gases. The size of powder particles is from 0.001 to 0.01 mm When the particle size less than 0.001 mm increases the cost for grinding of calcium carbonate without a dramatic increase in the uniformity of powder distribution on the borehole walls. When particle size greater than 0.01 mm significantly increases the uneven distribution of powder on the walls of the borehole. The application rate of calcium carbonate is taken in the range from 22.4 to 26.5 g/m2. When the application rate of the powder less than 22.4 g/m2dramatically reduces the intensity of suppression of iron bacteria. The increase in the rate of powder over 26.5 g/m2significantly increases the cost of the drug without increasing the intensity of suppression of vital activity of iron bacteria. Mass of calcium carbonate M (in grams) is loaded into the dispenser, is determined by the formula M=n·s, where n is the rate of the powder of calcium carbonate g/m2; s=h·π·(d, h - the depth of the borehole, m; π - π�3.14; d - diameter wells, M.
After the introduction of the exhaust and powder harvested segments of perforated metal pipe length not less than the height of the layer of peat. Then pipe installed in the well. Them layer by layer fill with smoke-forming pyrotechnic composition. Wellhead fall asleep particle size material, which eliminates the ignition of the pyrotechnic composition by crown fires. The thickness of the layer of particle material shall not be less than 10 cm At the layer thickness of more than 10 cm hampered by smoke. When the layer thickness of less than 10 cm fire crown fire can ignite piracetam in the well. As the particle size of the material using stone, gravel with an average size of the granules is not less than 10 mm. as smoke-forming compounds are compounds of iron, manganese, copper. As a pyrotechnic composition used ammonium nitrate, mixed with slower burning. The coordinates of the wells marked on the forest fire map. Then see plumes of smoke rising from the wells. On the status of these wells detect the boundaries of the fire.
The duration of combustion of the pyrotechnic composition shall not be less than 1 hour. During this period, the underground fire front may not move further 5 m from the well. After the completion of underground peat fire, perforated pipes with piracetam W�new change.
The distance between the wells take from 100 to 200 m. With decreasing distance between wells less than 100 m significantly increase the cost of their device without significantly increasing the accuracy of determining the boundaries of underground fire. By increasing the distance between the boreholes of 200 m is unacceptable decreases the accuracy of determining the position of the boundary of an underground fire.
An example implementation of the method. Lowland peatlands in the Arkhangelsk region. The capacity of the peat layer at 1.4 m. the Content of ferrous iron in the peat above the average. Area of 450 hectares. Zaboravit vertical boreholes with a diameter of 10 cm At the mouth of each well install the plug with a socket. The nozzle is provided with a spout, a conduit connected with the exhaust pipe of the tractor MTZ-80. At low engine speeds is served in the well for a 5 min exhaust gases. At the same time open the exhaust valve of the dosing unit and served in the borehole powder of calcium carbonate. The average particle size of the powder 0.009 mm. the rate of calcium carbonate - 24.5 g/m2.
Mass loading spout is M=n·s=24.5·1.4·3.14·0.1=10.8 G. set Forth in wells perforated pipes that fill piracetam. The wellhead covered with a clay layer of 10 cm the coordinates of the wells marked on the forest fire map. Then see plumes of smoke rising and� wells. On the status fuming wells detect the boundaries of the fire.
To evaluate the effectiveness of the action of the exhaust gases of five wells on a plot of gas and powder of calcium carbonate were not treated. Three months after the device wells inspected the perforation of the pipes. In wells treated with the gas and powder of calcium carbonate, 1% of the perforations were filled with deposits of iron oxide. In the not-treated gas and powder of calcium carbonate wells 60% of the perforations were filled with iron oxide deposits.
The proposed method in comparison with analogues, enables the use of signal wells in the peat with a high content of ferrous iron by supplying into the cavity of the bore of the exhaust gas of the internal combustion engine and powder of calcium carbonate, which inhibit the activity of iron bacteria and eliminate the filling of the perforations of the pipes and iron oxide.
Method detection peat fire peat bogs containing ferrous iron, including the selection of the most fire-hazardous areas of peatlands, the device vertical wells, installation in wells perforated pipes, filling pipes smoke-forming pyrotechnic composition, filling the mouths of the wells-grained material, the fixation of coordinates of the wells on the forest fire map, time�the YWCA patrol routes patrol observation of smoke, the definition of the boundaries of a fire at the location of the smoke of the wells, fixing its coordinates on the forest fire map, characterized in that in the cavity of the borehole simultaneously with the filing of the exhaust gas of the internal combustion engine within 3-7 minutes serves fine powder of calcium carbonate in normal 22,4-26,5 g/m2 with an average particle size of 0.01 mm, and then set in wells perforated pipe.
FIELD: firefighting means.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to extinguishing of large-scale fires. Experience of extinguishing such fires demonstrated practical inefficiency of existing methods for a series of reasons, the main of which is insufficiency and often unavailability of the main agent for fire extinguishing - water. The original source of the main fire extinguishing agent is atmospheric air, which contains water vapours. Absolute humidity of air, i.e. mass of water vapour per unit of air volume, depends on temperature and atmospheric pressure. According to statistics, in average on the soil surface on 1 m2 there is 28.5 kg of water vapour available in air above this surface. Production of water from air, according to the proposed method, is carried out by cooling of air volume above fire zone to the temperature below the dew point temperature, i.e. when water vapour condenses and falls in the form of rain (or snow). Air above the fire zone is cooled by means of even distribution of liquefied nitrogen in its volume from reservoirs installed in aircrafts, in layers at different altitudes in the altitude range from several hundreds meters to the soil surface to approximately 1500 m. Simultaneously air is cooled in the surface layer from reservoirs with liquefied nitrogen, placed on the surface of soil along the perimeter of the fire front.
EFFECT: method to extinguish large-scale fires has a scientific basis, which makes it possible to produce the original source of this main fire extinguishing agent, not using technical means for delivery of water to seats of fire from natural or manmade water reservoirs, which may be located at significant distances from the fire zone.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises forming inside a facility of a hypoxic gas-air medium with the set initial low content of oxygen under normal pressure of hot water supply; the oxygen content is set depending on the type of the pressurised space. Monitoring is carried out by sensors of pre-alarm pre-fire state of the gas-air medium, and the pressure and oxygen content are adjusted if needed, in the specified period of time, by reducing the oxygen content and increasing the content of nitrogen or inert gas to the values of the concentration and pressure specified for this space, sufficient to detect and eliminate the causes of the pre-alarm state. After a series of measures the initial set value of oxygen content is reset at the normal pressure of hot water supply for each closed space of the pressurised facility. The device for implementing the method comprises a system control unit, a sensor assembly of controlling parameters of the gas-air medium and the assembly of cylinders with inert gas or a mixture of inert gases, it additionally comprises a sensor assembly of pre-alarm control, connected by information-control and pneumatic bonds, a regeneration unit of the gas-air medium, an assembly of cylinders with oxygen, an assembly of oxygen distributors, an assembly of high pressure air cylinders, an assembly of the gas-air medium purification with the filter of purification from mechanical impurities and the filter of purification from harmful chemicals and carbon oxide, an assembly of separation of air, an assembly of high pressure compressor, and a compartment control unit in each controlled space of the pressurised facility.
EFFECT: reduction of the risk of combustion and fire on submarines and other pressurised inhabited facilities by introducing pre-alarm monitoring and creation in them of the hypoxic gas-air media, with simultaneous creating the conditions for normal functioning of the submarine crew under conditions of an extended voyage.
18 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: fire suppression system of premises with increased gas medium pressure, containing a firm sealed tank for storage and feeding of fresh water under pressure on the pipeline into the premises on the centrifugal sprayers, a high pressure air cylinder connected by the pipelines through the air reducer to the tank, the device of limiting the rate of pressure increase, the device of maintaining the differential pressure during decompression, and the control panel with alarm sensors. The air reducer over the membrane cavity is connected by the pipeline to the volume of the protected premises and creates a predetermined differential pressure between the sprayers and the premises, the centrifugal sprayers on the swirlers have spring-loaded movable cylinders, the regulating sections of tangential windows of swirlers, maintaining the required opening angle of the jet of atomised water, the device of maintaining the differential pressure during decompression by the pipelines is connected to the tank and the volume of the protected premises.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of the fire suppression system by increasing the intensity of supply of atomised water with an increase of pressure of gas medium during a fire.
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: in the unit of gaseous fire suppression for places of storing containers with flammable and combustible liquids in temporary settlement of population affected by emergencies, comprising a control unit and series-connected insulated tank for liquid carbon dioxide with the pipeline of supplying carbon dioxide and lock and release device located outside the tank, the switching gears and the distribution pipeline with sprayers. The lock and release device is located above the level of liquid carbon dioxide in the tank, and the intake of carbon dioxide is carried out through the pipeline in the tank from the bottom part of the latter, each nozzle housing is formed with a channel for supplying liquid and comprises a housing in which the screw is pressed, and a fitting for supplying liquid, and the housing consists of two coaxial interconnected cylindrical sleeves: the sleeve of larger diameter and the sleeve of smaller diameter, and the inside the sleeve of smaller diameter, coaxially to it, a screw is mounted, rigidly connected to its inner surface, such as pressed in it, and the outer surface of the screw is a helical groove and inside the screw a hole with a screw thread is made, and in the sleeve of larger diameter coaxially to it, the fitting is located, fixedly mounted in it, such as by the threaded connection through the sealing gasket, and in the fitting a cylindrical opening is coaxially formed passing into axially located diffuser which is connected to a cylindrical chamber formed by the inner surface of the sleeve of smaller diameter and the end surface of the screw, and the end surface of the sleeve of smaller diameter is fixed to two obliquely located rods, on each of which active sprayers are secured, for example made in the form of blades resting in the lower part on stops fixed to the rods perpendicular to their axes. The rods are tilted in the direction away from the axis of the injector, i.e. along the conical surface which apex is directed towards the sleeve of the larger diameter.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of fire-extinguishing.
FIELD: fire-fighting means.
SUBSTANCE: method relates to the field of forestry and can be used to determine the location of forest fire. The method of establishing the location of forest fire comprises identification of the most fire-hazard plots of peat lands and location of vertical wells on the area of plots. The perforated pipes are placed in the wells. The pipes are filled with smoke generating pyrotechnic composition, the granulometric material is poured into the wellheads. The coordinates of the wells are recorded on the forest fire map. The patrol routes are divided, patrol observation of smoke is carried out. The boundaries of the fire are determined by the smoke location over the wells. The coordinates of the smoke location are recorded on the forest fire map. The granulometric material is mixed with encapsulated herbicide glyphosate powder in an amount of 5-15% by weight of the granulometric material, and then the mixture is poured to the wellheads.
EFFECT: proposed method in comparison with the analogue provides enhancement of accuracy of determining location of the forest fire by processing the filling of wellhead with glyphosate eliminating vegetation and retaining high intensity of smoke generation during continuous operation of wells.
FIELD: fire-fighting equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a fire-fighting system. The fire suppression system in a confined space comprises a fire alarm device, the devices of the supply actuation of refrigerant and the neutral gas from the relevant sources and the regulator of the refrigerant supply. Moreover, in the regulator of the refrigerant supply the slide-valve and the sleeve covering it is made with through channels, and when the device of the supply actuation of refrigerant is closed the slide-valve and the sleeve are spring-loaded to the opening of the annular channel in the sleeve. At that the system is made with the ability of short-term total consumption supply of refrigerant through the annular channel in the sleeve immediately after actuation of the device of refrigerant supply and the limited flow of refrigerant, after closing the device of supply actuation of neutral gas from the membrane nitrogen generator.
EFFECT: increased reliability and reduced weight of the device is provided due to creation of the regulator, which provides short-term total consumption supply of the refrigerant.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: tobacco industry.
SUBSTANCE: usage: invention relates to a cigarette extinguishment method and to a self- extinguishing cigarette for the method implementation. The specificity of the self- extinguishing cigarette (containing a tobacco core consisting of fragments with low and high tobacco stuffing density, a paper cartridge enveloping the core and a filter) is as follows: fragments with high stuffing density are placed along the tobacco core length from the open end to the filter in the form of a conic frustum, oriented with conicity towards the filter, while fragments with low stuffing density are placed along the periphery of the conic frustum between the latter and the paper cartridge.
EFFECT: self- extinguishing cigarette development.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: fire-prevention facilities.
SUBSTANCE: method for location determining of forest fire comprises identifying the most fire-hazardous sites of peatland, accommodation at area of the sites of vertical wells, installation in wells of perforated pipes, filling the pipes with smoke-generating pyrotechnic composition, pouring the wellheads with granulometric material, recording of coordinates of the wells on the forest fire map, breakdown of patrol routes, patrol observation of smoke, determining of boundary of fire according to location of smoke over the wells, recording its coordinates on the forest fire map. At that the granulometric material is mixed with the cuprous sulphate, and then the wellheads are poured with the mixture.
EFFECT: improving the accuracy of location determining of forest fire.
FIELD: fire-prevention facilities.
SUBSTANCE: method of location determining of forest fire comprises identifying the most fire-hazardous sites of peatland, accommodation at area of the sites of vertical wells, installation in wells of perforated pipes, filling the pipes with smoke-generating pyrotechnic composition, pouring the wellheads with granulometric material, recording of coordinates of the wells on the forest fire map, breakdown of patrol routes, patrol observation of smoke, determining of boundary of fire according to location of smoke over the wells, recording its coordinates on the forest fire map. At that the granulometric material is processed with the preparation of N-dichloro-para-carboxy-benzene sulphonamide, and then the wellheads are poured with it.
EFFECT: increased intensity of smoke generation during prolonged operation of the wells.
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: method of location of forest fire comprises identifying the most fire-hazard peatlands, placement at the area of sites of vertical wells, installation of perforated pipes in the wells, filling the pipes with smoke-producing pyrotechnic composition, filling the mouths of wells with granulometric material, fixation of coordinates of the wells on the forest fire map, breakdown of patrol routes, patrol observation of smoke, determining of boundary of fire according to smoke location over the wells, fixing its coordinates on the forest fire map. At that the granulometric material is processed with algaecide triazone, and then it is filled to the mouths of wells.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of location of the forest fire due to processing of filling the mouths of wells with triazone, suppressing life activity of diatomic algae.
FIELD: fire-fighting equipment, particularly for volumetric fire extinguishing in closed space.
SUBSTANCE: method involves separate feeding cooled gaseous aerosol with progressively increasing temperature to upper space of room to be protected at the command of control system; additionally supplying sprays of fire-extinguishing powder mixed with products of solid fuel combustion across the whole room volume or locally in lower room part at maximum speed, wherein quantity of supplied aerosol, initial time, direction and necessity of fire-extinguishing powder supply is determined from fire spread speed and nature. Fire-extinguishing substance is supplied in accordance with the following program. Under false operation of control system or in the case of small fire apparatus is given a command to supply gaseous aerosol. If fire covers the full room volume apparatus is given a command in 5 - 10 min to supply gaseous aerosol and, when needed, if fire is not extinguished, apparatus is given a command to additionally supply fire-extinguishing powder. If fire is accompanied by explosion and in the case of room air-tightness failure apparatus is given a command to simultaneous supply gaseous aerosol and fire-extinguishing powder. Fire-extinguishing apparatus comprises at least one aerosol generator AG 1, at least one powder extinguisher PE 2 with solid-fuel displacing gas generator GG 3, control system for operating fire-extinguishing composition supply connected to aerosol generator and powder extinguisher. Control system has sensors 4 and control-and-triggering means 5. Aerosol generator and gas generator GG 3 are provided with cooling inert nozzles. Control system is programmed to actuate aerosol generator and powder extinguisher in dependence of fire nature.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reduced time of space filling with fire-extinguishing composition and, simultaneously, increased economy and safety to people, possibility to extinguish fires at early stage in large rooms with dense equipment arrangement in the case of people present and in rooms with large quantities of pressurized combustible materials which may explode with creation of high-power fire sites distributed across the whole room volume; increased consumption of fire-extinguishing composition and reduced volumetric concentration thereof, increased reliability of fire-extinguishing system in temperature range from -60° to +60°.
10 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: protective and emergency equipment for servicing ground launch structures.
SUBSTANCE: in launching the vehicle, compressed gas is fed through collector nozzles to engine zone via one of mains to main circular main where pressure more than 0.6 Mpa is maintained. Simultaneously, air is fed to engine zone through nozzles of additional collectors via two mains. As pressure drops below 0.6 Mpa, air is fed via two other mains supplying gas to main collector and via three mains of additional collector. In case of repeated drop of pressure to 0.6 Mpa, air is fed via two remaining mains of main collector. Proposed system includes compressed gas bottles and gas supply mains with controllable shut-off fittings. Mains are combined (five mains) by means of main and additional collectors. Additional collector is provided with two or more divergent nozzles. Fittings are made in form of normally closed pneumatic valves controlled by separate groups. Circular collector nozzles are conical in shape and are located at angles of 30 deg. and 45 deg. relative to vertical axis of launch vehicle.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of fire prevention.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting technique; extinguishing large-scale fires.
SUBSTANCE: proposed fire airship includes disk-shaped aerostatic body, power plants with variable thrust vector, crew cabin with control system, landing gear and mooring arrangement. Body consists of upper and lower elastic convex envelopes whose edges are secured on frame which is closed over perimeter ; this frame is connected with tubular member by means of rigid radial beams forming the central compartment; said tubular member is located along vertical axis of aerostatic body whose cavity is divided by inclined gas-tight membrane into lighter-than-air compartment containing the bottles charged with this gas and thermal ballasting compartment located under first one. Upper and lower convex envelopes are provided with upper load-bearing ring secured on end face of tubular member and lower load-bearing ring with sleeve forming the cargo compartment. Inner and outer edges of gas-tight membrane are secured respectively on closed frame and on lower load-bearing ring which is connected with closed frame and with rigid tubular member by means of longitudinally rigid members. Water tank installed in cargo compartment is connected by means of flexible hose with pipe mounted coaxially relative to rigid tubular member; pipe terminates in funnel secured on upper load-bearing ring. Water tank is provided with outlet pipe for forming water packs dropped onto burning site.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of fire-fighting.
4 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: means of explosion preventive maintenance at ammunition depots.
SUBSTANCE: the plant has a interconnected compressed air source, measuring instruments, valves, vessels with ingredients of starting foaming agent and a mixer with air or liquid channels at the inlet. The air channel has an adjusting valve and/or pressure regulator, and the mixer - at the outlet a foaming hose with a hose barrel at the free end. At the inlet the mixer is provided with an injector connected through a vessel to the ingredients of the starting solution by means of a suck-in hose and a liquid channel with a water feed pump. The ratio of the inside diameter of the foaming hose-to-the length makes up 1:(500...1000).
EFFECT: provided compactness of the plant and expanded its functional potentialities.
10 cl, 18 dwg
FIELD: fire prevention, particularly for power engineering and transport, to design rooms, compartments and so on characterized by risk of explosive gaseous mixture (air and inflammable gas, combustible liquid vapor) accumulation, namely to protect combustible material storage facilities, power plant rooms, compartments in vehicles and so on.
SUBSTANCE: the essence in the invention is in the following. When combustible gaseous mixture even having stoichiometric fuel-oxidizer ratio ignites detonation wave appears practically immediately. For detonation wave forming some space is needed in which separate compression waves generated by flame are united in common compression shock, namely in detonation wave. The detonation wave unlike the compression wave immediately heats gaseous mixture behind wave front. Because of above heating detonation wave moves with supersonic speed, pressure in wave front is substantially higher than in the case of normal gas burning. Above pressure increase takes place practically instantly at distance equal to several free paths of gas molecules. To take into consideration above processes system has adjusting partitions arranged so that straight distance between any two points in free space does not exceed length of predetonation zone in stoichiometric mixture of above gaseous mixture including oxygen, wherein the mixture is under atmospheric pressure if the volume communicates with atmosphere and is under maximal possible pressure if the volume is closed.
EFFECT: prevention of gaseous mixture detonation.
FIELD: shaped-charge action on solid media, in particular, ice masses and emergency objects with the aim of their destruction, applicable for destruction of ice jams, elimination of avalanche-like and mud flow situations, liquidation of aftereffects of natural and technogeneous cataclysms, fires, as well as at production of fire-fighting water reservoirs.
SUBSTANCE: blasting supply has a cover, frame closed by a cover and made in the form of a latticework, propelled substance, explosive placed in the cover, the cover has two layers, pulled up on the latticed frame expansible upwards made of ribs converging in the lower part, the propelled substance is placed between two layers of the cover, an antioverturning is attached to the cover from the top.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of the blasting effect on the objects to be destructed.
22 cl, 1 dwg, 6 ex
FIELD: fire-fighting, particularly to prevent or suppress fire in closed space.
SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying oxygen displacing gas in the room to provide the first inert level characterized by reduced oxygen content in comparison with natural one; additionally stepwise or rapidly supplying oxygen displacing gas into the room to provide several different inert levels with greater oxygen content reduction. Stepwise gas supply is performed if needed. Rapid oxygen supply is carried out in the case of fire outbreak. Device for above method realization is also disclosed. The device comprises oxygen sensing means used to detect oxygen content in predetermined room and oxygen displacing gas source.
EFFECT: increased simplicity and reduced cost of displacing gas storage.
17 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting, particularly to extinguish fires in decompression pressure chambers of ships and boats and in deep-ocean diving systems.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating anoxic gas medium by compression with compressed helium at maximal possible rate to obtain pressure necessary to produce oxygen-nitrogen-helium medium having oxygen concentration of not more than 10-12%; holding above medium to combat fire; decompressing divers in special mode, which provides gas equilibrium in diver's organisms, when current summary human tissues saturation with nitrogen and helium does not exceed outer pressure value, and sufficient oxygenation.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of fire extinguishment due to provision of oxygen concentration, which does not sustain combustion, increased safety of divers due to necessary partial nitrogen pressure provision and due to correct decompression mode usage.
FIELD: rescue engineering; devices for rescue operations.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the device for rescue operations, which may be used both for fire extinguishing and for evacuation of people. The technical result of the invention achievable at realization of the given invention is expansion of the functional capabilities of the device for rescue operations. The device for rescue operations includes the skeleton, the lateral fencing wall made with the capability of folding in the vertical direction, the bottom. The lateral fencing wall is made out of the fire-resistant and waterproof material, has the lobes anchored by one edge along the perimeter of the bottom and above the mesh bottom. The lobes in their hanging down position cover the whole surface of the mesh bottom. The ends of some lobes have flaps made out of the waterproof material overlapping the gaps between the lobes while they are in their down position. The top end of one of the lobes is connected to the end of the cord. The skeleton has the upper and the lower hollow rim rings. At that the internal volume of the upper rim ring ensures buoyancy of the device.
EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the functional capabilities of the device for rescue operations.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: fire fighting, particularly to extinguish fire in large volatile flammable liquid storage facilities under low ambient temperatures in northern zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves delivering fire-extinguishing powder via pipeline to fire site so that fire-extinguishing powder is fluidized and aerated along the full pipeline length. Fire-extinguishing system comprises fire-extinguishing powder supply pipeline installed in potential fire initiation zone, accumulation vessels for fire-extinguishing powder, compressed gas source and alarm means. The supply pipeline has gas-permeable longitudinal partition, which divides the pipeline into low-pressure and high-pressure cavities. The pipeline is provided with outlet valves and is connected with compressed gas source through accumulation vessels. Alarm means are made as infrared sensors and are communicated with control electronic apparatus. Each outlet valve is provided with electric drive connected with control electronic apparatus.
EFFECT: provision of fire extinguishing in the cases, in which water and fire-extinguishing foam usage is impossible, increased reliability and safety of fire suppression under low temperatures, reduced fire-extinguishing system response time and decreased maintenance costs.
7 cl, 4 dwg