Method of detection of peat fire

FIELD: fire safety.

SUBSTANCE: method of detection of peat fire comprises identification of the most fire-hazardous parts of peatlands and placement in the part area of vertical wells. The perforated tubes are mounted in the wells, the tubes are filled with smoke-generating pyrotechnic composition and the wellheads are covered with granulometric material. The coordinates of the wells are recorded on the forest fire map. The boundaries of the fire are determined by the smoke location over the wells and its coordinates are recorded on the map. In the well cavity simultaneously with feeding the exhaust gases of internal combustion engine the fine powder of calcium carbonate is fed.

EFFECT: in comparison with the analogue, the method provides the ability of use of signal wells on peatlands with high content of ferrous iron due to feeding into the well cavity of exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine and powder of calcium carbonate that suppress the vital activity of iron bacteria.

 

The present invention relates to the field of forestry and agriculture, and more specifically to methods of detecting mainly peat fire on forest lands.

A method of detecting a peat fire, including the determination of the azimuth observation of smoke from observation towers, built on the plan of planted forests azimuthal lines and the coordinates of the intersection points determine the location of a forest fire (presented by E. A. Protection of forests. - Pushkino: VNIILM, 2001. - P. 139-141). A disadvantage of the known method is the low accuracy of determining the boundaries of an underground peat fire, which is formed within the area of the burning surface fire, due to a low level of smoke in the fire area and uniform smoke over the entire area.

The closest in technical essence and the objective of the proposed technical solution is the method of establishing the location of a forest fire, including the device wells, installation in wells perforated pipes, smoke filling piracetam, filling the mouths of the wells-grained material, the fixation of coordinates of the wells on the afforestation plan, monitoring of smoke, the determination of the location of a forest fire by coordinates fuming wells (Pat. RF 2294782, IPC AS 3/00, AS 23/00. Method of establishing the location of the fire / A.�.Kasyanov. Application 2005126967/12, Appl. 26.08.2005; publ. 10.03.2007, bull. No. 7).

A disadvantage of the known method is limited functionality. Peat bogs containing soluble ferrous iron of the perforations of the pipes clog the deposits of insoluble iron oxide. Ignition of the pyrotechnic composition becomes impossible. Deposits of iron oxide create iron bacteria that convert soluble form dioxide iron into insoluble ferric form.

The aim of the invention is the extension of functionality.

The inventive method of detecting a peat fire peat bogs containing ferrous iron, including the selection of the most fire-hazardous areas of peatlands, the device vertical wells, installation in wells perforated pipes, filling pipes smoke-forming pyrotechnic composition, filling the mouths of the wells-grained material, the fixation of coordinates of the wells on the forest fire map, a breakdown patrol routes, patrol observation of smoke, the definition of the boundaries of a fire at the location of the smoke of the wells, fixing its coordinates on the forest fire map, is that in the cavity of the borehole simultaneously with the filing of the exhaust gas of the internal combustion engine serves a fine powder of calcium carbonate.

The proposed method is implemented as �the Braz. Identify the most fire-hazardous areas of peatlands. Evenly over the area of the selected areas of peatlands are placed at a distance of 100 to 200 m vertical well. Vane borer drill up to mineral soil bore diameters 10 cm In diameters smaller than 10 cm, in wells, it is difficult uniformly in height to accommodate piracetam. The increase in the diameters of the wells more than 10 cm increases the volume of work without a dramatic increase in the uniformity of placing of pyrotechnic composition. Then, alternately, at the mouth of each well is set the shutter is provided with a pipe. On the place the nozzle spout, the volume of which is filled with fine powder of calcium carbonate. The pipe connecting the pipe with the exhaust pipe of the internal combustion engine of a tractor or car. The engine should run at low speed, providing elevated concentrations of iron bacteria toxic to compounds in the exhaust gases. Pipe length shall not be less than 2 m. With a smaller length of tubing may be exposed in the cavity wells of incandescent soot particles. The duration of flow of the exhaust gas is set in the range of from 3 to 7 minutes If the duration of the flow of the exhaust gas is less than 3 min toxic to compounds of iron bacteria do not have time to fill the micropores of the walls of the well. The increase in long�ti of the exhaust is more than 7 min increases the volume of work without a significant increase in the intensity of suppression of iron bacteria. Increased time intervals the flow of exhaust gases take on peatlands with a high content of ferrous iron.

At the time of filing of the exhaust gas into the cavity of the well open a shutter of the dispenser, a powder of calcium carbonate is captured by the flow of exhaust gas enters the cavity of the well and spread a layer on the walls. Calcium carbonate suppresses the activity of iron bacteria, increasing the toxic effect of exhaust gases. The size of powder particles is from 0.001 to 0.01 mm When the particle size less than 0.001 mm increases the cost for grinding of calcium carbonate without a dramatic increase in the uniformity of powder distribution on the borehole walls. When particle size greater than 0.01 mm significantly increases the uneven distribution of powder on the walls of the borehole. The application rate of calcium carbonate is taken in the range from 22.4 to 26.5 g/m2. When the application rate of the powder less than 22.4 g/m2dramatically reduces the intensity of suppression of iron bacteria. The increase in the rate of powder over 26.5 g/m2significantly increases the cost of the drug without increasing the intensity of suppression of vital activity of iron bacteria. Mass of calcium carbonate M (in grams) is loaded into the dispenser, is determined by the formula M=n·s, where n is the rate of the powder of calcium carbonate g/m2; s=h·π·(d, h - the depth of the borehole, m; π - π�3.14; d - diameter wells, M.

After the introduction of the exhaust and powder harvested segments of perforated metal pipe length not less than the height of the layer of peat. Then pipe installed in the well. Them layer by layer fill with smoke-forming pyrotechnic composition. Wellhead fall asleep particle size material, which eliminates the ignition of the pyrotechnic composition by crown fires. The thickness of the layer of particle material shall not be less than 10 cm At the layer thickness of more than 10 cm hampered by smoke. When the layer thickness of less than 10 cm fire crown fire can ignite piracetam in the well. As the particle size of the material using stone, gravel with an average size of the granules is not less than 10 mm. as smoke-forming compounds are compounds of iron, manganese, copper. As a pyrotechnic composition used ammonium nitrate, mixed with slower burning. The coordinates of the wells marked on the forest fire map. Then see plumes of smoke rising from the wells. On the status of these wells detect the boundaries of the fire.

The duration of combustion of the pyrotechnic composition shall not be less than 1 hour. During this period, the underground fire front may not move further 5 m from the well. After the completion of underground peat fire, perforated pipes with piracetam W�new change.

The distance between the wells take from 100 to 200 m. With decreasing distance between wells less than 100 m significantly increase the cost of their device without significantly increasing the accuracy of determining the boundaries of underground fire. By increasing the distance between the boreholes of 200 m is unacceptable decreases the accuracy of determining the position of the boundary of an underground fire.

An example implementation of the method. Lowland peatlands in the Arkhangelsk region. The capacity of the peat layer at 1.4 m. the Content of ferrous iron in the peat above the average. Area of 450 hectares. Zaboravit vertical boreholes with a diameter of 10 cm At the mouth of each well install the plug with a socket. The nozzle is provided with a spout, a conduit connected with the exhaust pipe of the tractor MTZ-80. At low engine speeds is served in the well for a 5 min exhaust gases. At the same time open the exhaust valve of the dosing unit and served in the borehole powder of calcium carbonate. The average particle size of the powder 0.009 mm. the rate of calcium carbonate - 24.5 g/m2.

Mass loading spout is M=n·s=24.5·1.4·3.14·0.1=10.8 G. set Forth in wells perforated pipes that fill piracetam. The wellhead covered with a clay layer of 10 cm the coordinates of the wells marked on the forest fire map. Then see plumes of smoke rising and� wells. On the status fuming wells detect the boundaries of the fire.

To evaluate the effectiveness of the action of the exhaust gases of five wells on a plot of gas and powder of calcium carbonate were not treated. Three months after the device wells inspected the perforation of the pipes. In wells treated with the gas and powder of calcium carbonate, 1% of the perforations were filled with deposits of iron oxide. In the not-treated gas and powder of calcium carbonate wells 60% of the perforations were filled with iron oxide deposits.

The proposed method in comparison with analogues, enables the use of signal wells in the peat with a high content of ferrous iron by supplying into the cavity of the bore of the exhaust gas of the internal combustion engine and powder of calcium carbonate, which inhibit the activity of iron bacteria and eliminate the filling of the perforations of the pipes and iron oxide.

Method detection peat fire peat bogs containing ferrous iron, including the selection of the most fire-hazardous areas of peatlands, the device vertical wells, installation in wells perforated pipes, filling pipes smoke-forming pyrotechnic composition, filling the mouths of the wells-grained material, the fixation of coordinates of the wells on the forest fire map, time�the YWCA patrol routes patrol observation of smoke, the definition of the boundaries of a fire at the location of the smoke of the wells, fixing its coordinates on the forest fire map, characterized in that in the cavity of the borehole simultaneously with the filing of the exhaust gas of the internal combustion engine within 3-7 minutes serves fine powder of calcium carbonate in normal 22,4-26,5 g/m2 with an average particle size of 0.01 mm, and then set in wells perforated pipe.



 

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Fire airship // 2250122

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EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of fire-fighting.

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Blasting supply // 2265793

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22 cl, 1 dwg, 6 ex

FIELD: fire-fighting, particularly to prevent or suppress fire in closed space.

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17 cl, 5 dwg

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FIELD: rescue engineering; devices for rescue operations.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the device for rescue operations, which may be used both for fire extinguishing and for evacuation of people. The technical result of the invention achievable at realization of the given invention is expansion of the functional capabilities of the device for rescue operations. The device for rescue operations includes the skeleton, the lateral fencing wall made with the capability of folding in the vertical direction, the bottom. The lateral fencing wall is made out of the fire-resistant and waterproof material, has the lobes anchored by one edge along the perimeter of the bottom and above the mesh bottom. The lobes in their hanging down position cover the whole surface of the mesh bottom. The ends of some lobes have flaps made out of the waterproof material overlapping the gaps between the lobes while they are in their down position. The top end of one of the lobes is connected to the end of the cord. The skeleton has the upper and the lower hollow rim rings. At that the internal volume of the upper rim ring ensures buoyancy of the device.

EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the functional capabilities of the device for rescue operations.

3 cl, 7 dwg

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EFFECT: provision of fire extinguishing in the cases, in which water and fire-extinguishing foam usage is impossible, increased reliability and safety of fire suppression under low temperatures, reduced fire-extinguishing system response time and decreased maintenance costs.

7 cl, 4 dwg

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