Transmission with hydraulic interaxle and interwheel differential links with automatically controlled interlocking modes for high cross-country capacity vehicle

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry and can be used for development of transmissions for wheels vehicles of high cross-country capacity. Transmission with drive axles of portal type and stiff kinematics of all four half-axles and gearbox secondary shaft, wheel misaligned reduction gearboxes with single-row output planetary mechanisms with drive crown gears engaged with half-axles while sun gears are engaged with hydraulic machines shafts, hydraulic machine housings being rigidly coupled with those of wheel reduction gears. Working chambers of every drive axle are communicated via reverse slide valve with high-and low-pressure lines provided with boost system. High-pressure line incorporates fluid interlocking throttling mechanisms with stepwise drag variation. Note here that self-locking of ACS at vehicle turn depends on turn angle, front controlled wheel rpm and torque differences which allows actuation of one of said two self-locking modes or complete interlocking of interwheel differential gearing. Said lines include selective valves communicating pressure chambers of higher-load hydraulic machines of front and rear wheels with interaxle high-pressure line with electrically-controlled fluid two-mode locking mechanism.

EFFECT: higher mobility, cross-country capacity and efficiency.

11 cl, 13 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of transport engineering and can be used in the construction of wheeled vehicles all-terrain vehicles, primarily for work in the conditions of off-road movement.

The purpose of the invention is the improvement of agility, maneuverability, and efficiency of wheeled all-wheel-drive ATS and reduction of dynamic loads its power transmission in off-road movement and ensuring the necessary flexibility and the possibility of starting the engine when towing the PBX.

Conditions off-road movement are more than traffic, the curvature of the trajectory, more frequent changes of direction and fast-changing in a wide range of coefficients of adhesion and rolling resistance of the wheels, which requires reducing the usage of speeds and increased turning angles of the front steered wheels PBX.

The possibility of increasing the maneuverability and passability PBX largely depends on the characteristics of the modes partial lock applied differential (MCD). In modern PBX (C) used mainly MCD limited slip. Blocking the DSL depends either from the transmitted torque or the difference of the rotational speed of the wheels.

Primary�m the disadvantage of the first conditions for off-road movement is constant or varying within a narrow range ratio lock. Specified with a margin (for the most difficult driving conditions) at increased angles of rotation of the front wheels it interferes with the timely transition of the drive wheels of a synchronous (blocking) mode of rotation of the wheels to the differential, especially when driving on soft ground. In these conditions increased the time of lock calls as the increase in the slip of the front wheels and traction overload "lagging" (inner) wheels and their exorbitant slipping. As a result of increased minimum turning radius and the energy losses due to slippage, reduced maneuverability and efficiency. The higher the lock, the more reduced the total thrust of the wheel axle in the differential drive mode (in cases where the transition to differential mode possible). As a result the permeability of the PBX when turning with a small radius.

In this respect, have the potential advantage MCD limited slip, in which the locking points automatically changes with the difference of the rotational speed of the wheels, and due to their decrease at large angles of rotation of the front wheels is reduced lateral withdrawal of the latter, and slipping “lagging” wheels. In the widely used “viscous clutches” in terms of off-road movement, this advantage is not feasible due to ine�cinnosti process changes the viscosity of the working fluid. Known self-locking differential |1|, |2|, which do not have this disadvantage. As a self-locking mechanism they used a hydraulic pump, a stator and a rotor which is connected with the differential housing and axle shafts, respectively, |1|, |2|. When the difference of the rotational speed of the wheels Δω is the frequency of relative rotation of the stator and rotor is 0.5 ωΔ, and the flow of working fluid from the hydraulic pump, propuskaemo through a calibrated hole |1| choke or needle |2| proportional to it. The moment of resistance mutual rotation of the stator and rotor

where C is a coefficient proportional to the coefficient of resistance of the inductor. In cambiocorsa cross-axle differential |1| p “hydraulic resistance” this is a blocking point. Internal dimensions of the rotating differential housing to limit displacement volume pump used, and therefore limits the transmitted torque of the wheels and torque the lock MCD, which is proportional to the weight load of the wheels. To overcome this limitation in the “gerotor” differential “Hydra-Loc” |2| the main part of the blocking time is not the hydraulic pump, and knuckle friction clutch, the pressure in the working cylinder which is supported by the hydraulic pump, prop�razionale M ω. Therefore, these differentials provide either the above dependence (1) a blocking point on the difference of the rotational speed of the wheels |1|, or close to her the nature of the dependence of |2|.

To reduce the moment of resistance to rotation and the slip angles of the front wheels at high angles of rotation, regardless of the average value of coefficients of friction, it is necessary to reduce the value of C, if there is no great difference in these coefficients have “the runs” and “backward” wheels. When a significant difference, on the contrary, to exclude traction overload “the runs” wheels need a larger value of C. And if in the best conditions are “runs” of the wheel, in case of medium and small values of the rotation angles of the front wheels to reduce skidding “lagging” wheels, you just need to lock the differential, as in this case, the moments of the difference between the tangential force and thrust force of rolling resistance is directed in the direction of rotation PBX. In addition, for normal operation the anti-lock braking system (ABS) PBX required full unlock MCD with the beginning of braking.

At the same time, in devices |1|, |2| a working line of the hydraulic pump with unmanaged throttle is located in the channels of the rotating housing of the differential. Known installation in such �Magistrali electirc valve |3|. However, this valve is limited to three working positions (in the presence of the two control windings), so it will not be able to provide and full lock, and two mode-locking at step re-wire throttle, and the full unlock DSL.

A common drawback of the transmission with gear differentials are high dynamic loads in the power transmission in full lockdown mode, given the substantial size of micro - and macroprocesses soil surface in conditions of off-road movement.

More than just a problem of “multilimitation” hold-MCD can be solved using axles with hydrostatic differential and hydraulic cross-axle differential communication by the hydraulic transmission consisting of two volumetric hydraulic reversible operation, the rotors of which are connected with the axle shaft and the stator is driven by the gear main gear PBX |4|, |5|. In equal circumstances, the movement of relative rotation of the stators and rotors of hydraulic machines and fluid flow in the pressure line of the hydraulic transmission is absent, the pressure in the cavities of high pressure hydraulic machines and torques of the wheels the same. When turning the PBX or at the small difference of coefficients of adhesion of the wheels occurs, the relative rotation of the rotors relative to the stators po�Jn, in this case, the hydraulic machine deceleration of the wheel works as a pump, and the hydraulic machine accelerating wheel - in motor mode.

In the device |4| hydro-transmission - adjustable due to the various changes in the displacement volume of the hydraulic machines, carried out by two electromagnets with proportional control. The disadvantage of this device is the unreliability of the design of hydraulic machines because of the large cantilever loads on the working plungers, which may cause increased wear of the pair of plungers-rotor, when controlling the transverse movement of the Cam sleeve. There is no system of feeding the suction cavities of the hydraulic machines. It is difficult to ensure adequate accuracy of the system of automatic regulation of the working volume of the hydraulic machines by axial movement of the Cam sleeve due to large contact stresses in the contact zone of the working pistons and the reference wave surface of a Cam sleeve connected with a large force of dry friction. In the proposed device is not disclosed algorithm variable displacement hydraulic machines, depending on the angle of rotation of the wheels and the difference in the coefficients of coupling “runs” and “backward” wheels.

Known hydrostatic differential device |5|, in which the stators of two gyratory hydraulic machines are made in one unit with the driven gear� the main transmission, and the rotors of the hydraulic machines attached to the inner liner of the rear axle. Discharge and suction cavity through the hydraulic channels inside the axles rotating stator, an annular internal groove of the sliding bearings in a fixed housing of the differential device, highways, high and low pressure connected with electro-controlled two-position four-way valve. In one position it connects the relevant working cavity of the hydraulic machines, providing cross-axle differential connection, and in the other position disconnects them, locking differential linkage. Unlock it occurs automatically when you turn the steered wheels in response to a signal. In addition, the working cavity of each of the hydraulic machine through the above-mentioned annular internal grooves are connected with electirc (electronic control unit) on / off slider to the reverse. This spool provides communication the injection cavity hydraulic machine with electro-controlled bypass valve, and the suction chamber with a reservoir of working fluid. When changing the direction of rotation of the wheels working cavity of the hydraulic switch roles and the specified valve is automatically switched to another position. These relief valves limit the pressure of the working fluid and transferred by the wheels of Crewe�the above points when blocked differential connection, and also in this mode to reduce the torque of one of the wheels, for example, with a smaller clutch or fully releasing pressure, disable the active drive wheels.

Since when blocked cross-axle differential connection, both wheels rotate synchronously, and the measurement of the torque of the wheels is not provided, it is not clear how one can identify a wheel with less grip, so that by reducing the transmitted torque to reduce slipping. In straight-line motion has the effect of lowering this slipping, offset by the increase of energy losses in transmission and reducing movement speed by increasing the bypass fluid through the valve from the discharge into the suction chamber of the respective hydraulic. Torque “ran” wheels is reduced when turning at the synchronous rotation of the wheels due to the increased compared with the “lagging” wheel trajectory of its movement and with a small turning radius can even change its direction. In this case, the limiting torque of the drive wheel with the bypass valve does not make sense. Under reduced grip “lagging” wheels limit its torque through the by-pass valve creates a risk of oversteer and loss of lateral stability of motion, �and by changing the sign of the moment of resistance to rotation. So the feasibility of limiting torque less loaded wheel using electro-controlled bypass valves in the synchronous rotation of the wheels is questionable.

Thus, using this device, it is possible to provide only two modes wheels: differential and blocked. The absence of a partial cross-axle locking differential |1|, |2| does not allow to use this device in terms of off-road movement with varying coefficients of friction. Although this drawback could be eliminated by including in the high pressure line of the respective adjustable throttle, it still has some significant drawbacks that hinder its practical implementation.

Circulation of the working fluid between the rotating stator hydraulic machines is carried out through the fixed support sliding in the presence of radial clearances. Given the complexity of their reliable sealing at high operating pressure in the system it will lead to increased leakage of the working fluid. For example, in hydraulic systems of automatic transmissions in the presence of such hydraulic communication with appropriate gaskets and similar type of pumps, the relative share of leakage of the working fluid is 30...40, despite the low operating pressure 1-1.2 MPa.

Transmission through the hydraulic machine to the drive wheels full torque in the limited dimensions of the housing main gear requiring compact design hydraulic machines, due to the need to increase the operating pressure. When you consider the increased traction load during off-road movement, the working pressure in the hydraulic machines can grow to a limit (gyratory type) level 16...18 MPa. With the high operating pressure capability of reducing the total volume of losses in the hydraulic transmission relative to the above level is unlikely. This means a significant reduction in efficiency. drive axle wheels considered when using the device.

In addition, because of the limited size of the structure it is impossible to provide the necessary 1.2-1.5 m/s the flow rate of the working fluid in the suction line, and in case of higher flow velocity normal operation of the hydraulic transmission is disturbed due to the ingress of air into the working cavity of the hydraulic machines. For reliable operation requires a closed loop circulation of a working fluid replenishment suction line from a special pump (feed). When the above volume level of losses required the performance of this pump will be correspondingly high, which will require additional�individual consumption of energy and fuel.

Thus, the proposed in |2| layout hydrostatic differential placement of hydraulic machines, loaded with the full torque of the gear driven unit with the main gear, repeating arrangement of gear MCD, is not effective due to the increased volumetric losses in hydraulic communication of the hydraulic transmission, decreasing the efficiency of the drive wheels, but also because of the dimensional limitations on the size of the working volume of the hydraulic machines and they transfer torque.

The present invention uses an alternative scheme MCD, consisting of two placed in wheel reduction gearboxes, single row summing planetary mechanisms in which one pair of corresponding input links has a rigid kinematic connection with a driven gear of the main transmission and the other pair are connected by a hydrostatic transmission with two hydraulic reversible action, stators which are fixed.

The objectives of the present invention is to provide a transmission with a hydraulic axle and cross-axle differential connections for PBX (C) terrain, providing at least two mode-locking wheels axles with the dependence of the blocking time from the squared difference of the speed of the wheels and full lock � unlock with automatic control system selection of the best one mode of maneuverability, patency, the level of energy loss due to slippage in the transmission and PBX; and a reduction of dynamic loads in the power transmission and provision of the necessary maneuverability and the possibility of starting the engine when towing the PBX.

The technical result - improving the functional characteristics of the PBX (K): agility, maneuverability, efficiency, reliability.

Problem solving is achieved by the inclusion in the drivetrain all-wheel drive ATS containing transfer case with front and rear outputs, drive axles gantry misaligned with reduction gears and the main gears, a rigid kinematic connection of the driven gears of the latter with the respective left and right axle shafts and the input cylindrical wheel pairs of gears, driven gears which are connected with the crown gear single-row summing planetary mechanisms mounted on the output gear wheel, and providing cross-axle differential connection via a sun gear and unregulated hydrostatic transmission containing hydraulic reversible action, such as a radial-piston type, housing which is secured to the respective housings of wheel gears; suction cavity of each hydraulic drive axle traction mode through the spools �of Aversa are connected by a low pressure line, which includes automatic hydraulic block of management of blocking cross-axle differential connection (MCDS) at negative torque wheels ATS containing two knuckle spool "permanently open" and "permanently closed", and are equipped with a system of recharge and discharge cavity of the hydraulic machines in traction mode of the wheels is connected to the input end cavities knuckle three-position selective valve with centering springs and positive overlap in the neutral position of the output cavity, which is connected to the hydraulic damper is always connected to the discharge line over loaded hydraulic, and are connected with inputs of block electrohydraulic control modes of cross-axle locking differential connection (MCDS) in a traction mode of the drive axle, comprising a hydraulic locking mechanism with electro-controlled speed changing hydraulic resistance connected in series with the electirc valve lock, which is the Executive mechanisms of the automatic control system (ACS) of lock modes MCDS when turning PBX duplicate button manual control of turning on full lock the transmission and allows the automatic inclusion of �for one of the two modes of the self-locking, primary or secondary with different hydraulic resistance of the blocking of the throttle, or full lock commands to the electronic control unit when the respective deviations of the current values of the difference torque and rotation angles of the front wheels from defined threshold values, and current values of the difference of the rotational speed of the front wheels calculated from the upper or lower threshold values based on the measurement of the speed of the wheels, the steering angles of the front steered wheels and the pressure in the discharge cavity of the hydraulic machines these wheels; wherein the above-mentioned front and rear outputs of the transfer box are rigidly interconnected, and the inter-axle differential connection (MODS) major bridges is provided through the parallel connection of the outputs of the above-mentioned automatic hydraulic block mode control lock MCDS major bridges with a total center-to-center line low during the traction mode of major bridges pressure and output highways electoral valves with a common center line high in the traction mode of major bridges pressure, and regardless of the number of axles in the transmission output line selective valve rear axle connected to a common center line directly, and for the rest�s located ahead of major bridges - through electirc hydraulic manual button dual locking mechanisms of control locking center differential connection (MODS), providing either the mode-locking due to the hydraulic resistance of the locking mechanism in a traction mode of major bridges, or full lock included simultaneously with full lock MCDS for all major bridges.

Fig. 1 presents the kinematic and hydraulic schematic diagram of the powertrain of Fig. 2, 3, 4 and 5-non-axial wheel reducer with built-in radial - piston hydraulic motors and pumps fixed displacement, Fig. 6 is a hydraulic diagram of the hydraulic system front axle, Fig. 7 is a hydraulic diagram of the hydraulic system rear axle, Fig. 8 - diagram of the inter-axle and cross-axle hydraulic connection between the pressure lines of the hydraulic axles, Fig. 9 - throttle hydraulic locking mechanism MODS, Fig. 10 is a block diagram of the automatic control system modes of cross-axle locking differential constraints when turning the PBX of Fig. 11 is a functional diagram of the electronic computing unit of Fig. 12 is a functional diagram of the conversion of analog signals to digital and the generation of control commands to the electronic control unit of Fig 13 - principal electrical scheme of automatic control of actuators and alarms.

Transmission (Fig. 1) contains a box of change gears - 1, two-stage transfer case - 2 with a front 3 and rear access - 4, drive axles front 5 and rear 6 with driven gears 7 and 8 main gears, rigidly connected with the axle shafts - 9, 10, 11 and 12, misaligned wheel reducers - 13, 14, 15 and 16 and hydraulic machines - 17, 18, 19 and 20 of the radial-piston type. The reduction gears consist of two parts: internal and external. Internal stationary gear wheel (Fig. 2, 3) (no suspension) comprises a housing 21 is made integral with the hub - 22, and cap - 23. In this part of the gear wheel is placed in the input pair of cylindrical gears: the leading - 24 on the input shaft - 25, the United cardan joint with the corresponding axis driving axle and the driven - 26, which is rigidly connected with the end face of the tubular driven shaft 27, mounted on bearings within a stationary hub - 22. Internal spline shank of the driven shaft 27 fixed gear hub - 28 with involute profile of the outer teeth, the number and size of which is the same as that of the crown gear - 29 of the planetary mechanism, and the coupling mates with the internal teeth of the latter. While in OSA�th direction of the crown gear - 29 is fixed by a split retaining ring 30. On the outer surface of the hub - 22 by angular contact bearings 31 mounted rotating wheel hub - wheel 32. Adjusting the axial clearance of bearings 31 is topiramate nut 33. On the hub - 32 fixed brake disc 34. To an end face of the hub - 32 with studs - 35 docked body - 36 of the movable part of the wheel gear and the outer part 37 of the housing carrier of the planetary mechanism, which serves as both the cover - 36. To the outer crown body - 36 is mounted rim - 38. The outer portion 37 of the housing carrier rigidly connected with its inner part - 39. In the cylindrical bores of the latter on the axis 40 and the bearings are installed three satellite - 41. Inside the tubular shaft 27 is placed a shaft 42, at the same time made with a sun gear - 43. The outer shank shaft 42 is mounted on the bearing 44 through the cylindrical bore of the outer part 37 of the housing carrier, and the internal spline shank with a leading gear couplings - 45 is associated spur gear hub - 46, connected to the rotating rotor - 47 radial-piston hydraulic machines. In the rotor - 47 in the radial bores are seven (in this version) spring-loaded plungers - 48 (Fig. 3), which outer ends rest against movable in a radial direction�AI axis 49 of rollers - 50 that is in contact with slip - stationary stator 51 - 52. In the rotor - 47 (Fig. 3, 4, 5) are pressed sleeve - with holes 53 and 54 for supplying and discharging the working fluid. The rotor 47 with the sleeve - 53 rotates on the stationary distribution of the axle, consisting of a body - 55 axle, is provided with two annular exterior groove - 56, axial - 57 and radial - 58 channels for supplying and discharging working fluid, and bronze bushings - 59 radial channels 60. In this case, the sleeve - 59, along with the distribution function of the working fluid acts as a bearing for rotating the rotor 47. Axial channels 57 are connected with the threaded holes 61 and 62 on the outer side of the housing - 55 bolts for fittings (Fig. 2 and 3 not shown) of the connecting highways between the hydraulic and the hydraulic unit of the respective axle. There is a threaded hole 63 for connection with the drain line for discharging the external leakage of the working fluid from the internal cavity of the stator - 64.

Unlike the known device |5|, the torque on the shaft of the hydraulic machine in the (k+1) times smaller than the torque on the wheel (k - characteristic of the planetary gear set).

This, as well as a radial-plunger-type hydraulic machine with a maximum differential pressure of 30 MPa allow ceteris paribus almost an order at�ensity working volume used hydraulic machines in comparison with the known device.

By pipeline - 65, 66, 67, 68 hydraulic - 17, 19 of the front axle are connected with the respective input highways, 69, 70, 71, 72 hydraulic unit - 73 front axle - 5, and by means of conduits 74 and 75, 76, 77 hydraulic - 18, 20 rear axle are connected with the respective input highways, 78, 79, 80, 81 block hydraulic - 82 rear axle - 6.

To compensate for the external leakage of the working liquid in hydraulic and maintain their suction cavities small (RP=0.4-0.5 MPa) overpressure transmission is equipped with a system of recharge. This system contains two gear pump - 83 and 84. The main hydraulic pump 83 and is driven by a Prime mover, such as V-belt - 85, additional hydraulic pump - 84 is driven from the driven shaft - transfer box 86, having a permanent kinematic connection with the drive wheels PBX. Pump - 84 provides recharge of hydraulic machines when towing PBX and the engine is not running. After running the engine to recharge connects the main hydraulic pump - 83. The pressure in pressure line - 87 is limited by a bypass valve 88. In pressure line 89 hydraulic pump - 84 when driving PBX pressure is limited by a bypass valve 90, which is adjusted to the same pressure as the valve 88. Katoi railway also connected discharge valve 91 with hydraulic control. The working fluid in the control cavity is supplied via line - 92 management of pressure line - 87 pump - 83. The valve 91 is adjusted to a pressure slightly lower (RP=0.3-0.4 MPa), in comparison with the valves 88 and 90. When triggered, the discharge valve 91, the discharge pipe 89 hydraulic pump - 84, connected with free sink (in the reservoir for the working fluid). Common feeding line - 93 front and rear hydraulic machines hydraulic machines are connected to the injection highways 87 and 89 of the above-mentioned hydraulic pumps with inlet check valves - 94.

The input line units hydraulic systems - 73 and 82 (Fig. 6, 7) of the front and rear axles through the inlet check valves - 95 are connected to the backbone - 93 recharge, if the pressure is lower above the pressure level of the feed, and via the outlet check valves - 96 are connected with the respective safety valves - 97 to bypass the working fluid to the feeding line 93, with them if the pressure exceeds the specified upper level (30-32 MPa).

The input line - 69, 70, 71, 72 hydraulic unit - 73 front axle are connected to the inputs of the respective electro-controlled two-position four-way spool valves - 98, 99 reverse, and the input highway - 78, 79, 80, 81 block GI�of rosystem - 82 rear axle with similar inputs spools - 100, 101. The inclusion of spools reverse - automatically, or in response to a signal of the reverse, or on a signal of the position sensor of the brake pedal.

Blocks hydraulic - 73 and 82 contain the block 102 of the electro-hydraulic control lock modes MCDS in a traction mode of the drive axle when turning the PBX. It is identical hydraulic front and rear axles. The block 102 has a right (under the scheme with respect to the direction of movement) - 103 and left - 104 input channels that are connected to the output highways, 105, 106 of the respective spools - 98, 99 reverse in the traction mode of the drive axle) pressure. Through two exhaust valves - 107 or the right input channel 103, or the left - 104 connects to the input 108 of a hydraulic locking mechanism - 109. Output - 110 hydraulic locking mechanism with inlet check valves - 111 is connected either with the right - 103, or the left - input channel 104 of the unit 102. Hydraulic locking mechanism - 109 has the built-electirc solenoid C31 two-position two-way valve - 112 full lock, throttle - 113 with a low coefficient of resistance and the choke 114 with a large 4-5 times the drag coefficient. The block 102 is provided with electrop�available two-position two-way valve - 115, which when the solenoid C41 connects the output 116 of the first inductor with the output - 110 hydraulic mechanism, disconnecting the throttle - 114, and knuckle two-position two-way valve - 117, end the control cavity which is connected with the main control 118, and which when enabled, connects the input 108 with the output 110 of the hydraulic locking mechanism - 109. This provides a direct connection of the right - 103 and the left - 104 input channels of the block 102 to bypass the hydraulic locking mechanism - 109.

Blocks hydraulic - 73 and 82 contain block - 119 automatic hydraulic control lock modes MCDS when the negative torque of the wheel axle. It is identical hydraulic front and rear axles. Block 119 has the right 120 and left input channels 121, which is connected to the output highways, 122, 123 of the respective spools - 98, 99 reverse low (traction mode of the drive axle) pressure. These channels are connected in parallel with the respective input channels knuckle two-position three-way spool valves, “always open” - 124 and “permanently closed” - 125. End the control cavity of the spool 125 is connected to the backbone - 92 control (pump - 83 recharge), and end the control cavity of the spool 124 Conn�Nena line with the above management - 118, which is connected through inlet check valves - 126 or RH - 120, or with left - input channel 121 of block 119. In this case the return spring spool 124 is adjusted to a pressure of 0.1-0.15 of the maximum working pressure limited by-pass valves - 97. The preset adjustment of the spring corresponds to the negative torque of the wheels when the idle rotation of the transmission elements and the crankshaft of the engine to start it by towing the PBX.

Blocks hydraulic - 73 and 82 of the front and rear axles contain a three-knuckle election valves - 127. Each valve is provided with two centering springs. The input end of the cavity “a” and “b” valves 127 are connected to the highways 105 and 106 high (traction mode wheels) pressure. Output cavity 128 of the output valves are connected by highways, 129, 130 in the hydraulic systems of front and rear axle, respectively, through chokes - 131 with accumulators - 132 for the purpose of damping peak overpressures and pressure switch - 133 for signaling a predetermined upper pressure level. Valves - 127 in the neutral position have a positive overlap of the output cavities to 128 cavities relative to the input “a” and “b”.

The outputs of the check valves 96 in hydraulic unit - 73 front axle pair�parallel with the aforementioned safety valves - 97 are connected to pressure sensors - 134, which serve to identify the difference of the torques of the front wheels (at full lock).

In case of equality of pressure of the working fluid in the cavities “a” and “b” and the Central position of the valve - 127 output (and input) of the working fluid from the cavity - 129 is closed, and when the inequality valve 127 is shifted in one of two extreme positions, connecting the outlet cavity 128 of the valve with the end cavity (“a” or “b”), in which a higher pressure and which is connected to the discharge cavity over loaded hydraulic axle working in this case as a pump.

Weekend highway 129 and 130 of the electoral valve 127 (Fig.1, 8) for biaxial ATS form a center-to-center line high (in a traction mode of the drive axle) pressure. Between these roads (Fig.1) included electirc hydraulic locking mechanism - 135 mode control locking center differential connection (MODS). As can be seen from Fig.8, when a three-axle chassis system center line high pressure also consists of highway 130, which is connected parallel to the two roads - 129 with hydraulic locking mechanisms - 135 front and middle axles. And when four-axle chassis system with trunk - 130 will be connected in parallel three mA�astrali - 129 hydraulic locking mechanisms - 135.

Weekend highway 136 (Fig.6, 7) associated with the outputs of spools - 124 and 125, block - 119 hydraulic control lock MCDS when the negative torque of the wheels are connected in parallel with the center line - 137 low (traction mode of major bridges) pressure.

Hydraulic locking mechanism - 135 mode control lock MODS (Fig.1) comprises a series-connected choke - 138 and electro-controlled from the manual control buttons ToY2(Fig.13) two-position spool - 139 full lock MODS. The inclusion of the spool 139 of the button To aY2occurs simultaneously with the inclusion of spools - 112 full lock MCDS. When the spool -139 there is a mode-locking with a higher stiffness characteristics (1) than when self-locking MCDS. In this regard, the throttle - 138 (Fig.9) is 1.5-2.5 times higher hydraulic resistance in comparison with the choke 114. Both of these throttle to stabilize the coefficient of resistance with temperature fluctuations and viscosity of the working fluid is made of plate, in which the working fluid is passed successively through the washer - 140 installed with a small gap, and is provided with a through throttle holes “C” diameter 1.5-2 mm and DL�Noah 1.5 mm. Chokes - 114 and 138 only differ in the amount of washers - 140.

Automatic control system (ACS) modes of cross-axle locking differential constraints when turning PBX in a traction mode of major bridges (Fig.10) includes the above-mentioned sensors - 134 pressure into the injection cavities hydraulic front axle, the sensors 141 and 142, the rotational speed of the rear and front wheels, sensors - 143 turning angles of the front wheels. The signals of these sensors for left and right wheels Rl, Rp, ω2P, ω1l, ω1Pθland θpin the form of analog signals input to the electronic computing unit - 144. On his diagram (Fig.11) presented a mathematical formula to compute the current values of the estimated value θ of the steering angle and the absolute value |θ|, the actual Δωzoand theoretical Δωtheory(without slipping and the wheels slip) for a given value |θ| of the difference of the rotational speed of the front “ran” and “backward” wheels, the difference in torque Δozfront “lagging” and “the runs” wheels, the absolute value of a given theoretical (without slipping) the speed of the translational motion |V0| and upper threshold Δωmaxand lower (negative value) ΔωminW�of acenia the difference of the rotational speed of the front “ran” and “backward” wheels. In these formulas, the design parameters of the PBX: rK1and rK2- the rolling radii of the front and rear wheels, θmax- maximum design value is the calculated value of the angle of the front wheels. Estimated value θ of the angle of the front wheels is equal to the angle of rotation conditional (equivalent) front wheel with a vertical axis of rotation at the intersection with the longitudinal axis of the PBX, in which the position of the instantaneous center of rotation PBX is saved. To determine Δωmaxused the correction factor K equal to the ratio of the upper threshold Δωmaxand theoretical Δωtheoryvalues of difference in the rotational speed of the front “ran” and “lagging” wheels are specified as a function of two variables |V0| and |θ|. To compute a given constant Kv, A0...A4which is the approximation coefficients according to the average actual values of the correction factor K from |V0| and |θ|, obtained by computer simulation of circular motion PBX on the ground with various combinations of coefficients of adhesion and rolling resistance “runs” and “backward” wheels at extreme slippage the most loaded one of the two “runs” of the wheels, moving in the worst conditions in comparison with “lagging”. To determine �ω minused minimally permissible relative magnitude ξΔω0specified as a linear function of |θ|, where ξ0and kθthe approximation coefficients obtained in a similar way, but with the same or worst of driving conditions that are lagging behind wheels “in comparison with “the runs” for those modes, when Δωzo<0. So when you rotate the PBX to identify “the runs” and “backward” front wheel, the values of θpand θlangles of rotation of the front wheels when the right turn taken positive values, left turn negative, and in the electronic computing unit (Fig.11) included relay link - 145 with deadband Δθ where the user can enter the current value of the calculated value of the angle θ of rotation of the front wheels. The output signal of this link Sθat small angles |θ|<Δθ is zero, in this case, the automatic mode control lock is not working, and for large values of |θ|, depending on the sign of θ it is equal to either -1 if the right turn, or +1 left turn. When Sθ=-1 left front wheel “the runs”, and when Sθ=+1 is “lagging”. Range-Δθ<θ<Δθ corresponds to the driving conditions, the PBX on the paved roads when the radii are not reduced less than 120-150 m.

The above options computations�enny within the block 144, enter the electronic block 146 control (Fig.12). In block 146 also introduced a fixed threshold θ1and θ0(top and bottom) the calculated value of the angle of the front wheels and the upper threshold value ΔM0the difference of the torques of the front “lagging” and “the runs” wheels at full lock. In this block the current values of the parameters Δωzo, Mozand |θ| are compared with corresponding threshold values Δωmaxand ΔωminThat ΔM0That Δθ0and Δθ1. Obtained by comparing the analog signals Δω, Δω0, ΔM, Δθ0That Δθ1as well as the |V0| converted to corresponding digital signals (1 or 0) SΔω, SΔω0, SΔM, SΔθ0, SΔθ1, S-Δθ1and SV0with the help of relay links - 147, 148, 149, 150,151,152 and 153. The output signal of relay links 150, 151 and 153 when a positive analog signal is “1” and the output signal of the remaining links is “0”. Based on these digital signals by the logical operations of disjunction” (adding - “v”), “conjunction” (multiplication is “&”) and “inversion” (negation - “not”) automatically selects one of the two control commands u1or u2. The magnitude of the signals in channels I, II,...VI at the input to the link “&”, forming a management team of u1for different slave�sneeze modes (A, B, C, D) ACS are shown in table.1 (Fig.12). Link - 152 is triggered with delay δθ=0.5°-1.0° relative to the link - 151 with increasing |θ| and with the same advance - decreasing in |θ|. This delay of the signal S-Δθ1=1 with increasing |θ| and the threshold is reached |θ|=θ1guarantee u1=1 and avoid the failure of ACS.

The magnitude of the signals in the channels VII and VIII on the login link in the “V” forming the team u2for different operating modes (D, E, F) ACS listed in table 2.

On commands “1” and off “0” for signals u1and u2are provided subject to the following conditions: u1=1 when SΔθ1=1, S-Δθ1=1 and u2=0; u1=0 if SΔθ0=0 or SΔω=0 or SΔω0=0; u2=1 when SΔω0=1; u2=0 if SΔM=0.

After amplification, u1and u2signals U1U2served on the appropriate winding of the control relay solenoids in blocks hydraulic - 73, 82 front and rear axle. Command signal U1(Fig.13) the inclusion of additional mode-locking when turning PBX is supplied to the coil of the permanent open relay K1control of parallel-connected solenoids C41, C42 spools - 115 hydraulic locking mechanisms - 109 (Fig.6, 7). Relay K1duplicated by the button To aU1forced VC�of uczenia, and about the inclusion of an additional mode-locking signal indication lamp (green) L1. In the absence of command signals of the automatic control system modes of cross-axle locking differential constraints (U1=0 and U2=0) and turn off the manual control buttons ToU1and KY2enabled main mode-locking. Command signal U2enable full cross-axle locking differential constraints when turning PBX is supplied to the coil constantly open relay K2control of parallel-connected solenoids C31, C32 spools - 112 hydraulic locking mechanisms - 109 (Fig.6, 7). The inclusion of these solenoids signals signal lamp (yellow) L2.

The signal U3enable transmission of the rear entrance from the sensor 154 (Fig.10, 13) is supplied to the coil constantly open relay K3the control (Fig.13) parallel-connected solenoids C11, C21, C12, C22 spools - 98, 99, 100, 101 (Fig.6, 7). In this case, highway 105 and 106 are connected with highways, 70, 72 hydraulic system front axle and highways 79, 81 - rear axle. These solenoids are activated constantly open relay K4when applied to the winding of the last signal U4from the sensor - 155 (Fig.13) position the brake pedal when braking PBX. In this case, provide�aceveda unlock cross-axle differential constraints.

The signal U5auto on full simultaneous locking interaxle and cross-axle differential relations during acceleration PBX is supplied from the sensor 156 (Fig.13) move the accelerator pedal to the coil constantly open relay K5controlling switching of the solenoids C31, C32 and C50 spools - 112 and 139 (Fig.1, 6 and 7).

About pulling the overload on the most heavily loaded wheels, the ATS signals the signal (red) lamp L3in the circuit parallel connected pressure switch - 133 (Fig.6, 7) in blocks hydraulic - 73, 82 front and rear axle.

The transmission operation in traction mode, the front and rear axles need to be considered in two variants rectilinear motion:

- at idle the system of automatic control of the lock modes MCDS when the turning angles of the front wheels are small-Δθ<θ<Δθ, and the turning radii PBX is not less than 120-150 m;

- while the system of automatic control of the lock modes MCDS at large angles of rotation of the wheels and smaller turning radii.

At idle the system of automatic control of the lock modes MCDS and unused buttons for manual control of the lock modes transmission (Fig.1) in a traction mode of major bridges works as follows. In case of equality spinning�their moments on the drive wheels of each axle with the same grip of the right and left wheels, the pressure in the discharge cavity of the respective hydraulic machines and injection lines - 105 and 106 of the corresponding block of the hydraulic system in the same way. The flow of hydraulic fluid through the valves - 98, 99 reverse hydraulic front axle (Fig.6), through the valves 100 and 101 of the reverse hydraulic rear axle (Fig.7) corresponding to highway 105 and 106 high pressure (Fig.6 and 7), and channels 103 and 104 of the hydraulic locking mechanism at - 109 at equal pressure in the discharge lines - 105 and 106 through check valve 111 to no. Election valves 127 are in a neutral (Central) position, blocking its output cavity 128 and the center of highway 129 and 130, blocking MODS. Rotors - 47 hydraulic machines and a sun gear - 43 (Fig.2) of the respective gear wheel fixed. Interconnected rigid kinematic connection of a semi - 9, 10, 11, 12 rotate synchronously, ensuring the equality of frequencies of rotation of the crown gear - 29 (Fig.2) and the drive wheels. Lock MODS at small angles of rotation of the front wheels provides an opportunity to reduce energy loss at large angles of ascent of the roadway.

When you vary the grip of the right and left wheels, the wheels on one side of a PBX with a higher coefficient of friction more loaded than the wheels of the other side with a lower coefficient of adhesion. More loaded the wheels are slowed down due to the inverse rotation with�under gears - 43 of wheel gears, and less loaded wheel is accelerated due to rotation of these gears in the direction of rotation of the wheels. Equality of pressure of the working fluid into the injection cavities of the respective hydraulic machines and in the highways, 105 and 106 (Fig.6 and 7), as well as in the input channels 103 and 104 blocks - 102 electro-hydraulic control is broken. The working fluid from the discharge cavity of the hydraulic decelerating more loaded wheels through the respective pressure line (105 or 106) with a higher pressure through the inlet and return valves - 107 will flow to the inputs - 108 hydraulic locking mechanisms - 109 front and rear axles, and further, if the spools are not included - 112 full lock to the outputs 110 and through the check valves 111 and pressure line (105 or 106) with less pressure in the discharge cavity of the hydraulic accelerating less loaded wheels. At U1=0 and U2=0 on the solenoids C41 and C42 voltage is missing. The access of the working fluid from highway 116 to the output - 110 hydraulic locking mechanisms blocked by the spool 115, therefore, the working fluid passes successively through two choke - 113 and 114, providing basic mode-locking MCDS. The pressure drop across the hydraulic locking mechanism 109 and the locking torque proportional�ionally to the square of the flow rate of fluid through the locking mechanism and the squared difference of the frequency of rotation of the wheel (1). Under the action of pressure difference in the end cavities “a” and “b” electoral valve 127 is shifted to the extreme position toward the end of the cavity with less pressure, and their output cavity 128 and the center line - 129 at the front axle and a - 130 at the rear axle is connected to the injection cavities over loaded hydraulic machines. In this case, between the hydraulic machines more loaded (deceleration) of the wheel - axle differential connection. When unequal traction load of major bridges, the working fluid is bypassed through a choke 138 (Fig.1) hydraulic locking mechanism - 135 between interaxle highways - 130 and 129 from more of a pressured highways to less loaded. The differential pressure at the throttle - 138 and the locking torque is proportional to the square of the flow rate of fluid through the inductor, the value of which depends on the difference of slipping of the front and rear wheels, will be significant only for the conditions off-road driving with rough terrain and movement in heavy traffic conditions at high angles of ascent of the roadway.

In some cases you can use the full simultaneous locking interaxle and cross-axle differential links, implemented by the inclusion of a button To aY2(Fig.13) manual control spool valves - 112 and 139 hydraulic locking mechanisms - 109 and 135 (Fig.1, 6 and 7). For example, when driving the trucks with large turning radii in heavy traffic conditions, when the difference of coefficients of adhesion and rolling resistance, respectively, and the traction load of the right and left wheels varies within wide limits. Oscillations of the traction load of the wheels and the pressure in the arteries - 105 and 106 causes corresponding fluctuations in electoral valve 127, wherein the accumulator - 132 is always connected with over loaded pressure line. Due to this, the rigidity of the actuator is more loaded wheel decreases significantly (3-5 times depending on the parameters of the accumulator and the average level of load). As a result of “cut off” peak loads and hydraulic machines rotating components of the transmission over loaded wheels front and rear axles. The accumulator is a filter of high-frequency components of the traction load. Thanks to the choke - 131, in the process of charge - discharge of the accumulator is reduced and the amplitude of low-frequency forced oscillations of torque. This has a positive effect on increasing the resource of the transmission, and reduction of slipping more loaded wheels by reducing not only the vibration amplitude, but the rate of change of torque.

When turning PBX-enabled valves - 112, 139 full BL�after fault interaxle and cross-axle differential constraints (ACS disables access of the working fluid from the discharge cavities of hydraulic machines “lagging” wheels in the injection cavity of the hydraulic machines “ran” wheels and hydraulic rear “lagging” wheels to the front hydraulic machine “lagging” wheels completely blocked (Fig.1, 6, 7). The pressure in the injection cavities “lagging” wheels and torques due to the increase of slipping them rise and the pressure drop of the working fluid in the working cavity of the hydraulic machines “ran” wheels and torques due to the reduction of slipping are reduced. Reducing the pressure in the discharge cavity of the hydraulic machines of these wheels is limited to the value of pressure pprecharge when the working fluid from the highway - 93 feed through the respective inlet check valves - 95 will begin to flow into these cavities. In this case, the torques of the hydraulic operating mode of the engines, “runs” wheels are reduced to zero. Considering the mechanical losses in these hydraulic machines and wheel gears, the movement of the wheels will be in “passive” mode when a small negative tangential thrust force, which is equivalent to disabling the drive (like when you install a wheel hub mechanisms with way clutches for automatic shut-off wheels). If in this case the performance of the basic (primary motor) pump - 83 (Fig.1) for a given rate of movement PBX insufficient and the pressure of the feed is reduced below a specified visualizan�level of p Isetting of the discharge valve 91, the valve covers off and free draining working fluid from pressure line - 89 additional pump - 84 recharge. The fluid pressure in the injection highways 87 and 89 of the two hydraulic pumps is aligned in the feeding line - 93 begins to flow working fluid from two hydraulic pumps 83 and 84 under pressure pp=pIwhile the need to feed size is not reduced, for example, after turning the PBX.

Full lock inter-axle and cross-axle differential constraints is automatically enabled when overclocking PBX in the event of a traffic signal u5sensor - 156 displacement of the accelerator pedal (Fig.13) through the winding constantly open relay K5and applying a voltage to the solenoids C41, C42 and C50 spools 112 and 139 (Fig.1, 6, 7).

When braking PBX signal U4sensor - 155 position of the brake pedal by using a constantly open relay K4and solenoids C11, C21, C12 and C22 (Fig.13) turn on the spools - 98, 99, 100 and 101 (Fig.6, 7) of the reverse, which connect the injection cavity of each hydraulic axle highways - 120 and 121 directly. The pressure in these arteries and highways - 118 of the office increased, and under it are included the spools knuckle - 117, with�Dynaudio inputs - 108 and outputs - 110 hydraulic locking mechanisms - 109 directly to bypass chokes - 113 and 114, eliminating the pressure drop of the working fluid between the cavities of the hydraulic low pressure. As a result, cross-axle differential unlocked communications and effective use of anti-lock braking system (ABS).

In some cases, the operation of the PBX possible modes of motion, including rectilinear, when the negative torque of the wheels. Such regimes include emergency towing system, start the engine by towing, the movement of “coasting” when engine braking. In these cases, the working cavity of the hydraulic machines and the corresponding input line of the hydraulic unit - 73 axle swap roles. The input line 70 and 72 and the respective highway 120, 121 (Fig.6, 7) and center-to-center line - 137 are connected to the discharge cavities of hydraulic machines and fluid pressure is determined by the magnitude of the moment of resistance or idle rotation of the transmission from the gearbox to the wheels during emergency towing PBX or the whole transmission and the crankshaft of the engine at idle its launch in tow. Accordingly, in the hydraulic systems of front and rear axles increases the pressure of the working fluid in the line - 11 management under the action of which is included knuckle “permanently closed” spool 117 connecting directly to bypass the hydraulic locking mechanism 109 to the input 110 and the output - 108 and, accordingly, highway 105 and 106. The pressure in end cavities “a” and “b” electoral valves - 127 is aligned and these valves, occupying a neutral position, block the access of the working fluid in the center of highway 129 and 130 and the throttle - 138 (Fig.1). The input line - 69, 71 and the relevant highway 105, 106 (Fig.6, 7) of block 73 of the hydraulic system are connected with suction cavities of hydraulic machines and through the non-return valve - 95 - off - 93 recharge. With the engine makeup is supplied from the additional hydraulic pump - 84, which is driven by the output shaft - transfer box 86. In the highways - 105 and 106 hydraulic front and rear axles will be set equal pressure equal to the pressure ppfeed.

At emergency towing PBX disabled the secondary shaft of the gearbox a single moment of resistance to rotation of the transmission elements is small. The appropriate pressure of the working fluid in the line - 118 (Fig.6, 7) is insufficient to enable knuckle “constantly open” spool 124, the spring is configured to a higher pressure corresponding to the time� the resistance to rotation of all elements of the transmission and the crankshaft of the engine when it starts towing the PBX. Therefore, the spool 124 maintains the switching position and connects highway 120, 121 and 137. It provides unlock cross-axle differential constraints. This decreases the difference between the moments of resistance to rotation of the wheels PBX and required to be towed by a traction force, as well as increased maneuverability.

When starting the engine by towing PBX knuckle the spool 124 under the action of the higher pressure fluid in the line - 118 is enabled by decoupling its working cavity associated with highways, 120, 121 and 137. With the engine off, which is a basic pump - 83 make up the highway - 92-control pressure pI=0. So knuckle “permanently closed” spool 125 is turned off. When the spool 124 and off the spool 125 mainline - 120, 121 and 137 disjointed, with inter-axle and cross-axle differential is completely locked. This provides more efficient scrolling of the crankshaft and faster engine starting. After starting the engine main hydraulic pump - 83 recharge raises the pressure in the pipeline - 92 control to a value of pIand the spool 124 is enabled, interconnected highway - 120 and 121.

While the system of automatic control of the lock modes micole�tion differential and unused buttons for manual control of the lock modes transmission (Fig.1) in a traction mode of major bridges works as follows. When turning the PBX and the unequal length of the path of movement of “the runs” and “backward” wheels traction load “the runs” (outer) wheels is reduced, and “Laggards” (internal) is increased by increasing the actual peripheral speed of the first and reduce the actual peripheral speed of the second and a corresponding decrease of slipping “the runs” and increase wheelspin “lagging” wheels. Occurs a difference in pressure of the working fluid into the injection cavities more loaded and less loaded hydraulic machines. Due to the reverse rotation sun gear - wheel 43 more loaded gearboxes wheels slow its rotation, and less loaded wheel its speed due to rotation of gears - 43 in the direction of rotation of the wheels. Hydraulic decelerating “lagging” wheels are in the mode of hydraulic pumps and accelerating “the runs” wheel - in motors. The greatest slowdown has a rear “lagging behind” the wheel, the greatest acceleration - front “runs” wheel. Accordingly, the first hydraulic machine is the best performance and hydraulic machines latest - greatest flow rate of working fluid. Thus the flow of hydraulic fluid from hydraulic rear “lagging” of the wheel is divided into two parts. One part of the flow of the working fluid through the corresponding input to�Nala (103 or 104) with a higher pressure through the inlet check valve - 107 (Fig.7) is supplied to the input 108 of a hydraulic locking mechanism - 109 and further, if not included spool - 112 full lock - to-output - 110 and through a check valve 111 in the input channel with less pressure and through the associated discharge line (105 or 106) in the discharge cavity of the hydraulic rear “ran” less loaded wheel. The difference torque “lagging” and “the runs” rear wheels is proportional to the square of the flow rate of hydraulic fluid through the locking mechanism - 109 rear axle. And the other part of the flow of working fluid through the associated discharge line (105 or 106) with a higher pressure and through selective valve 127, which is due to inequality of pressure in the end cavities “a” and “b” is shifted into the extreme, toward the end of the cavity with less pressure, position, enters the inter-axle highway - 130 high pressure. From this route the working fluid through the throttle - 138 hydraulic locking mechanism - 135 (Fig.1) and Central line - 129 high pressure is fed into the input cavity 128 of the electoral valve - 127 front axle (Fig.6). The valve 127 and the rear axle is shifted to the extreme position toward the end of the cavity with less pressure. Thanks to this thread �working fluid from the center of the highway - 129 from hydraulic rear “lagging” wheels enters the discharge pipe (105 or 106) with a higher pressure, where it is summed with the flow of hydraulic fluid from hydraulic front “lagging” wheels. The total flow of working fluid through the corresponding input channel (103 or 104), an inlet check valve - 107, a hydraulic locking mechanism 109 and the intake check valve 111 is received in a corresponding discharge line (105 or 106) with less pressure in the discharge cavity of the hydraulic front “runs” wheels. The difference torque at rear and front of the “lagging” of the wheels is proportional to the square of the flow rate of hydraulic fluid through the locking mechanism - 135 MODS, and the difference torque “lagging” and “the runs” front wheels is proportional to the square of the flow rate of hydraulic fluid through the locking mechanism - 109 MCDS front axle.

Automatic control system (ACS) operates as follows. With the start of rotation of the PBX when |θ|>Δθ control commands U1=0 and U2=0 and the spools - 112, 115 and 117 blocks - 102 electro-hydraulic control is off and the working fluid sequentially bypassed through chokes - 113 and 114 of the hydraulic locking mechanisms - 109 front and rear �traveling bridges. Enabled main mode-locking. The enabled state of this lock mode is maintained at small angles of rotation of the front wheels |θ| < θ1(the upper threshold value |θ|) and U2=0 if Δωzo>Δωmin, (lower boundary value Δωzo), where Δωmin<0 (Fig.12).

When reaching |θ| upper thresholds θ1and at u2=0, SV0=1 (see mode a, tab.1, Fig.12) SΔθ1=1 and in channel III, the signal is “1”. Assuming Δωzo<Δωmax(SΔω=1) and in view of S-Δθ1=1 (disable link - 152 is delayed δθ=0.5°-1° relative to the link 151 with |θ|=θ1+δθ), in the channel of the VI signal is also“1”. The result - u1=1 and is the main mode in the control command U1=1 (U2=0) through a constantly open relay K1and solenoids C41 and C42 (Fig.13) turn on the spools - 115 units - 102 electro-hydraulic control (Fig.6 and 7), connecting the inputs - 116 chokes - 114 (with a large hydraulic resistance) with the outputs - 110 hydraulic locking mechanisms - 109, disable these chokes and reduce 5-6 times the flow resistance of the blocking mechanisms - 109. Additional mode-locking of a significantly lesser stiffness of the above-mentioned characteristics (1) allows the self-locking at large angles of rotation before�their wheels to reduce the amount of blocking moments at the front and rear axles, the moment of resistance to rotation PBX side pull front wheels and torque “lagging” wheels. Thereby reduces energy loss due to slippage, the turning radius and increases the angular velocity of rotation. The lower locking points MCD enable the specified mode-locking in the case of approximately equal and low coefficients of adhesion “lagging” and “the runs” wheels reduced specific tension load “lagging” wheels, which can improve the permeability of the PBX in such circumstances, off-road movement.

Additional mode-locking condition when Δωmax>Δωzo>Δωmincontinued in the reduction of |θ| to the lower threshold value θ01. In this case, SΔθ1=0 (Fig.12), but thanks to the SΔθ0=1 and u1=1 in the channels V and III signals is “1” (mode B, tab.1) and the control command U1=1 is preserved.

The reverse inclusion of the main mode and off additional mode-locking of U1=0, U2=0 under the condition Δωzominoccurs in two cases. In the case of reducing the calculated value of the angle |θ| of rotation of the wheels below the threshold θ01. In this case, when SΔθ0=0 and SΔθ1=0 in the channel III - “0”. This ratio of the upper and lower thresholds eliminates the possibility of “sati�Libanius management systems in the field of threshold values [θ|=θ 1and stabilizes its work. In case of increase of the difference Δωzothe frequency of rotation of “the runs” and “lagging” front wheels, caused by increased haulage of live in the worst conditions, “runs” wheels to the upper limit Δωzo=Δωmax. In various conditions off-road movement this threshold roughly corresponds to the maximum permissible slippage of the front “runs” wheels. In this case, the output of the relay element 151 (Fig.13) SΔω=0 and in the channel of the VI signal is also “0” (mode B, tab.1). At u1=0 for the mode-locking turned off, due to the greater stiffness characteristics (1) the self-locking of the difference Δωzothe rotational speed is reduced and the output of link - 151 SΔω=1. However, the reverse is the inclusion of additional mode-locking does not occur, as at u1=0 and S-Δθ1=0 in the channel the IV signal is “0” and, accordingly, in the channel of the VI signal is also “0” (G, PL.1). In this case, U1=0, the power supply circuit of the solenoids C41 and C42 is opened, valves - 115 (Fig.6 and 7) are switched off, the hydraulic resistance of the blocking mechanisms - 109 increases dramatically and rotate the PBX is performed by the more stringent the self-locking characteristic. The reverse inclusion of additional modes will occur only after the decrease of the angle of rotation of the wheels to the top�its threshold θ 1ahead on the magnitude of δθ=0.5°-1° when S-Δθ1=1 (mode A, PL.1) (Fig.12).

In certain circumstances, when the main or additional modes of self-locking due to the large difference in the magnitude of slipping “lagging” and “the runs” front wheels may change the sign of Δωzo. This mode of rotation occurs either with the same coupling coefficients and the coefficients of rolling resistance “runs” and “lagging” of the wheels and the steering angles of the front wheels, not exceeding 12°-15°, or at any other angles of rotation and the worst driving conditions “lagging” wheels, with a low coefficient of adhesion, which has always a smaller weight in comparison with “the runs”. In this case, full locking MCD in comparison with basic and advanced modes, self-locking, due to less slipping, more economical and provides more valid speed. The absolute value Δozincreases, with a negative sign causes a decrease of current in the horizontal plane the moment of resistance to rotation PBX, or change its sign. In both cases, the turning radius is reduced.

By changing the sign of Δωzothat occurs simultaneously with the change of the sign of the blocking time Δozthe front wheels, and reducing �ω zoto Δωzo=ΔωminSΔω0=1 (in channel VIII) and regardless of the negative values Δozand the magnitude of the signal SΔof output level “V” u2=1 (Fig.12). In this case, U2=1, enabled constantly open relay K2, to the winding of the solenoids C31 and C32 is energized and the spools are included - 112 full lock (Fig.6 and 7). In this case the “excess” understeer PBX associated with the shift of the pole of rotation to the axis of the front wheels and the occurrence or negative slip angles of the front wheels, or lateral sliding of the rear wheels. Therefore, when the specified turning on full lock MCDS provided by the inclusion of a warning lamp L2yellow. The driver receives a warning signal to decrease the set speed V0.

When you increase Δozin channel VII and the output of element “V” is stored, the signal “1” to until Δozreaches the threshold value Δoz0(SΔ=0) and when Δωzo>Δωmin(SΔω0=0) at the output of the element “V” u2=0. At U2=0 - spools - 112 full lock under the action of the return spring off, returning to the initial (“always open”) position. And depending on set value |θ| is included or extra, or basic mode samob�of Kirovka.

When off-rectilinear motion in the same case, but reduced the clutch “lagging” and “the runs” wheels, for example when driving in dry sand, in order to reduce the traction load and slipping “lagging” wheels, the weight of which is reduced when turning, it is advisable to replace the main mode-locking in an additional mode with a softer characteristic of the self-locking and for small values of |θ| < θ0the angle of the front wheels. To do this, the relay K1 (Fig.13) SAU lock modes MCDS duplicated by the button To aU1manual forced switching on (off) AUX mode-locking. This enables the signal lamp L1green.

Thus, the proposed transmission with hydraulic axle and cross-axle differential constraints provided by the summing planetary mechanisms in wheel gearboxes and unregulated getobjectname gear with non-rotating housings hydraulic machines, in comparison with the known devices provides a significant reduction in the volumetric energy loss in the hydraulic system and is more adapted for automation of lock modes differential constraints. The proposed system of automatic control of these modes allows flexible and more efficient in �aligning with the applied self-locking differentials to distribute torques on “runs” and “backward” wheels at different ratio of their coefficients of adhesion and by reducing wheelspin, first of all, the “lagging” of the wheels to increase the throughput and efficiency of all-wheel drive ATS in conditions of non-linear off-road movement. A step change in the stiffness characteristics of the self-locking reduces side pull front steering wheels, and to increase the maneuverability of the movement. The softening power transmission over loaded wheels front and rear axles by incorporating hydropneumatic accumulators with damping chokes in pressure line reduces recurrence and the peak value of the traction load of the drive wheels, which increases the life and reliability of the transmission and extends the possibility of use in difficult driving conditions full locking differential constraints. The proposed system dual pump suction feeding cavities of hydraulic machines and highways low pressure creates a possibility without the use of automatic clutches in the hubs of the wheels at full lock and small turning radii PBX automatically disable the drive “runs” wheels to improve the efficiency of work. Change in drivetrain all-wheel drive wheeled PBX gear differentials (transverse conical and cylindrical interaxle differentials) on a single-row planetary mechanisms placed in wheel misalignment reducers portal�tion of major bridges, significantly reduces the inventory of parts and simplifies the design transfer box in C (or transfer boxes when K, K).

Sources of information

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4. Nabutovsky I. G. Differential driven radial piston. RU Patent 2238460 C2, F16H 48/26, 04.02.2003.

5. Duan X. Differential device. US Patent 6,544,13682, F16H 48/30, 08.04.2003.

1. Transmission with hydraulic axle and cross-axle differential constraints with automatically controlled lock modes for vehicle (ATV) all-terrain vehicles, designed primarily for off-road movement, including CAT sensor on the rear transmission, two-stage transfer case box with front and rear exit and drive axles gantry type with the main gears, axle shafts and wheel misalignment reducers with cylindrical input pairs, the drive gear which is connected to the axle shaft and kinematically connected to the driven gear of the main transmission of the corresponding axle, and the output single-row planetary mechanisms, carriers which are related by setupini wheels, with reversible volumetric unregulated hydraulic machines, built-in as power transfer units between slave gears main gears and driving wheels, and the injection cavity which are interconnected by a respective connecting highways, equipped with electirc valve lock pressure cavity of the hydraulic, two-position electro-controlled sensor reverse valve reverse, bypass valve and a blocking choke and sensing steering, speed sensors of the wheels, position sensors brake pedal and move the accelerator pedal, the electronic control unit, characterized in that in order to improve the agility, maneuverability and efficiency PBX reducing dynamic loading of power transmission in off-road movement, providing the necessary flexibility and the possibility of starting the engine when towing PBX, axles, each driving axle rigidly connected with each other and with gear driven main gear, the driven gear of the input cylindrical pairs of wheel gear - crown gear mentioned planetary mechanism and a sun gear of the latter with the shafts of hydraulic machines, such as radial-plunger, thus to�a span of the latter is rigidly secured to the housings of the respective gear wheel, a suction cavity of each hydraulic drive axle traction mode through the above-mentioned reverse the spools are connected by a low pressure line, which includes automatic hydraulic block of management of blocking cross-axle differential connection (MCDS) at negative torque wheels ATS containing two knuckle spool "permanently open" and "permanently closed", and are equipped with a system of recharge and discharge cavity of the hydraulic machines are connected to the traction wheel mode input unit electro-hydraulic control modes of cross-axle locking differential connection (MCDS), including knuckle spool unlock, hydraulic locking mechanism with electro-controlled speed changing hydraulic resistance and the electirc full spool lock, which is the Executive mechanisms of the automatic control system (ACS) of lock modes MCDS when turning PBX is duplicated as a manual control button complete block of transmission, and providing the use of, depending on the angles of rotation, the difference of the rotational speed and torque of the front steered wheels of either one of two modes of locking, the main with a large hydraulic resistance�is blocking Sri throttle and modes at low hydraulic resistance, either full lock, and also with the respective input end cavities knuckle three position and provided with centering springs polling valve with positive overlap of the output cavity relative to the input at its neutral position, thus the output cavity of the electoral valves connected to a hydraulic dampers, and highways low pressure hydraulic systems of major bridges equipped with the appropriate axle hydraulic connections, and the front and rear outputs of the transfer box are rigidly interconnected.

2. Transmission according to claim 1, characterized in that the hydraulic center-to-center communications specified in section 1 of the highways hydraulic systems of major bridges are provided for highways with low pressure by means of a parallel connection of outputs referred to in paragraph 1 automatic hydraulic block mode control lock MCDS major bridges with a total center-to-center line low traction mode of major bridges-pressure and high-pressure lines - output cavities referred to in paragraph 1 of the electoral valves with a common center line high in the traction mode of major bridges pressure, moreover, regardless of the number of axles in the transmission o�global cavity electoral valve rear axle connected to a common center line directly and for the rest located ahead of major bridges - through electirc hydraulic dual locking mechanisms interaxle differential connection (MODS) that contains a series coupled inductor with a large hydraulic resistance and dip "constantly open" electrically-controlled valve, the supply circuit of the control solenoid which contains constantly open contacts named in section 1 of the manual control buttons complete block of transmission.

3. Transmission according to claim 1, characterized in that the automatic control system (ACS) modes of cross-axle locking differential constraints when turning the PBX comprises an electronic computing unit, in which on the basis of measurement of frequency of rotation of all wheels, the angles of rotation and pressure of the working fluid into the injection cavities of hydraulic machines of the front-driven wheels is calculated given theoretical speed, the current values of the difference of the rotational speed of "the runs" and "lagging" wheels for the front and for the rear axle, the absolute value of the calculated rotation angle and the torque difference "lagging" and "the runs" of the front steered wheels, top positive to turn off more of the mode-locking and lower negative mode full restric�key threshold values for the difference in the rotational speed of the front steered wheels, defined as functions of the current values of the calculated rotation angle of the steered wheels and theoretical speed, and the electronic control unit of the ACS are equipped with the appropriate relay and logical links based on the comparison of the current values of the difference of the rotational speed, torque, and the calculated rotation angle of the front steered wheels with their respective calculated and defined thresholds are determined by positive or negative deviations of these parameters in the form of analog signals that are converted into digital signals, and based on which logical operations are formed control commands: u1for extra mode and u2for full blocking, which after amplification is received in referred to in section 1 of Executive mechanisms in the form of signals U1and U2while enabling and disabling the three mentioned in claim 1 of the lock modes MCDS is provided subject to the following conditions: main mode-locking is enabled at U2=0 and U1=0; disabled at U1=1 or U2=1; supplementary mode-locking is enabled at U2=0 and θ1≤θ≤θ1+δθ, disabled when θ=θ0or Δω30=Δωmaxor Δω30=Δωminfull lock is enabled when Δω30=Δωmindisabled when Δ0.

4. Transmission according to claim 1, characterized in that the feeding system contains two pumps, one of which is kinematically connected with a crankshaft of the Prime mover ATS, and the second with the secondary shaft gearbox, pressure line of the pump via the outlet check valves connected to the feeding line and the pressure in which is limited to individual equally adjusted the bypass valve, while the discharge pipe of the first pump is connected to the backbone of management at which the working fluid is supplied to the control cavity knuckle unloading valve installed in the pressure line of the second hydraulic pump, and connecting the discharge and suction line of the second hydraulic pump, if the control pressure reaches a specified level.

5. Transmission according to claim 1, characterized in that to reduce the dynamic load transmission, especially in full lockdown mode, referred to in paragraph 1 of the hydraulic damper comprises a series coupled inductor and the hydropneumatic accumulator.

6. Transmission according to claim 1 or 4, characterized in that the above-mentioned automatic hydraulic block control block MKDS at negative torque wheels PBX is equipped with two input channels connected�and highways for low traction mode of the tire pressure with the corresponding cavities of the right and left hydraulic machines, as mentioned in claim 1 knuckle "permanently open" and "permanently closed" made with spring-loaded valves and on-off, with two input and one output cavities, wherein the respective cavities are interconnected with the input channels of the control unit, the end cavity "constantly open" valve with spring, is adjusted to a pressure of 0.1...0.15 from the maximum value, through two intake check valve connected to input channels of the control unit, and an end cavity "permanently closed" spool mentioned in para 4 line control.

7. Transmission according to claim 1, characterized in that the supply circuit of the solenoids electirc spools reverse the front and rear axles contain a parallel branch with a constantly open relay, in the control winding of which is included in the position sensor of the brake pedal.

8. Transmission according to claim 1 or 3, characterized in that the above-mentioned electro-hydraulic control unit lock modes MCDS each axle in traction mode is provided with right and left input channels connected to the discharge for the traction mode of the drive axle arteries right and left hydraulic machines, and through two inlet valves and two outlet check valves associated respectively with �passages and exits referred to in paragraph 1 knuckle spool unlock, performed two-point and "closed" with the management of the end cavity connected to the backbone for low traction mode axle of the pressure and hydraulic locking mechanism, is provided with series connected referred to in paragraph 1 on-off "permanently open" electirc slider full lock, the power supply circuit of the control solenoid which contains parallel connected constantly open contacts of the relay with control signal U2and referred to in section 1 of the manual control buttons, and a blocking inductor consisting of two sections with different hydraulic resistance continuously on sections with low hydraulic resistance and a section with a large hydraulic resistance, switchable via dip, "permanently closed", electirc with constantly open relay and signal U1spool, connecting in the off position the input and output sections of the blocking inductor with a large hydraulic resistance.

9. Transmission according to claim 3, characterized in that to enable ACS and definitions of "the runs" and "lagging" of the wheels when turning PBX electronic computing unit is equipped with a relay link with the dead zone Δθ corresponding to the range of variation of θ PR� movement with the turning radii of not less than 120...150 m, on which input flows calculated in this block, the current value of θ calculated value of the angle of the front wheels, while in the case of |θ|<Δθ - Sθ=0 and ACS off, when |θ|≥Δθ - Sθ=1 and the left wheel is "lagging", and if |θ|≤-Δθ - Sθ=-1 and the left wheel is "the runs".

10. Transmission according to claim 3, characterized in that to ensure the specified conditions θ1≤θ≤θ1+δθ include additional mode-locking of the electronic control unit is provided with two relay links with a common input analog signal Δθ1the deviation angle of the steered wheels from the top threshold value and the output digital signals: SΔθ1and its inverse - S-Δθ1and that the latter has a delay δθ=0.5...1.0° relative to the signal SΔθ1.

11. Transmission according to claim 8, characterized in that the ratio of the resistance continuously on the locking section of the throttle, providing an additional mode-locking MCDS with "flat" response in 5...6 times less than the total resistance coefficient is always enabled and disabled section of the blocking inductor, providing basic mode-locking MCDS with "cool" feature.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry, particularly to transmission. Working vehicle comprises engine, transmission, hydraulic pump/motor, accumulator and actuator. Hydraulic pump/motor is engaged between input clutch and output clutch. Accumulator can be charged by hydraulic pump/motor for energy accumulation at vehicle braking. Actuator is connected with accumulator to be drive thereby.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of transmission.

20 cl, 9 dwg

Automotive drive // 2547924

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to transmission of vehicle with independent mechanical drive and hydraulic drive. Vehicle drive comprises engine (1), mechanical main transmission line (2) and hydraulic extra line (3). Transmission extra hydraulic line (3) is provided with hydraulic circuit (11) with controlled hydrostatic pump (7) and hydromotors (9, 10) in wheels not driven by transmission main mechanical line. Pump (7) is arranged at engine (1) extra power takeoff shaft (8) and engaged therewith by uncoupling linkage (17).

EFFECT: higher efficiency of transmission.

10 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: transport.

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EFFECT: higher reliability of a device.

12 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

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EFFECT: improving manoeuvrability of a self-propelled vehicle.

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FIELD: transport.

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EFFECT: expanded operating performances.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: hydraulic drive is intended for control over various device of materials-handling vehicles. Proposed drive consists of control unit, reversing adjustable pump with drive motor, power hydraulic lines, first constant capacity hydro motor 6 and reducer. Second adjustable hydro motor has its hydraulic chambers communicating with power hydraulic lines and its shaft linked up with reducer parallel to the shaft of aforesaid first hydro motor. Power hydraulic lines accommodate pressure pickups connected, via pressure limiter unit, with adjustably hydro motor. Aforesaid unit comprises comparing amplifier of pickup differential pressure signals and those of preset pressure difference and allows regulating operating volume of hydro motor, if pressure difference signal exceeds preset magnitude.

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2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

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8 dwg

The invention relates to a drive device of a vehicle

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to electronically-controllable locking differentials. Electronically-controllable locking differential comprises an electromagnetic coil and control system. The control system comprises a module under instrument panel of an automobile and a circuit interacting electrically with the above module. The circuit comprises a switch and a fixing component. The circuit is off when power supply of the control system is off and is in stand-by mode when power supply is supplied to the control system. When the switch is switched on and retained in this position current passes through the above circuit in order to actuate the fixing component, at that differential is actuated. The fixing component includes a double-pole two-position control relay that contains the first switch, the second switch and a coil. When the switch is switched on and retained in this position current passes through the above circuit thus actuating relay, the second switch is closed and differential is actuated.

EFFECT: simplification of design and improvement of reliability is attained.

18 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to electronically-controllable locking differentials. Differential comprises magnetic coil (50) and control system based on wire harness for logic control of the differential operation; the system comprises a circuit (56). The circuit contains a locking switch (62), which is coupled electrically to the first power supply source and designed to lock power supply of the differential. Double-pole double-throw control relay (72) coupled electrically to the locking switch (62) comprises the first switch (74), the second switch (76) and a coil (78). The second switch (76) is designed to "overjump" the locking switch (62). The circuit is deenergised when power is not supplied to the wire harness and is in standby mode when power is supplied to the wire harness. When the locking switch (62) is activated current passes from the initial point through the circuit in order to activate the relay (72), at that the first switch (74) is closed to excite the differential and the second switch (76) is closed so that current "overjumps" the locking switch (62) and the differential becomes activated.

EFFECT: higher reliability of a device is reached.

20 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry. Vehicle comprises set of wheels mounted at the frame. Every wheel is engaged with engine to drive the vehicle. Self-locking differential gear is supported by the frame. First and second half-axles are engaged with said self-locking differential gear. First half-axle supports first wheel of aforesaid set. Second half-axle supports second wheel of aforesaid set. Brake is engaged with self-locking differential gear. Said brake selectively applies braking force to said first and second wheels via one part of self-locking differential gear to reduce vehicle speed. When said brake is engaged, control unit selectively increases engagement of self-locking differential gear in response to difference in rpm of said first and second wheels exceeding the first preset rpm. Invention covers also the method of vehicle control.

EFFECT: better braking, minimised and well-centered vehicle weight.

15 cl, 18 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to vehicles with all-wheel drive. The truck comprises frame, body, strain gauge, driveline including interaxle differential. Interaxle differential comprises two planetary gear sets. The planetary gear sets are switched by gear clutch. The gear clutch is hydraulically driven by piston. The piston is located in two-section working chamber. The working chamber communicates with working fluid pressure source through hydraulic on/off control valve. Hydraulic control valve is operated by electric magnet. The electric magnet by one its electric circuit is connected via threshold element to strain gauge, and by its other electric circuit - to transmission low gear actuation sensor. In the electric circuit connecting electric magnet with strain gauge, self-reset circuit-opening relay contact. The contact is connected to transmission high gear actuation sensor.

EFFECT: better drivability and flotation of vehicle.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to vehicles with all-wheel drive. The truck comprises cabin, cargo body, strain gauge, transmission to transfer torque moment from engine to front and rear driving axles. In the kinematic chain of driveline, transmission with clutch and transfer gear with interaxle differential is located. Interaxle differential comprises two planetary gear sets. The planetary gear sets are switched by gear clutch. The gear clutch is driven by piston. The piston is located in two-section chamber communicating with working fluid pressure source via four-way hydraulic on/off control valve. Hydraulic control valve is operated by electric magnet. The electric magnet is connected to strain gauge via threshold element. The strain gauge responds to cargo presence in truck body.

EFFECT: better drivability and flotation of vehicle.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to vehicles with all-wheel drive. All-wheel drive truck includes cabin, cargo body, transmission to transfer torque moment from engine to front and rear driving axles. In the kinematic chain of transmission, there is transfer gear with interaxle differential. Interaxle differential comprises two planetary gear sets. The planetary gear sets are switched by gear clutch. The gear clutch is driven by piston. The piston is located in two-section chamber communicating with working fluid pressure source via four-way on/off control valve. The control valve is operated by electric magnet. The electric magnet is connected to step switch. The step switch is driven from rear driving axle beam.

EFFECT: better drivability and flotation of vehicle.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: automotive industry.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises differential mechanism, driving force regulator and differential limiter. Differential mechanism can distribute driving forces generated by vehicle drive for LH and RH wheels to allow differential torque on said LH and RH wheels. Driving force regulator regulates each distributed driving force. Differential limiter limits torque difference between LH and RH wheels by applying limiting torque to differential mechanism.

EFFECT: higher stability.

4 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; vehicle transmissions.

SUBSTANCE: proposed differential contains case 1, side gears 2, and 3, planet pinions and locking device. Locking devices is made in form of ring shifter 7 connected with drive 8, pushers 10 arranged inside axles 9 of planet pinions, intermediate members and locking members. Differential includes also elastic stop, and spring inserts 17 and 18 placed between case 1 and rear surfaces 20 and 21 of side gears 2 and 3. Grooves are made on end face front surfaces of side gears 2 and 3. Said grooves have wavy profile corresponding to profile of locking members, and number of radial grooves is even.

EFFECT: prevention of failure of differential lock caused by wedging of locking members between side gears, and falling out of locking members at unlocking, provision of stepless row of values of locking coefficient.

5 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of control of differential locking of multidrive wheeled vehicles and it can be used at designing of systems to control tractive forces of driving wheels of multidrive vehicles and carrying out investigations of wheeled vehicles. proposed method of control of differential locks comes to locking of differential for definite periods of time at threshold values of mismatching of mechanical parameters of driving wheels intercoupled by said differential and unlocking differential at expiration of definite of time or at achievement of threshold value of steerability index. Unlocking of differentials at achievement of threshold value of steerability index is carried out individually, starting from differential whose locking has greater effect on steerability of wheeled vehicle.

EFFECT: enlarged range of control of traction forces on driving wheels to increase cross-country capacity and traction and speed properties at provision of required steerability of multidrive wheeled vehicles.

1 dwg

Muscular drive // 2270780

FIELD: transport engineering; bicycles.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for devices automatically changing gear ratio without interruption of power flow. Proposed drive contains two differentials. Force sensor 5 is installed between input shaft 8 and common input of both differentials, namely power differential 1 and regulating second differential 2. Said force sensor 5 cuts in braking device 4 at rise of load, said braking devices is idling at direct drive and is connected with regulating input of second differential 2. As a result, output gear 21 of second differential 2 starts rotating and self-braking drive 3 releases carrier 25 of power differential 1. Proposed drive automatically changes over from direct drive to drive with changed gear ratio. Moment of changing over can be regulated by tensioner 6 of spring 19 of force sensor.

EFFECT: facilitated selection of step-down gear in wide range of gear ration depending on individual capabilities of user.

1 dwg

Muscular drive // 2270780

FIELD: transport engineering; bicycles.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for devices automatically changing gear ratio without interruption of power flow. Proposed drive contains two differentials. Force sensor 5 is installed between input shaft 8 and common input of both differentials, namely power differential 1 and regulating second differential 2. Said force sensor 5 cuts in braking device 4 at rise of load, said braking devices is idling at direct drive and is connected with regulating input of second differential 2. As a result, output gear 21 of second differential 2 starts rotating and self-braking drive 3 releases carrier 25 of power differential 1. Proposed drive automatically changes over from direct drive to drive with changed gear ratio. Moment of changing over can be regulated by tensioner 6 of spring 19 of force sensor.

EFFECT: facilitated selection of step-down gear in wide range of gear ration depending on individual capabilities of user.

1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of control of differential locking of multidrive wheeled vehicles and it can be used at designing of systems to control tractive forces of driving wheels of multidrive vehicles and carrying out investigations of wheeled vehicles. proposed method of control of differential locks comes to locking of differential for definite periods of time at threshold values of mismatching of mechanical parameters of driving wheels intercoupled by said differential and unlocking differential at expiration of definite of time or at achievement of threshold value of steerability index. Unlocking of differentials at achievement of threshold value of steerability index is carried out individually, starting from differential whose locking has greater effect on steerability of wheeled vehicle.

EFFECT: enlarged range of control of traction forces on driving wheels to increase cross-country capacity and traction and speed properties at provision of required steerability of multidrive wheeled vehicles.

1 dwg

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