Ice and method of its operation

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in internal combustion engines. ICE 10 has wall extending to combustion chamber NS or wall part with anode oxide film coating 61-64 applied thereon. Said coating features structure with bonding area wherein every hollow cell that make said film coating is bonded with adjacent hollow cells and loose area wherein three or more adjacent hollow cells are not bonded. Porosity of said coating 61-64 is defined by first cavity in hollow cells and second cavity that make said loose area. Invention discloses the iCE production.

EFFECT: lower heat capacity and heat conductivity.

15 cl, 39 dwg, 7 tbl

 

Background of the INVENTION

1. Field of the invention

[0001] the Invention relates to an internal combustion engine and method of manufacturing the internal combustion engine. In particular, the invention relates to an internal combustion engine, in which the entire wall facing into the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine or its parts is formed a film of anodic oxidized coating, and relates to a method of manufacturing an internal combustion engine, a feature of which is the formation of anodic-oxidized film coating.

2. The level of technology

[0002] an internal combustion Engine, e.g., gasoline or diesel engine, consists, mainly, of the cylinder block and the cylinder head and the combustion chamber is limited to the surface of the bore of the cylinder block, the top surface of the piston, installed in this channel, the lower surface of the cylinder head and the surfaces of the heads intake and exhaust valves located in the cylinder head. Along with the increased today demands greater power of the internal combustion engine becomes extremely important to reduce the loss of cooling. Our strategy to reduce losses to cooling is the formation of the insulating ceramic film coating�Oia on the inner wall of the combustion chamber.

[0003] However, the ceramic materials typically have low thermal conductivity and high heat capacity, resulting in reduced efficiency of the intake and knocking (abnormal combustion due to heat retention in the combustion chamber), so that at present their use as materials for film coating of the internal walls of the combustion chamber has not received distribution.

[0004] in view of the above, heat-insulating film coating formed on the wall of the combustion chamber, must be heat-resistant and heat-insulating and preferably be formed of a material having low thermal conductivity and low heat capacity. Furthermore, in addition to low thermal conductivity and low thermal capacity, the coating film should preferably be formed of a material able to withstand the expansion pressure and the injection pressure during combustion in the combustion chamber, cyclic stresses from thermal expansion and thermal contraction, and preferably should be formed of a material having high adhesion to the base material, for example, the material of the cylinder block, etc.

[0005] When considering traditional technologies published in this area was detected cylinder head described in Japanese published patent application No. 2003-113737 (JP-A-2003-113737), which has�t film coating of microporous silicon oxide or aluminum oxide, formed by anodizing the lower surface of the cylinder head and on the inner surface of the water jacket within the cylinder head; the surface area of the bottom surface of the head and the inner surface of a shirt is increased by this film coating, whereby heat generated in the combustion chamber, effectively absorbed inward through the coating film, and the absorbed heat is effectively discharged through film coating the inner surface of the shirt into the coolant. As a consequence, the heat immediately by absorption of heat, while cooling is immediately reset by heat, which leads to the suppression of temperature rise of the cylinder head.

[0006] the internal combustion Engine described in Japanese published patent application No. 2009-243352 (JP-A-2009-243352) and in the publication WO 2009/020206, characterized by a thin insulating Lenka, inside the material which formed bubbles, which has a lower thermal conductivity than the material forming the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine, and which has the heat capacity of the same or lower than the basic material.

[0007] the Technology described in the above patent applications JP-A-2003-113737, JP-A-2009-243352 and WO 2009/020206, is a�belt technology which on the inner wall of the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine is formed by film coating with low thermal conductivity and low heat capacity, and which can ensure the formation of an insulating film coating with excellent properties described above.

[0008] However, it is unclear whether similar patterns of film coating formation film coatings that can withstand the expansion pressure and the injection pressure during combustion in the combustion chamber and cyclic stresses from thermal expansion and thermal contraction, as well as whether they provide education film coating, is able to relax this pressure and these loads. The inventors found that these patterns film coating is unlikely to have a excellent relaxation properties of pressure or load. One reason for this is that the coating film formed by anodic oxidation, has a microstructure in which its constituent cells have inside the pores, while the adjacent cells almost without a gap chemically linked to each other, whereby to provide satisfactory relief between these cells is problematic.

Summary of the INVENTION

[0009] the Invention has the task of solving the above problems and offers engines�ü internal combustion provided, on the entire wall facing the combustion chamber, or part thereof, the anode-oxidized film coating having low thermal conductivity and low heat capacity, and an ability to relax the expansion pressure and the injection pressure during combustion in the combustion chamber and to remove repetitive stress from thermal expansion-compression, which makes it very durable. The invention also provides a method of manufacturing such an internal combustion engine.

[0010] Thus, according to the first aspect of the invention, it is proposed an internal combustion engine, in which the entire wall facing the combustion chamber, or on a part thereof is formed by anodic-oxidized film coating, and anode-oxidized film coating has a structure which provides a connecting region, in which each hollow cell, forming the coating film, is linked to the adjacent hollow cells, and non-binding region, in which three or more adjacent hollow cells are not associated with each other, and this porosity of the anode-oxidized film coating is sometimes present in the hollow cell, and sometimes second, forming the non-binding region.

[0011] the Proposed in the invention of the internal combustion engine has an anode-oxide�created film coating (or a heat insulating film) on the entire wall facing into the combustion chamber, or on parts of it. However, the internal combustion engine is proposed in the present invention has a film coating, which, unlike traditional anode-oxidized film coating has a microstructure in which - apart hollow cells having a cavity (first cavity), the cavity (second cavity) forms a non-binding region, for example, at the triple point between adjacent hollow cells (note: polycrystalline metals consist of many single crystals (in this case, the plurality of cells), resulting in between them formed the boundary relations; when this happens, point, converging three of the single crystal, is called the triple point), while the connecting region, in which the hollow cells touch each other, is chemically related structure.

[0012] Since the anode-oxidized film coating has a cavity, as it has low thermal conductivity and low heat capacity, but since it is also offered with a separate cavity (second cavity) between/among the cells, while the hollow cells are also chemically related to each other, such film coating also has the ability to relax the pressure, i.e., the expansion pressure and the injection pressure during combustion in the combustion chamber, as well as the ability to remove repetitive (cyclic) stresses from thermal expansion-contraction. In addition to the formation of cavities in all the triple points and at other points of three or more adjacent hollow cells constituting the coating film, it may be a film in which a second cavity is formed only on a part of triple points and other points.

[0013] the invention of the internal combustion engine may be a gasoline engine and a diesel engine and, with regard to its structure, as mentioned earlier, it is mainly from the engine block and cylinder head. Its combustion chamber is limited to the surface of the bore of the cylinder block, the top surface of the piston installed in the cylinder, the lower surface of the cylinder head and the surfaces of the heads intake and exhaust valves located in the cylinder head.

[0014] the Anode-oxidized film coating with the above-described microstructure can be formed on the entire wall facing the combustion chamber, or on the part of this wall, and in the latter case, the film can be formed, for example, only on the upper surface of the piston or on the surface of the valve head.

[0015] the Main material forming the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine, can be represented by aluminum and its alloys or titanium and its alloys. When forming anode-oxidized film coated�I on the wall, the main material is aluminum or its alloy, the coating film obtained from alumite.

[0016] the Mechanism of improvement of fuel consumption by the formation on the wall of the combustion chamber of the anode-oxidized film coating (insulating film) with a low thermal conductivity and low heat capacity will be described with reference to FIG.20. In an internal combustion engine, the temperature of the wall surface facing into the combustion chamber, is usually almost constant and does not change within 1 cycle of the injection - compression - combustion - release (conventional schedule of the wall temperature are shown in FIG.20), and the difference between the wall temperature and the temperature of the gaseous combustion products (graph of temperature of the gaseous combustion products in the cylinder shown in FIG.20) is heat loss. On the other hand, when the wall facing the combustion chamber, the formed insulating film with low thermal conductivity and low heat capacity, the temperature of the surface of the insulating film varies within 1 cycle, repeating fluctuations of temperature of the gaseous combustion products (diagram of the wall temperature of the insulating film of the internal combustion engine by using the invention shown in FIG.20). As a result, the temperature difference between the temperature of the gaseous n�of doctow of combustion and the temperature of the wall surface is smaller, than in the absence of an insulating film that reduces heat loss. Reducing heat loss leads to an increase of the piston and raise the temperature of release, and the increase of the piston leads to improved fuel consumption. These materials are described by the inventors in the above-mentioned application WO 2009/020206. The preferred thickness of the above-mentioned anode-oxidized film coating is in the range from 100 µm to 500 µm.

[0017] According to the inventors, when the thickness of the anode-oxidized film coating less than 100 μm, the temperature rise of the surface of the film coating during the combustion cycle is insufficient, the insulating properties are insufficient, and are described further improve fuel consumption to achieve does not work. Thus, to ensure the improvement of the fuel consumption minimum thickness is set to 100 μm.

[0018] on the other hand, the inventors also found that when the thickness of the anode-oxidized film coating more than 500 μm, it has a large heat capacity, and the characteristics of the vibration amplitude (properties, by which the temperature of the anode-oxidized film coating keeps track of the fluctuation of the gas temperature in the combustion chamber, while providing thermal insulation) deteriorates, since the anodic-oxidized p�Nochnoe coating begins to keep warm. 500 microns is also the upper limit of the thickness of the anodic oxidized film coating from the point of view of efficiency and ease of production, because production aluminas films thicker than 500 μm, in itself, is difficult. Preferred value specified above porosity also varies from 15% to 40%.

[0019] According to the estimates of the inventors, the formation of anodic-oxidized film coating with a porosity of from 15% to 40% and a thickness of from 100 μm to 500 μm on the entire surface of the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine provides a maximum improvement of fuel consumption by 5%, for example, for small uprated diesel engines with direct injection with turbocharging for passenger cars at the point of optimal fuel consumption corresponding to the rotational speed of 2100 rpm, and indicating an average effective pressure of 1.6 MPa. This improvement of fuel consumption by 5% is a value showing a clear significant difference for the improvement of fuel consumption, exceeding the experimental error of the measurements. In addition, the inventors along with improved fuel economy, thanks to insulation, exhaust gas temperature rises by about 15°C. In the actual engine like increasing the exhaust gas temperature is effective for reduced�I heating time of the recovery of the catalyst of oxides of NO ximmediately after execution and represents the value at which the degree of purification from oxides of NOxincreases and it is possible to determine the reduction of NOx.

[0020] on the other hand, when tested in cooling (test for hardening), conducted during the evaluation of thermal properties of the anode-oxidized film coating, the test sample is used, in which anodic oxidized film was coated on only one side, and further by heating the back surface (the side on which the anode-oxidized film coating was not applied) provided a high-temperature flow of cold air with a predetermined temperature is sprayed from the front surface of the test piece (the side on which the anode-oxidized film coating). This serves to decrease the temperature of the front surface of the test piece. This temperature is measured, and based on the temperature of the surface of the film coating time and cooling curve in order to estimate the speed of lowering the temperature. The speed of lowering the temperature is measured, for example, using time lowering the temperature at 40°C, which is read from the chart and represents the time required for lowering the temperature of the surface of film-covered�I'm at 40°C.

[0021] the Test on the quenching is carried out using test specimens with different porosity (the porosity of the anode-oxidized film coating is determined by using the sum of the first pores and second pores); for each of these test samples is measured while lowering the temperature at 40°C; and approximating curve is built for multiple graphs with a certain porosity and lowering the temperature at 40°C.

[0022] after Determining the porosity at the intersection of this curve is based on experimental points, with the value of the cooling time at 40°C (e.g., 45 MS) corresponding to 5% improvement of fuel consumption as described above, the inventors have determined that this porosity is 15%. Thermal conductivity and heat capacity of the film cover is lower and the effect of improving fuel consumption is higher at shorter cooling times at 40°C.

[0023] on the other hand, the test samples of the anode-oxidized film coating made with different porosity, and for each of them measured by a Vickers microhardness, and is constructed by approximating curve for multiple graphs with a certain porosity and Vickers microhardness. When the main material of the combustion chamber is composed of aluminum, the final alumina film should preferably be harder than the aluminum�ivy core material, and, given this fact, through the use of microhardness of aluminium Vickers as the threshold value, the inventors have determined for the porosity value of 40%, when read from the graph the porosity determined from the approximating curve and the threshold.

[0024] Thus, on the basis of tests on cooling, tested for microhardness Vickers and improved fuel consumption by 5% range of the porosity of the anode-oxidized film coating is adjustable from 15% to 40%.

[0025] in addition, when searching for an optimal range for the ratio φ/d, where "ϕ" - the average pore diameter of the first cavity (the average value of the diameters of the pores), and d is the average diameter of hollow cells forming anode-oxidized film coating, with different porosity, the inventors have identified a range corresponding to the above range of porosity of 15%-40% of 0.3-0.6.

[0026] the Surface of the anode-oxidized film coating preferably should be sealed with boiling water or steam or covered with a thin film having no pores, or to undergo both types of treatments. As an activator of tightness, you can use boiling water with the addition of, for example, sodium silicate.

[0027] to prevent the penetration of fuel and the gaseous products of combustion in porous ANO�but-oxidized film coating for surface treatment of anodic-oxidized film coating is applied, for example, a thin film of an inorganic sealant such as sodium silicate, which is applied layer, thinner than the anode-oxidized film coating. From the point of view of preserving both the above-described various properties of anodic oxidized film coating and to avoid excessive film thickness, it is desirable to use a thin film with a thickness of about 10 μm or less, in contrast to the previously described anode-oxidized film coating with a thickness of 100 microns to 500 microns.

[0028] As described above, the anode-oxidized film coating also preferably should be aluminas film. In addition, the Vickers microhardness of such anode-oxidized film coating should preferably be in the range from 400 HV 0,025.

[0029] In another aspect of the invention provides a method of manufacturing an internal combustion engine, described below. Thus, this manufacturing method is a manufacturing method of the internal combustion engine by forming anode-oxidized film coating on the entire wall facing into the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine, or part thereof, in which the anode is formed by dipping the entire wall or part thereof in the acidic electrolytic bath, the cathode is formed inside acid electric�lytic bath, then between the two electrodes carries the voltage adjusted in the range from 130 V to 200 V for the maximum voltage, and electrolysis is performed with the intensity of heat, is adjusted in the range from 1.6 cal/sec/cm2up to 2.4 cal/s/cm2to get the internal combustion engine, which on the surface of the entire wall or part of a anode-oxidized film coating structure having a connecting region, in which the hollow cells are linked with the adjacent hollow cells, and non-binding region, in which three or more adjacent hollow cells are not related to each other.

[0030] as to the conditions of anodization for forming anode-oxidized film coating having a microstructure described above, throughout the wall of the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine or part thereof, the inventors have determined that the electrolysis takes place favorably when voltage is applied, the maximum value of which is in the range from 130 V to 200 V, between the anode and the cathode in an acid electrolytic bath in which is immersed the whole wall or part of it, with the adjustment of the intensity of heat removal in the range from 1.6 cal/sec/cm2up to 2.4 cal/s/cm2. Conducting electrolysis under these conditions enables penetration of the acid into the bottom region (deep�th region) of the anode-oxidized film coating, what makes possible the formation of the first and second cavities of the desired size over the entire surface to cover the lower area of the anode-oxidized film coating.

[0031] the Intensity of heat is the amount of heat absorbed electrolytic bath, per unit time per unit surface area, and adjusting the temperature of the electrolytic bath in the range from -5°C to 5°C provides the intensity of heat removal in the range from 1.6 cal/sec/cm2up to 2.4 cal/s/cm2.

[0032] Another embodiment of a method of manufacturing an internal combustion engine in accordance with the invention preferably includes a first step of forming the anode by immersing the entire wall or part thereof in the acidic electrolytic bath, the formation of the cathode inside the acidic electrolytic bath, and then passing between the two electrodes voltage with a maximum value in the range from 130 V to 200 V, and the electrolysis with the adjustment of the intensity of heat removal in the range from 1.6 cal/sec/cm2up to 2.4 cal/s/cm2to obtain, therefore, on the surface of the entire wall or part thereof, an intermediate product of the anode-oxidized film coating structure having a connecting region where all of the empty cells associated with adjacent hollow cells�, and non-binding region, in which three or more adjacent hollow cells are not associated with each other; a second step of regulating the porosity defined by the first cavity is present in the hollow cell and the second cavity forming the non-binding region, through the expansion of cavities in the intermediate product of the anode-oxidized film coating by performing processing by extension then, using the acid on the entire wall or part thereof, which surface for the intermediate product of the anode-oxidized film coating.

[0033] This method of manufacture - with further expansion of the first and second cavity by performing processing on the expansion of the pores of the anodic-oxidized film of the coating formed by electrolysis under the same conditions as in the above-described method of manufacturing such an anode-oxidized film coating to the intermediate product), can provide a more reliable degree of porosity desired range.

[0034] In particular, by subsequent separate processing acid to the pore expansion (acid etching in order to expand the cavity) of the intermediate product of the anode-oxidized film coating produced in the first stage, the porosity, in General, can be adjusted by extending the first �of alosta through the dissolution of the inner part of the hollow cells and at the same time, by expanding the second cavity through the dissolution of a closed loop of the second hollow cavities between cells. Thus, it becomes possible to manufacture an internal combustion engine having throughout the wall of the combustion chamber and in other parts of the anode-oxidized film coating with high thermal conductivity and high heat capacity, with excellent properties of pressure relaxation and relieve thermal stresses.

[0035] Also, in the method of manufacturing in accordance with the invention, the thickness of the anodic oxidized film coating is preferably regulated in the range from 100 μm to 500 μm; the porosity is preferably regulated in the range from 15% to 40%; and, thus, the ratio φ/d, where "ϕ" - the average pore diameter of the first cavity that is present in the hollow cell, and d is the average diameter of the hollow cell of a cell, preferably regulated in the range from 0.3 to 0.6.

[0036] In a preferred embodiment of a method of manufacturing an internal combustion engine according to the invention a method of manufacturing is supplemented, after the formation of the above-described anode-oxidized film coating step of holding the sealing treatment with boiling water or steam, the step of coating a thin film having no pores, or by carrying out both operations.

[0037] As � previously described internal combustion engine in accordance with the invention, in order to avoid penetration of fuel and the combustion gases in the anode-oxidized film coating may further contain a step of performing the sealing processing, coating the surface with a thin film or both operations. For example, in the case of coating the surface with a thin film, coating the surface of the produced anodic-oxidized film coating with a thin layer of inorganic sealant such as sodium silicate, can prevent the penetration of the fuel and gas mixture inside the anode-oxidized film coating and, thus, to retain the various characteristics of anodic oxidized film.

[0038] The anode-oxidized film coating is preferably aluminum film coating. In addition, the microhardness of such anode-oxidized film coating Vickers should preferably be in the range from 110 to 400 HV 0,025.

[0039] As can be understood from the previous description, the internal combustion engine and method for its manufacture in accordance with the invention by forming the entire wall of the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine or its parts are anodic-oxidized film coating with a structure having a cavity (first cavity) inside the hollow cells, and makgeolli (second cavity), for example, the triple points between adjacent hollow cells, while the binding areas where hollow cells touch each other, a chemical binding is proposed an internal combustion engine having a film coating with low thermal conductivity and low heat capacity and thus excellent thermal insulation properties, as well as a great ability to relax the expansion pressure, etc. during combustion in the combustion chamber and relax repetitive stress from thermal expansion-compression, which makes it very durable.

BRIEF description of the DRAWINGS

[0040] the features, advantages and technical and industrial significance of this invention will be disclosed in the following detailed description of examples of execution of the invention with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which identical positions denote the same elements and in which:

FIG.1 is a view of an internal combustion engine in longitudinal section in accordance with an embodiment of the invention;

Fig.2A presents a three-dimensional image showing the microstructure of the protective layer from the anode-oxidized film coating of the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine, and shows a thin film on the surface of the anode-oxidized film�about coverage;

FIG.2B shows a view in longitudinal section showing the anode-oxidized film coating and thin film shown in FIG.2A;

FIG.3A presents a block diagram of a method of manufacturing an internal combustion engine in accordance with an embodiment of the invention;

FIG.3B presents a block diagram of a method of manufacturing in accordance with another variant embodiment of the invention;

FIG.4 presents a matrix chart which shows the range of maximum voltage and the intensity range of the heat removal in the first stage of a method of manufacturing an internal combustion engine, and describes an invalid range;

FIG.5A shows a photograph obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cross-sectional surface of the film coating after anodizing (first stage), the anode-oxidized film coating in accordance with the example for comparison (solid region of alumite);

FIG.5B presents the SEM photograph of the cross section of the lower part of the film coating after anodizing, anodic-oxidized film coating in accordance with the example for comparison;

FIG.5C presents a SEM photograph of the cross section of the surface of the film coating after anodizing, anodic xidirov�nogo film coating in accordance with example (the scope of the invention);

FIG.5D presents SEM photograph of the cross section of the lower part of the film coating after anodizing, anodic-oxidized film coating in accordance with example embodiments;

FIG.6A presents the SEM photograph of the cross section of the surface of the film coating after treatment for enlarged pores (second stage), the anode-oxidized film coating in accordance with the example for comparison (solid region of alumite);

FIG.6B presents the SEM photograph of the cross section of the lower part of the film coating after processing by extension then, the anode-oxidized film coating in accordance with the example for comparison;

FIG.6C presents the SEM photograph of the cross section of the surface of the film coating after processing by extension then, the anode-oxidized film coating in accordance with an embodiment of the invention (field of the invention);

FIG.6D presents the SEM photograph of the cross section of the lower part of the film coating after processing by extension then, the anode-oxidized film coating in accordance with example embodiments;

FIG.7 shows the SEM photograph of the cross section of the anode-oxidized film coating in accordance � example for comparison (region plasma anodizing);

FIG.8A presents a three-dimensional image, which shows a cast billet, which is the source of the test samples used in the experiments;

FIG.8B presents a three-dimensional image, which shows the test sample is cut from a cast ingot;

FIG.9A is a schematic view illustrating a test setup for cooling;

FIG.9B shows a cooling curve constructed on the basis of the results of tests on cooling and the cooling time at 40°C, the cooling curve;

FIG.10 is a graph showing the correlation between the percentage improvement in fuel consumption and the cooling time at 40°C when tested on cooling;

FIG.11 is a graph showing the correlation between the cooling at 40°C and porosity;

FIG.12 is a graph showing the correlation between Vickers microhardness and porosity;

FIG.13 is a graph which shows the relationship of the ratio ϕ/d and the optimal range of porosity, where "ϕ" - the average pore diameter of the first cavity, a "d" average cell diameter of hollow cells;

FIG.14A presents the SEM photograph of the cross section of alumite from the example for comparison 1, used in experiments;

FIG.14B presents the SEM photograph of the cross section of alumite for example sravnenie;

FIG.14C presents the SEM photograph of the cross section of alumite in example for comparison 3;

FIG.15A presents SEM photograph of the cross section of alumite Example 1 used in the experiments;

FIG.15B presents the SEM photograph of the cross section of alumite in Example 2 of the invention;

FIG.15C presents the SEM photograph of the cross section of alumite in Example 3 of the invention;

FIG.15D presents SEM photograph of the cross section of alumite of Example 4 of the invention;

FIG.16A presents SEM photograph of the cross section of alumite in example for comparison 4, used in experiments;

FIG.16B presents the SEM photograph of the cross section of alumite example for comparison 5;

FIG.17 is a graph showing the results of experiments that establish the lower limit of the range is the maximum voltage at which the condition is met, reduce the temperature to 40°C while improving fuel consumption by 5%;

FIG.18A is a graph showing the relationship between the duration of treatment for enlarged pores and porosity in the examples of the invention and examples for comparison;

FIG.18B is a graph showing the relationship between the duration of treatment for enlarged pores and the rate of decrease in temperature Wops�resti;

FIG.19A presents SEM photograph of the surface of the anode-oxidized film coating in the absence of treatment for enlarged pores;

FIG.19B presents the SEM photograph of the surface of the anode-oxidized film coating after the 20 minute treatment for enlarged pores;

FIG.19C presents SEM photograph of the surface of the anode-oxidized film coating after the 40-minute treatment for enlarged pores; and

FIG.20 is a graph accompanying the description of the mechanism of improvement of fuel consumption by the formation on the wall of the combustion chamber insulating film (anodic-oxidized film coating with low thermal conductivity and low heat capacity; this graph shows the temperature of the gas in the cylinder, the temperature of the surface normal of the wall and the temperature of the film surface of the anode-oxidized film coating representing a property of the internal combustion engine in accordance with the invention, in each case as a function of the angle of rotation of the crank.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION of EXAMPLES of IMPLEMENTATION

[0041] embodiments of the internal combustion engine and method of its manufacture in accordance with the invention is described below with reference to the drawings. While the following examples show options �of sushestvennee of the invention, in which anodic oxidized film layer formed on the entire wall facing into the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine, can be variants in which anodic oxidized film layer formed only on part of the wall facing into the combustion chamber, for example, only on the upper surface of the piston or on the surface of the valve head.

[0042] In FIG.1 shows in longitudinal section view of an internal combustion engine in accordance with an embodiment of the invention; FIG.2A and 2B are drawings showing a thin film and microstructure of anodic-oxidized film coating facing into the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine; and FIG.3A presents a block diagram of a method of manufacturing an internal combustion engine in accordance with an embodiment of the invention;

[0043] the Depicted internal combustion engine 10 relates to diesel engines and consists, say, of a cylinder block 1 formed therein cooling jacket 11, the cylinder head 2 is positioned above the cylinder block 1, the inlet port 21 and outlet 22 in the cylinder head 2, an inlet valve 3 and exhaust valve 4 installed so that they can freely move vertically in the holes that the inlet channel 21 � output port 22 open into the combustion chamber "NS", and the piston 5, is formed in such a manner that it can freely move vertically from bottom holes in the cylinder block 1. The internal combustion engine in accordance with the invention may, of course, be applied to a gasoline engine.

[0044] the Various essential elements of the internal combustion engine 10 is made of aluminum or its alloy. In another embodiment, the essential elements can be made of aluminum or its alloy, and other material, and their surface can be aluminised aluminium or its alloy.

[0045] furthermore, in the combustion chamber NS, limited by the essential elements of the internal combustion engine 10, on the walls, which they open out into the combustion chamber NS (surface channel of the cylinder 12, the lower surface of the cylinder head 23, the upper surface of the piston 51 and the surface of the valve head 31, 41) formed by anodic-oxidized film coating 61, 62, 63, 64 with a predetermined thickness and microstructure, shown in FIG.2A and 2B.

[0046] Such a microstructure and a method of manufacturing such a microstructure will be described on the example of the anode-oxidized film coating 61 is formed on the channel surface of the cylinder 12, as a sample.

[0047] the Anode-oxidized film coating 61 is formed on the surface 12 of the cylinder channel�and made of aluminum or aluminum alloy, is aluminum, and it is anodic-oxidized film coating 61 is formed of a plurality of hollow cells C having a first cavity K1 inside, and, more specifically, is a film coating having a microstructure in which each of hollow cells C are chemically related to the adjacent hollow cells C, C and a separate second cavity K2 on a non-binding region, in which three or more adjacent hollow cells C are not associated with each other, for example, the triple point.

[0048] Traditional anodic oxidized film layer has such a structure as illustrated on the anode-oxidized film coating 61, in which between three or more adjacent hollow cells C has a second cavity K2; on the contrary, inside a traditional anode-oxidized film coating of hollow cells are chemically linked to each other without gaps between them.

[0049] in contrast, illustrates the anode-oxidized film coating 61 has a first cavity K1 inside the hollow cell C and a separate second cavity K2, located on a non-binding region, where the hollow cells C that are not related to each other, and the porosity of the anode-oxidized film coating 61 is determined on the basis of this first cavity K1 and the second cavity K2. The size of the first cavity K1 and the formation and size of the second cavity K2 can regul�to adjust by adjusting accordingly the maximum voltage and temperature of the acidic electrolytic bath (or intensity heat) during electrolysis, which is formed by anodic-oxidized film layer, and by further processing in the form of treatment for enlarged pores, for example, by acid pickling.

[0050] based On the inventors experiments, see below, this porosity should preferably be in the range from 15% to 40%. The range of porosity can be determined by cross-section of the anode-oxidized film coating in the middle of its thickness; polishing ion beam; and measurements by image analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM images). In addition, as to the ratio φ/d, where "ϕ" - the average pore diameter of the first cavity K1, a, d - the average diameter of the hollow cell C, the ratio ϕ/d in the range from 0.3 to 0.6 corresponds to the above range of porosity from 15% to 40%.

[0051] furthermore, the inventors also found that the thickness t1 of the anode-oxidized film coating 61 should preferably be set in a range from 100 μm to 500 μm. That is, in the opinion of the inventors, when the heat-insulating anodic-oxidized film coating has a thickness less than 100 μm, the temperature rise of the surface of the film coating during the combustion cycle is insufficient, the insulating properties become insufficient, and the improvement of the fuel consumption to reach n�possible. Therefore, the minimum thickness required to ensure the improvement of the fuel consumption is set at 100 μm. On the other hand, the inventors also found that when the thickness of the anodic oxidized film coating exceeds 500 μm, at this point it becomes a high heat capacity and vibrational dynamic performance deteriorates, since the anode-oxidized film coating begins to keep warm. 500 microns also represents the upper limit of the anodic-oxidized film coating from the point of view of efficiency and ease of production, the production aluminas films thicker than 500 μm, in itself, is difficult. The thickness of the film coating can be measured using, for example, eddy current analyzer film thickness and to determine by calculating the average value for 10 points.

[0052] the Anode-oxidized film coating 61 as it has a microstructure characterized by a separate second cavity near K2, for example, the triple points between the hollow cells C having a first cavity K1, has both low thermal conductivity and low heat capacity, and, moreover, the ability to reduce the pressure, for example, the expansion pressure and the injection pressure during combustion in the combustion chamber NS, and the ability to relax �overawes stress from thermal expansion and contraction.

[0053] in addition, the establishment of its thickness in the range from 100 μm to 500 μm, as described above, provides the ease of its production and provides a film having insulating qualities, as well as oscillatory dynamic characteristics, i.e. the temperature of the anode-oxidized film coating follows the fluctuation of the gas temperature in the combustion chamber NS.

[0054] moreover, the inventors, by setting the porosity, defined by the first chamber K1 and second chamber K2, in the range from 15% to 40% is provided by a 5% improvement in fuel consumption, for example, for small uprated diesel engines with direct injection with turbocharging for passenger cars at the point of optimal fuel consumption corresponding to the rotational speed of 2100 rpm, and indicating an average effective pressure of 1.6 MPa. Besides, along with improved fuel consumption exhaust gas temperature rises by about 15°C due to thermal insulation that reduces heating time of the recovery of the catalyst of oxides of NOximmediately after execution and increases the degree of purification of oxides NOxthat may lead to reduction of NOx.

[0055] to prevent the penetration of fuel and the gaseous products of combustion in porous anodic-oxidized, PLANO�Noah cover 61, having first and second cavities K1, K2, on the surface of the anode-oxidized film coating 61 may be formed from a thin film 7 by applying an inorganic sealant such as sodium silicate, which is applied to a layer, thinner than the anode-oxidized film coating 61.

[0056] From the point of view of preserving both the above-described various properties of anodic oxidized film coating and to avoid excessive film thickness, it is desirable to set the thickness t2 such thin film 7, for example, to the value of about 10 μm or less, in contrast to the anodic oxidized film coating 61 with a thickness t1 of 100 μm to 500 μm.

[0057] a Brief description of the manufacturing method illustrated internal combustion engine 10 described below with reference to the flowchart in FIG.3A and FIG.4. FIG.4 presents a matrix chart which shows the range of maximum voltage and the intensity range of the heat removal in the first stage of a method of manufacturing an internal combustion engine, and describes an invalid range.

[0058] the Anode-oxidized film coating is first formed (step S1) by forming the anode by immersing the concrete wall parts facing into the combustion chamber NS, in an acid electrolytic bath (not shown), for example, with sulfuric acid, clicks�tion of the cathode inside the acidic electrolytic bath, then passing between two electrodes the voltage adjustment of the maximum value in the range of from 130 to 200 V, and the electrolysis with the intensity of heat that is installed in the range from 1.6 cal/sec/cm2up to 2.4 cal/s/cm2. These ranges of numeric values are discussed below. "Intense heat" is the amount of heat absorbed electrolytic bath, per unit time per unit surface area.

[0059] the execution of the film formation under the above described conditions at this stage of anodizing is used to stimulate the growth of hollow cells, the extension of the first and second cavities and, thus, regulation of porosity in the range from 15% to 40%, and also to enable the manufacture of film coating with a film thickness in the range from 100 µm to 500 µm.

[0060] After fabrication of the anode-oxidized film coating with the desired porosity of the surface of the anode-oxidized film coating is subjected to a sealing treatment with boiling water or steam, covered with a thin film without pores or both types of processing to obtain, thus, the internal combustion engine, in which the wall of the combustion chamber formed by the anode-oxidized film coating, which does not absorb fuel or a mixture of gases in the pores of the film, the anode�about-oxidized coating (step S2).

[0061] In FIG.3B shows a block diagram of another embodiment of the method of manufacture. This method of manufacture is to form the intermediate product of the anode-oxidized film coating the same method as in step S1 in FIG.3A (the first stage, the stage of anodizing, step S11), and then this intermediate product is treated by extension then, using an acid such as phosphoric acid (treatment by acid etching), for the extension of the first and second cavities and regulation of porosity in the range from 15% to 40% (the second stage, the expansion stage then, step S12). In other words, thanks to this second phase in this embodiment of the method of manufacture is achieved even more reliable control of porosity in the range from 15% to 40%.

[0062] After fabrication of the anode-oxidized film coating with the desired thickness by performing the above processing for obtaining the desired porosity is produced in the internal combustion engine by exposure of the anode-oxidized film coating, as in the manufacturing method in FIG.3A, the sealing treatment, the coating film or both types of processing (step S13).

[0063] In FIG.4 in matrix form, prepared by the inventors, shows the range of conditions for the first stage of the invention (the figure is the area of the invention), to�to the combination band intensity of heat removal and a range of maximum voltage, applied to the electrodes in an acid electrolytic bath, as well as the area outside this range.

[0064] the adjustment of the maximum voltage in the range from 130 V to 200 V and the intensity of heat removal in the range from 1.6 cal/sec/cm2up to 2.4 cal/s/cm2lets form at this stage of anodizing anodic-oxidized film coating with the desired thickness and first and second cavity of the desired size (at this stage you can pre-produce a cavity of a certain size as a pretreatment for formation of the cavities with the desired porosity by carrying out a processing step for expansion then performed as post-processing).

[0065] According to the inventors, the temperature of the electrolytic bath is preferably adjusted in the range from -5°C to 5°C to ensure the intensity of heat removal in the range from 1.6 cal/sec/cm2up to 2.4 cal/s/cm2. The intensity of heat removal can be adjusted by using the temperature of the electrolytic bath, and the speed of stirring of the electrolytic bath.

[0066] In the field, the area where the intensity of heat removal coincides with the scope of the invention, but the maximum voltage is less than the area of the invention, i.e. the maximum voltage less than 100 V, the size of the hollow cells is�tsya small and formed area of solid alumita in which between cells is not formed in the second cavity.

[0067] on the other hand, in the field, the area where the intensity of heat removal coincides with the scope of the invention, but the maximum voltage is greater than the area of the invention, i.e. the maximum voltage exceeds 200 V, there is a region of plasma anodization, in which the hollow cells are not formed.

[0068] in addition, the field intensity of heat removal under the scope of the invention impossible to form an anode-oxidized film coating with the desired thickness of the film in at least 100 μm, and it was found that the coating film is formed, in which between the cells there is no chemical bond.

[0069] Below in Tables 1 and 2 shows the processing conditions for anodic-oxidized film coating formed in the region of the invention shown in FIG.4 (example), anodic-oxidized film coating formed in the region of solid alumite (solid area) (example for comparison), and the anode-oxidized film coating formed in the region of the plasma anodizing (plasma region) (example for comparison). Image scanning electronic microscopy - SEM-photographs of an embodiment of the invention and examples for comparison are shown in FIG.5A-5D, FIG.6A-6D and f�7. Thus, in FIG.5C shows SEM photograph of the cross section of the surface of the film coating (from combustion chamber) after anodizing to an embodiment of the invention; FIG.5D shows SEM photograph of the cross section of the lower part of the film coating (the surface on which the coating film formed after anodization to an embodiment of the invention; FIG.5A shows SEM photograph of the cross section of the surface of the film coating after anodizing in accordance with the example for comparison (solid region of alumite); FIG.5B shows SEM photograph of the cross section of the lower part of the film coating after anodizing in accordance with the example for comparison (solid region of alumite). FIG.6C shows SEM photograph of the cross section of the surface of the film coating after treatment for enlarged pores to an embodiment of the invention; FIG.6D shows SEM photograph of the cross section of the lower part of the film coating after treatment for enlarged pores to an embodiment of the invention; FIG.6A shows SEM photograph of the cross section of the surface of the film coating after processing by extension then, in accordance with the example for comparison (solid region of alumite); and FIG.6B shows SEM photograph of the Pope�echnolo section of the lower part of the film coating after processing by extension then, in accordance with the example for comparison (solid region of alumite). FIG.7 shows the SEM photograph of the cross section of the anode-oxidized film coating in accordance with the example for comparison (region plasma anodizing).

Table 1
Conditions stage of anodizing
Electrolytic bathThe intensity of the heat (cal/sec/cm2)Bath temperature (°C)The maximum voltage (In)Current density (mA/cm2)Processing time (min)Media, film thickness (μm)Porosity (%)
(1) field of the invention20% Sulphuric acid1,90120906015520,1
(2) Solid area2,650101203,5
(3) Plasma region1,9250506013-

Table 2
The conditions of the processing steps for enlarged pores
AcidTemperature (°C)Processing time (min)The average film thickness (μm)Porosity (%)
(1) field of the invention5% phosphoric acid252014333,8
(2) Solid area1317,0
(3) Plasma region-----

[0070] In the case of film coating of esprimere embodiment of the invention, FIG.5 and 6 can confirm that the anodizing led to the formation of hollow cells of a certain size, having a cavity of a certain size, as on the surface of the film coating, and in its lower part; what part of the cells was dissolved during the treatment for enlarged pores, forming a larger cavity inside the cells, and, for example, at the triple points between cells; and that the cells have a large outer diameter and connected (chemical bonds) with each other.

[0071] in contrast, in the case of film coating from example for comparison in which the film formation was conducted in the field of solid alumite, at the stage of anodizing was formed only a very small cavity; treatment for enlarged pores results in only a slight expansion of cavities in the cells, not giving a satisfactory size; and, for example, in the triple points between cells of the cavity is not formed.

[0072] in addition, in the case of film coating from example for comparison in which the film formation was conducted in the field of plasma anodization, formation of hollow cells, as such, could not be confirmed, as shown in FIG.7.

[0073] the Following describes the experiments to determine the range of porosity and their results. The inventors have conducted tests on cooling, tested for microhardness Vickers and experiments on op�edeleny optimum range of porosity for the anode-oxidized film coating, based on the interest of improving fuel consumption. First, to test the cooling was made of cast billet, shown in FIG.8A, by die-casting aluminum alloy with the composition shown in Table 3, using molds for injection molding (not shown) (casting was carried out at 700°C by melting in air using a 30-kg melting furnace), and test samples were produced by cutting the workpiece into wafers with a thickness of 1 mm, as shown in FIG.8B. Anodic-oxidized film coating was formed on only one side of each test specimen, and cool down test was conducted using the obtained sample.

<0.01
Table 3
ComponentCuSiMgZnFeMnNiTiAl
The content (mass%)0,9912,30,980,110,291,27<0.01balance

[0074] the Following is a brief description of the test on the cooling. As shown in FIG.9A, the test sample is used TP, in which anodic oxidized film layer formed on only one side; the back side (the side that is not applied anode-oxidized film coating) is heated high temperature flow temperature of 750°C (shown in the figure as Heat), and the test sample TP overall is stabilized at a temperature of about 250°C; cooling begins by means of a nozzle, through which is ejected a stream of air at room temperature at a set rate, on the front side of the test piece TP (side coated with an anodic oxidized film coating) using a linear actuator [flow of cooling air at 25°C (shown in the figure as Air) is performed simultaneously with the continued flow of high-temperature flow on the backside of the sample]. The surface temperature of the anode-oxidized film coating of the test piece TP is measured by an external thermometer to measure the temperature reduction during the in�of erval cooling and construct a cooling curve, shown in FIG.9B. This test on cooling is a method of conducting tests in which simulated suction stroke on the inner wall of the combustion chamber and is estimated cooling rate of the heated surface of the anode-oxidized film coating. Insulating film with low thermal conductivity and low heat capacity shows a rapid cooling rate during quenching.

[0075] the Time required to reduce the temperature at 40°C, is read from built thus cooling curve to obtain the cooling time at 40°C, which is estimated thermal properties of the film coating.

[0076] In the present experiment, as shown in FIG.9B, the cooling front starts when the temperature has stabilized at 250°C for 100 MS and the measured cooling time at 40°C is equal to 45 MS.

[0077] the Inventors used a 5% improvement in fuel consumption as the target values that must be reached during the experiments when the anode-oxidized film coating, which forms the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine according to the present invention. 5% improvement of fuel consumption is a value that can clearly confirm the improved fuel consumption without errors due to errors in measurement�s and which, by raising the temperature of the exhaust gas, can reduce the heating time of the recovery of the catalyst of oxides of NOxand may lead to the reduction of oxides of NOx. The objective of the inventors was to determine the range of porosity to achieve this target value. The graph shown in FIG.10 represents a relationship between improved fuel consumption, certain inventors, and the cooling time at 40°C in test for cooling.

[0078] On the basis of the results obtained for the time of cooling at 40°C, corresponding to the reduction of fuel consumption by 8%, 5%, 2,5% and 1.3%, was built approximating curve (quadratic curve). The cooling time at 40°C, corresponding to the reduction of fuel consumption by 5%, consistent with the value 45 MS, defined in FIG.9B.

[0079] in order to construct a correlation curve of the relationship between test cooling and porosity and the relationship between Vickers microhardness and porosity were manufactured test samples in terms of the stage of anodizing (in terms of the stage of processing by extension then, for the examples of the invention, shown below in Table 4, using nine different porosity for the anode-oxidized film coating, in accordance with the examples for CPA�tion 1-5 and Examples of embodiments 1-4. The results of measurements of thickness, porosity, microhardness Vickers and time of cooling at 40°C for anode-oxidized film coating are shown in Table 5 for each test specimen.

[0080] When tested in the Vickers microhardness the Vickers microhardness was measured in the middle of the cross section of the anode-oxidized film coating, and as the value of the Vickers microhardness was used the average value for the five measurement points on each test specimen at a load of measurements of 0.025 kg.

Table 4
TPConditions stage of anodizing
The intensity of the heat (cal/sec/cm2)Bath temperature (°C)The maximum voltage (In)Current density (mA/cm2)Treatment time (h)The processing time for extension of time (min)
Ref. Example. 12,6050102 -
Ref. Example. 21,01050301-
Ref. Example. 31,65100302-
Example 11,65135302-
Example 22,4-3160901-
Example 32,00150901-
Example 42,0015090120
Ref. Example. 42,0014090140
Ref. Example. 52,0015090160
The base material------

Table 5
TPThe measured values for
The thickness of the film coating (μm)Porosity (%)Microhardness Vickers (HV 0,025)The cooling time at 40°C (MS)Environments. the diameter of the cell: d (nm)Environments. the pore diameter: ϕ (nm)ϕ/d
Ref. Approx. 11003,0 44425080100,13
Ref. Approx. 2609,2440187,390200,22
Ref. Approx. 311613,443150,490300,33
Example 112425,635044,5110500,45
Example 2156Of 31.5294Of 40.380400,50
Example 315520,137944,0100 400,40
Example 414333,825042,7150900,60
Ref. Approx. 413641,39141,9140900,64
Ref. Approx. 513843,010141,7160900,56
The base material--130440---

[0081] To determine the relationship between test cooling and porosity experiments were carried out using the method shown in FIG.9A, on the test samples of examples 1-5 and comparison examples of embodiments 1-4, the results were inflicted�NY at the schedule, as shown in FIG.11, and was built extrapola curve. FIG.11 shows extrapola curve, the cooling time at 40°C, corresponding to the improved fuel consumption by 1%, 2% and 5% (110 MS for 1%, 80 MS for 2% and 45 to 5%) and the time threshold cooling at 40°C for aluminum as the main material (440 MS).

[0082] on the Basis of FIG.11 and Table 5, the porosity at the intersection of 45 MS, which is the threshold value of the cooling time at 40°C, corresponding to 5% improvement in fuel consumption, and extraprise curve for individual test samples is 15%. This value is set as the lower limit of the numerical range limit of the porosity of the anode-oxidized film coating. As seen from Table 5, the cooling time at 40°C greater than 45 MS for test samples in the examples for comparison 1 to 3, which confirms the difficulty of achieving a 5% improvement in fuel consumption with such anode-oxidized film coatings.

[0083] the Vickers Microhardness and porosity of the test samples plotted in FIG.12, which also gives the corresponding extrapolatory curve. The range of 110 to 150 HV 0,025 representing a threshold range of hardness of materials based on aluminum are shown in gray.

[0084] on the Basis of FIG.12 and Table 5, the porosity on �peresechenii between extraprise curve and the Vickers microhardness 110 material based on aluminum is 40%. This value is set as the upper limit of the numeric range limit of the porosity of the anode-oxidized film coating. As can be seen from FIG.12, the Vickers microhardness of the anodic-oxidized film coating can be increased to values ranging from 110 to 400 HV 0,025 to ensure the porosity of the anode-oxidized film coating in the range from 15% to 40%.

[0085] based On the previous results, the optimal porosity range alumite (anodic-oxidized film coating) formed on the wall of the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine, can be set in the range from 15% to 40%.

[0086] the correlation Curve the value of the ratio ϕ/d in Table 5 and porosity are shown in FIG.13. From this figure one can understand that the range of the relation ϕ/d, corresponding to the optimal range of porosity from 15% to 40%, is from 0.3 to 0.6. When the value of ϕ/d is in the range from 0.3 to 0.6, and the value of the porosity is less than 15% or more 40%, as shown in the example for comparison 3 and 5, we cannot say that these examples are the best examples of the anode-oxidized film coating formed in the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine for the invention, and, therefore, the optimal range of the relation ϕ/d is set as described above, together with the above-described optimum range�the ZON porosity as prerequisites.

[0087] In FIG.14A-14C, 15A-15D, 16A and 16B shows images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM photographs) of cross sections of embodiments of and examples for comparison. Thus, in FIG.14A presents the SEM photograph of the cross section of alumite from the example for comparison 1; Fig's.14B presents the SEM photograph of the cross section of alumite from the example for comparison 2; FIG.14C presents the SEM photograph of the cross section of alumite in example for comparison 3; FIG.15A presents SEM photograph of the cross section of alumite from the example of the invention 1; FIG.15B presents the SEM photograph of the cross section of alumite in example embodiment 2; FIG.15C presents the SEM photograph of the cross section of alumite from example 3 of the invention; FIG.15D presents SEM photograph of the cross section of alumite in example embodiment 4; FIG.16A presents SEM photograph of the cross section of alumite in example for comparison 4; and FIG.16B presents the SEM photograph of the cross section of alumite example for comparison 5.

[0088] the specific photos you can see that in the examples for comparison, the pores are big enough, and from these pictures you can also confirm the following: between the cells is not adequate clearances (examples for comparison 1, 2 and 3), and the cavity too�m large and/or cell is not sufficient chemically bound together (examples for comparison 4 and 5). In contrast, for embodiments of the invention, it is possible to draw the following conclusions: the cells are formed with cavities of a certain size within the cell; the triple points between the cells (on a non-binding region) are present in the cavity of a certain size; and, since the cavity is not too large, formed a connecting region, in which the cells are chemically connected with each other at the points or side.

[0089] Next will be described the experiments to determine the relationship between the maximum voltage and the speed reduction of the surface temperature and the results of these experiments. The inventors measured the speed reduction of the surface temperature (the cooling time at 40°C) as a function of the peak voltage on the test samples prepared using different maximum stress at the stage of anodizing, as shown in Table 6. These measurements were plotted on a graph and plotted the experimental values was built extrapola curve shown in FIG.17.

The rate of decrease in surface temperature (MS/40°C)
Table 6
Conditions being processed by anodizingEnvironments. the thickness of the film coating (μm)
Electrolytic bathThe intensity of the heat (cal/sec/cm2)Bath temperature (°C)Current density (mA/cm2)The duration of treatment (min)The maximum voltage (In)
10% sulfuric acid1,9015030429564,1
150305010662,4
9060110199Of 49.5
9060116199A 50.1
904510315955,5
90 10013725241,1
20% sulphuric acid906012818645,0
906013317044,0

[0090] Given that, according to the Table 6 and FIG.17, the voltage of 130 V is the maximum voltage at the intersection of the values measured for the rate of temperature decrease on the surface of the individual test samples, and the threshold value is 45 (MS/40°C) for the rate of temperature decrease of the surface corresponding to the improved fuel consumption of 5%, and that the properties remain the same superior when the maximum voltage is equal to or above 130, these experiments provide the basis for setting the lower limit of the voltage applied at the stage of anodizing, at 130 V. the Voltage of 200 V as the upper limit of the applied voltage is based on knowledge, in the area above the 200 is In the region of the plasma anodization.

[0091] Next will be described the experiments to determine the relationship between duration of treatment on the expansion of p�R anodic-oxidized film coating and the speed reduction of the surface temperature and the results of these experiments. The inventors conducted experiments to determine the relationship between duration of treatment for enlarged pores and the rate of decrease in surface temperature. In particular, anodizing was carried out in the area of solid alumite and in the field of the invention, as shown in FIG.4, each of the obtained film coating was treated by extension then, a duration of 0, 20 or 40 minutes; for the resulting anode-oxidized film coatings were measured porosity and the decrease of surface temperature. Below in Table 7 for each of the samples tested are terms of stage of anodizing and processing stage, by extension then, and the measured values of the average thickness of a film coating, porosity, and rate of temperature decrease of the surface. A graph of the correlation between the duration of treatment for enlarged pores and porosity are shown in FIG.18A, and a graph of the correlation between the duration of treatment for enlarged pores and the rate of decrease in surface temperature are shown in FIG.18B. FIG.19A-19C are the images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM photographs) of the surface film coating the anode-oxidized film coating formed in step anodizing in the field of the invention and processed by the extension of long duration, sootvetstvenno�, 0 minutes (without treatment for enlarged pores), 20 minutes and 40 minutes.

Table 7
Method of anodizingConditions stage of anodizingThe conditions of the processing steps for enlarged poresAVG. the thickness of the film coating (μm)Porosity (%)The speed of the cooling surface (MS/40°C)
Electrolytic bathThe intensity of the heat (cal/sec/cm2)Temperature (°C)The maximum voltage (In)Current density (mA/cm2)The duration of treatment (h)AcidTemperature (°C)The duration of treatment (min)
Field of the invention20°C sulphuric acid1,901309060 5% phosphoric acid25015520,145
The area of solid alumite20°C sulphuric acid2,6050101205% phosphoric acid252014333,842
4013641,346
01413,5-
201317,0-
4012310,0-

[0092] According to Table 7 and FIG.18A, the resulting film coating produced with the use stage of anodizing in the range of the invention, Pori have�the employment of at least 20%. However, when processing, the expansion of pores within 40 minutes, the porosity is slightly higher than 40%, as shown in Table 7 and FIG.18A and 18B, and since the time of lowering the temperature of the surface is also slightly greater than 45 MS, it shows that the processing for holding the pores preferably should be less than 40 minutes.

[0093] the Image scanning electron microscopy (SEM photographs) of FIG.19A-19C confirm the following: the size of the pores is insufficient in film coating on the photograph in FIG.19A, where the expansion processing has not been carried out, while the pores are too large in film coating of FIG.19C (due to the destruction of the porous structure), where the expansion processing has been performed for 40 minutes; in contrast, FIG.18B, where the expansion processing has been performed for 20 minutes, the coating film is provided with pores, and also has a certain density, because its cells are linked with each other.

[0094] Next will be described the experiments for assessing the performance of the diesel engine and the results of these experiments. The inventors have completed the formation of Luminoso film coating with observance of the following conditions only on the upper surface of the piston in the combustion chamber of the engine and measured characteristics of the engine, in particular, improving fuel consumption and the change in the number of oxides NO x.

[0095] the engine Used here has the following specifications: vertical single-cylinder diesel engine with direct injection, water-cooled, ϕ 78×80 (382 cm3), 5,1 kW at 2600 rpm Alumit has the following technical characteristics: film thickness of 150 microns (after sealing processing: processing of boiling water), porosity corresponds to 15%. Treated alumita detail was the front part (the piston from the side of combustion chamber) of the upper part diesel plunger, and the coating alumium were made on other parts extending into the combustion chamber, e.g. cylinder head, valves and cylinder block.

[0096] Were measured three parameters characterizing the operation of the engine, with the following results: fuel consumption has increased (improved) by 1.3%, the opacity decreased by 29% and the number of oxides NOxdecreased by 4%.

[0097] According to the estimates of the inventors, it is possible to achieve approximately 2.5 times greater improvement of fuel consumption by forming the same Luminoso film coating over the entire surface of the wall compared with the formation of Luminoso film coating only on the top surface of the piston from all surfaces of the walls facing into the combustion chamber of the diesel engine. In addition, the inventors can expect to gain� improvement of fuel consumption of about 1.6 times by forming the same film coating in a diesel engine, equipped with a supercharger compared to a diesel engine without a supercharger (natural induction) with direct injection, as described above. Accordingly, a 5% improvement in fuel consumption can be achieved by forming a film coating, which is a structural element of the invention, in all the combustion chamber of a diesel engine with direct injection, equipped with a supercharger.

[0098] embodiments of the invention have been separately described above using the drawings, but the specific structure is not limited to these embodiments of the invention, and the invention includes variants of the design, manufacturing variations, etc. without deviating from the spirit of the invention.

1. The internal combustion engine, in which the entire wall facing the combustion chamber, or a portion of the formed anodic-oxidized film coating, characterized by the fact that
anodic-oxidized film coating has a structure in which a connecting region, in which each of hollow cells forming the coating film, is connected with the adjacent hollow cells, and non-binding region, in which three or more adjacent hollow cells are not connected to each other, and
the porosity of the anode-oxidized film coating is determined by the first cavity that is present in the p�older cells and the second cavity forming the non-binding region.

2. Internal combustion engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the thickness of the anodic oxidized film coating is in the range from 100 µm to 500 µm.

3. Internal combustion engine according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the porosity is in the range from 15% to 40%.

4. Internal combustion engine according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the ratio φ/d, where ϕ is the average pore diameter of the first cavity that is present in the hollow cell, and d is the average diameter of the hollow cell is in the range from 0.3 to 0.6.

5. Internal combustion engine according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the surface of the anode-oxidized film coating subjected to the sealing treatment with boiling water or steam, coated with a thin film without pores or both types of processing.

6. Internal combustion engine according to claim 5, characterized in that the thin film contains an inorganic sealant.

7. Internal combustion engine according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the anode-oxidized film coating is alumina film coating.

8. Internal combustion engine according to claim 7, characterized in that the Vickers microhardness of the anodic-oxidized film coating is in the range from 110 to 400 HV 0,025.

9. JV�FDS manufacturing of internal combustion engine by forming on the entire wall facing into the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine, and in other parts of the anode-oxidized film coating, comprising:
the formation of the anode by immersing the entire wall or part thereof in the acidic electrolytic bath, the formation of the cathode inside the acidic electrolytic bath, the subsequent application between the two electrodes voltage, the maximum value of which is adjustable from 130 to 200, and carrying out electrolysis with the intensity of heat, is adjusted in the range from 1.6 cal/sec/cm2up to 2.4 cal/s/cm2; and
the formation on the surface of the entire wall or part of the anode-oxidized film coating, the structure of which has a connecting region, in which each of hollow cells associated with the adjacent hollow cells, and non-binding region, in which three or more adjacent hollow cells are not related to each other.

10. A method of manufacturing an internal combustion engine according to claim 9, characterized in that it further comprises the following steps:
the first stage of formation of the intermediate product of the anode-oxidized film coating; and
the second phase of adjustment of the porosity, defined by the first cavity is present in the hollow cell and the second cavity forming the non-binding region, through the expansion of the cavities of the intermediate p�keep this product of anodic-oxidized film coating by performing processing by extension then, using an acid, on the whole wall or part thereof, coated with an anodic oxidized film coating.

11. A method of manufacturing an internal combustion engine according to claim 9, characterized in that the temperature of the acid electrolyte regulate in the range from -5°C to 5°C.

12. A method of manufacturing an internal combustion engine according to any one of claims.9 to 11, characterized in that the thickness of the anodic oxidized film coating is adjusted in the range from 100 µm to 500 µm.

13. A method of manufacturing an internal combustion engine according to any one of claims.9 to 11, characterized in that it further includes the following step:
the execution phase, after the formation of the anodic-oxidized film coating, sealing treatment with boiling water or steam, cover with a thin film without pores or both types of processing.

14. A method of manufacturing an internal combustion engine according to claim 13, characterized in that the thin film contains an inorganic sealant.

15. A method of manufacturing an internal combustion engine according to any one of claims.9 to 11, characterized in that the anode-oxidized film coating is alumina film coating.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in internal combustion engines. ICE comprises cylinder sleeve (1), cylinder cover (5), piston (6) and con-rod (7). Cylinder sleeve (1) has bosses (2) nearby sleeve top end with threaded bores for studs (3) coupling the cylinder sleeve (1) with cylinder cover (5) by nuts (4). Engine is provided with appliance (8) for retaining of piston with con-rod in cylinder sleeve at their installation at and removal from engine. Cylinder sleeve (1), cylinder cover (5), piston (6) and con-rod (7) are fitted in and removed from engine as a cylinder set hoisting mechanisms.

EFFECT: simplified assembly-disassembly.

3 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: cylinder-and-piston group includes a sleeve and piston with piston rings. Grooves are made on working surface of sleeve in opposite direction. Grooves are filled with non-ferrous metal. Grooves are made in the form of closed rings separated from each other. Angle of elevation of the first and the last grooves is in the range of 15…20 degrees, central groove - 40…45 degrees to diametrical plane of the sleeve. Grooves are located on working surface of sleeve from upper dead point to lower dead point.

EFFECT: improving operating quality of cylinder-and-piston group; decreasing friction coefficient between working surfaces of piston rings and sleeve.

2 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to engine production. Proposed cylinder liner has top, medium and bottom parts in liner axial direction. Top part circular outer surface is furnished with high-heat conductivity film extending from liner top edge to its center. Bottom part circular outer surface is furnished with low-heat conductivity film extending from liner center to its bottom.

EFFECT: reduced temperature difference in cylinder axial direction.

2 cl, 30 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to engine production. Cylinder sleeve for casting with embedded elements used in producing cylinder block has multiple ledges on its outer peripheral surface. Every ledge features narrowed shape. Metal material film is formed on cylinder sleeve outer peripheral surface and ledge surfaces. Thermal conductivity of aforesaid film exceeds that of sleeve or cylinder block. Film extends axially from one edge of the sleeve to its center. Film thickness in sleeve upper part is smaller than that in its lower part. Invention covers internal combustion engine comprising described sleeve.

EFFECT: sufficient strength of sleeve-to-cylinder block joint and heat withdrawal into cylinder block.

21 cl, 22 dwg

Piston engine // 2371597

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: piston engine 1 comprises top first ring 5 arranged nearby upper surface 4 of piston 3 that limits combustion chamber 2, second piston ring 6, arranged nearby top ring 5, circular gas chamber 7 limited by top ring 5 and second ring 6, and one or multiple channels 8 to communicate circular gas chamber 7 and engine combustion chamber 2. Top ring 5 and second ring 6 are inclined towards direction X wherein piston 3 reciprocates so that distance between aforesaid rings is greater on piston pressure side 9 than that on passive side 10.

EFFECT: reduced probability of damaging rings and cylinder inner surface.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; piston machines.

SUBSTANCE: according to invention, rods made of non-ferrous metal or alloy are fitted flush, with guaranteed interference, in through radial holes of cylinder liner walls. Rods are arranged in rows along liner generatrixes in staggered order relative to each other. Sides of ends of lower rods pointed inwards liner are overlapped by sides of above rods. Invention is aimed at providing uniform distribution of non-ferrous metal or alloy separated from rods by friction of piston rings over entire surface of liner at relatively simple design and increased heat transfer from combustion chamber into cooling jacket owing to opening of rods made of non-ferrous metal or alloy into cooling jacket.

EFFECT: improved cooling of engine cylinders.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to gasoline supply systems. Proposed internal combustion engine with injection of fuel into cylinder has cylinder block with cylinder liners, pistons, cylinder head with intake and exhaust channels and valves, combustion chambers, spark plugs, fuel feed nozzle and controller with sensors. Fuel feed nozzles are installed in walls of cylinder lines in space limited by lower compression ring of pistons in TDC and crown of pistons in BDC.

EFFECT: reduced stay of fuel-air mixture in engine cylinder and heat load of fuel nozzle.

5 dwg

Adiabatic engine // 2256809

FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion piston engines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed adiabatic engine increases absolute efficiency by 15-25% owing to increased amount of heat converted into mechanical work. Proposed adiabatic engine contains crankcase 1 with fitted-on cylinder 2 cooled by water jacket 4. False cylinder 6 with intake valve 7 and exhaust valve 9 and nozzle 8 is secured on cylinder 2 through heat insulating gasket 5. False cylinder 6 with false piston 10 feature low thermal conductivity and form variable volume hot chamber 11. Compensating clearance 12 is left between cylinder 2 and false piston 10. Heat insulating gasket 14 isolates hot false piston 10 from cold piston 15 carrying compression rings 16. Cold piston 15 interacts with cold cylinder 2 and provides compression in chamber 11 by means of compression rings 16. Piston 15 conveys mechanical work to consumer by means of connecting rod 17 and crankshaft 18. Low thermal conductivity of false cylinder 6 and false piston 10 and no cooling of false cylinder and false piston provide adiabatic thermal expansion process in chamber 11.

EFFECT: increased efficiency owing to more complete conversion of heart energy into mechanical work.

4 cl, 1 dwg

The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used in reciprocating machines

The invention relates to transport machinery and can be used in engine

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention set relates to automotive industry. Three-dimensional structured metal sheet for use in automotive heatshields has multiple recesses and bosses. All the bosses extend in the same direction normal to surface of smooth sheet material which surface determines neutral plane n. Bosses extend for the same distance h from this neutral plane. Multiple bosses together form regular grid. Each boss intersects with two other bosses to form connection. The heatshield for vehicle contains layer of the mentioned three-dimensional structured metal sheet with multiple recesses and bosses.

EFFECT: higher rigidity of three-dimensional structured metal sheet.

8 cl, 14 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: sound absorbing heat protecting shield for cars has leaf-like element with convex and sunken sections and perforations. The sunken sections are reinforcing sunken sections with sunken bottoms and sunken side surfaces. The perforations correspond to cracks of irregular contour and are made within boundaries of the sunk bottom.

EFFECT: improved sound waves absorbing.

11 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: diesel engine contains cylinders and covers with interior lining composed of composite ceramic elements. Pistons of the diesel engine are also made of composite ceramic elements, while mounting piston skirts are installed through gaskets in metal boxes containing piston rings. The boxes are connected to a crank gear mechanism. Ends of cylinder composite linings facing the axis of a crank shaft, ends of metal boxes facing the cylinder composite lining and cylinder interior surfaces form closed spaces each containing two bypasses with back valves installed into them. A receiver is mounted on the diesel engine; the said receiver via a pipeline is coupled to one of the bypasses with a back valve of each cylinder, while the second bypass with a back valve of each cylinder communicates with air. Boosting branches of each cylinder are connected to the receiver. Cylinders and cylinder covers interior linings can be arranged with a gap against the metal cylinder and the cover. There is a heat exchanger installed in the diesel engine, this exchanger by means of the heat of exhaust gases heats air flowing to cylinders. Separators-oil extractors are installed into pipelines connecting one of bypasses with the back valve to the receiver.

EFFECT: increased reliability of operation.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used at designing and manufacturing of heat-insulating screens with improved heat protection and damping properties. In proposed heat-insulating screen at least two holes for bolt joint are made on one axle. Chute-like projection of trapezoidal form is made along axle passing through hole for bolt joint. Shielding surface covering exhaust manifold is made single-layer, with thickness of layer from 0.5 to 1.5 mm and is provided with coating, thickness 0.02-0.50 mm, formed by gas-thermal spraying. Said shielding surface has at least two stiffening ribs directed across chute-like projection to preclude deformation of surface in transverse direction.

EFFECT: provision of reliable protection of parts in vehicle engine compartment against high temperature during long temperature action, effective damping of vibrations, reduced radiated sound energy and noise.

10 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: transport engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to vehicles powered by internal combustion engines. According to proposed method, noise and vibrations generated by engine are suppressed by forming compensating signal with resolving noise and vibrations into series of harmonic components of different frequency, and at damping provision is made for reduction of outer and inner noise generated by vehicle engine, taking into account coherent radiation of low frequency noise by free cuts of air intake branch pipe of air cleaner and tail pipe of exhaust system muffler. Compensating signal with amplitude equivalent to amplitude of suppressed noise and with counterphase is radiated into damping zones close to free cuts of air intake branch pipe and tail pipe, and noise and vibration pickups are installed in zones of minimum influence of external factor and at distance not exceeding 1/10λ from determined undesirable sources of aerodynamic or structural noise where λ is noise wavelength. Noise and vibration damping is carried out additionally in engine compartment and passenger compartment using noise and vibration absorbing and noise and vibration isolating materials for this purpose. Invention contains description of device aimed at reducing noise of vehicle powered by internal combustion engine.

EFFECT: improved noise damping.

6 cl, 4 dwg

The invention relates to the field of processes of heat transfer in the cylinder of diesel engine, internal combustion engine, the walls of boilers, furnaces, and buildings of various kinds of aircraft and missiles

The cylinder pair // 2064059
The invention relates to engine, and specifically to the field of heat engines and can be used, in particular in internal combustion engines

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to mould intended for moulding antireflection structure on moulded product. Proposed mould comprises flexible polymer film, layer of cured resin arranged thereon and layer of porous aluminium oxide made on aforesaid layer. Porous aluminium oxide layer has reverse prominent surface structure. Said structure has multiple recesses. Size of said recesses, if seen in perpendicular direction to said surface, varies between 10 nm and 500 nm. Flexible roller-shaped mould can be arranged on substrate outer surface. Said mould is used to form antireflection structure on polarisation plate. For this, said plate is displaced relative to mould. Note here that prior to forming said structure, polarisation plate axis is properly arranged parallel with roller perimetre, roller length making 2πr, where r is roller radius.

EFFECT: simplified production.

15 cl, 18 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: electro-chemical cell for production of porous anode metal oxides and semi-conductors consists of flat heat conducting holder of sample made out of chemically inert material, of working electrode in form of strip metal electrode arranged along perimetre of working surface of sample on its periphery isolated from electrolyte, of sample, of bath with electrolyte contacting sample, of auxiliary electrode located in volume of electrolyte, and of device for control of temperature in electro-chemical cell contacting back surface of sample holder. A generator of supersonic oscillations is attached to back surface of the sample holder.

EFFECT: raised repeatability of process of forming porous anode oxides of metal and semi conducting samples.

3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in electro-chemical treatment corresponding to plasma-electrolytic oxidation in galvanic-static mode at effective current density 0.05 - 0.20 A/cm2 and final voltage of forming 60 - 380 V during as long, as 5 min in electrolyte, including oxalate of iron and/or nickel acetate.

EFFECT: production of magnet-active oxide coating on valve metals and their alloys in one stage.

2 cl, 2 dwg, 8 ex

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