Aircraft landing with help of uv receivers abd radiators (2 versions)

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: aircraft landing on runway is executed with the help of UV receivers. Aircraft is detected by UV receivers of photon emission before approach to homing zone. Detection is executed by two sets of UV receivers spinning in synchronism and in synphase about their axes in azimuthal plan of surface poles. Said poles are spaced apart for base spacing. Every said set of poles executes detection in all directions of elevation plane. Received signal processed, instruction for manoeuvre are sent to aircraft.

EFFECT: higher safety of aircraft flights.

5 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of civil aviation and can be used to improve the safety of aircraft operations (aircraft).

The famous "Complexed universal weatherproof method of determining the location and landing of an aircraft and device for its implementation" [patent No. 2441203 on the same invention, IPC G01C 21/24 from 29.09.2010 G.], characterized by the use for locating and landing aircraft radio modern high-precision global navigation satellite system (Russian GLONASS, us GPS, etc.)

The disadvantage of all satellite systems is the impossibility of their use in case of accidental or deliberate interference, clogging the radio signals of navigation satellites (NS) or during controlled shutdowns of radio signals NS, changing their frequency radio signals and even the destruction of their own or others NS in order to military resistance. That is why to date on all the armed forces are used since ancient times gyroscopes (although much of ustupayuschie in precision satellite navigation and providing virtually no landing of modern aircraft in conditions of poor visibility), providing additional emergency funds determination of the location of the sun relative to the Earth and the course of its flight.

Naib�more closest to the technical essence to the claimed method is "a Method of photonic locations aerial object" [patent No. 2497079 for the invention of the same name by IPC G01C 21/24 from 07.06.2012 g], characterized before the arrival aircraft to the area drive it on the runway (PP) with UV detection receivers (PFO) photon radiation of the sun, the sources of which are the field ionization of gases near the bow and the nozzle moving aircraft, wherein the detection of aircraft is carried out using first and second groups PFO, placed respectively on the first and second vertical synchronous and in-phase mechanical rotating around its axis in the azimuthal plane ground poles spaced from each other at a basic distance, moreover, with each group PFO detection of photon radiation the sun at every moment of time is carried out from all directions pomestnoy plane due to the uniform distribution of optical axes of each group PFO this plane with a narrow radiation pattern PFO in the azimuthal plane, and the rotation of the masts on each 360-degree review - consistently from all directions pomestnoy plane taken by each group PFO sun radiation is converted to each FPE in digital code, and then register in the memory of the calculator separately for each mast ordering for each detected radiation obtained with fixation of the azimuthal angle and elevation angle, moreover, the azimuthal angle for each calculate the mast in the middle sector cont�on the received radiation, formed as a result of rotation of the masts, and elevation for each calculate the mast in the middle of the sector continuously received radiation corresponding set of adjacent PFO, simultaneously with the received azimuth angles and locations for each of the radiation for each mast in memory of the transmitter register of the relevant lap times, and then for the ongoing review identify separately the data obtained for each mast on their General traits of angles and time in specific coordinates of the location of FR, which is specified on the next and subsequent surveys on the grounds specified angles, range and altitude of aircraft as well as appearing on more General grounds of speed, maneuver and direction of aircraft movement.

A disadvantage of the known method that provides detection and tracking of aircraft without the use of satellite navigation independently in terms of interference, is that it does not provide landing aircraft on the runway (PP).

The technical result and the purpose of the claimed method is to expand the functional capabilities of the known invention is the provision of landing aircraft on the PP due to the coordinated use of ultraviolet technology on the ground and onboard aircraft for display it on the centreline of the PP and at its beginning: for option 1 - using land respectively placing� PFO photonic locations sun and ultravioletas communication (UV), transmitting on aircraft, appropriate correction of the landing glide path of the aircraft; option 2 - using land respectively placed ultraviolet emitters (UFI) and on-Board PFO, receiving signals UFI pointing to the location of PP and used to generate a landing glide slope aircraft.

The specified technical result and the purpose of embodiment 1 are achieved in that the method of landing an aircraft) using ultraviolet receivers and emitters characterized before the arrival aircraft to the area drive it on the runway (PP) with UV detection receivers (PFO) photon radiation of the sun, the sources of which are the field ionization of gases near the bow and the nozzle moving aircraft, wherein the detection of aircraft is carried out using first and second groups PFO, placed respectively on the first and second vertical synchronous and in-phase mechanical rotating around its axis in the azimuthal plane ground-based masts, spaced from each other on the base distance, and with each of the groups PFO detection of photon radiation the sun at every moment of time is carried out from all directions pomestnoy plane due to the uniform distribution of optical axes of each group PFO this plane with a narrow radiation pattern in PFO azimuthal PLO�bones, and due to the rotation of the masts on each 360-degree review - consistently from all directions pomestnoy plane taken by each group PFO sun radiation is converted to each FPE in digital code, and then register in the memory of the calculator separately for each mast in an orderly manner for each detected radiation obtained with fixation of the azimuthal angle and elevation angle, and azimuth angle for each calculate the mast in the middle of the sector continuously received radiation generated by rotation of the masts, and elevation for each calculate the mast in the middle of the sector continuously received radiation corresponding set of adjacent PFO, simultaneously with the received azimuth angles and locations for each of the radiation for each mast in memory of the transmitter register of the relevant lap times, and then for the ongoing review identify separately the data obtained for each mast on their General traits of angles and time in specific coordinates of the location of FR, which is specified on the next and subsequent surveys on the grounds specified angles, range and height of the sun, and is appearing on more General grounds of speed, maneuver, and direction of aircraft movement, the first and second mast set at the beginning of the runway from different sides of it with an equal and secure� from her removal, wherein the base distance, being orthogonal cut to the Central longitudinal axis PP, divide this axis into two equal parts, to ensure the landing of aircraft and PP is also used UV-communication with ground-based UV transmitter and an on-Board UV receiver, through which the sun, included in the zone of the actuator on a PP transmit data to correct its flight, with the sun approaching the PP on the left and having in regard the azimuthal angles of the direction PFO respectively on the first and second masts X1 and x2 is less than 90 degrees, give instructions in a maneuver in which, when continuously decreasing range of aircraft from PP these angles will increase until, until with the continued expansion of the angle x2 will decrease the angle X1, and for aircraft approaching the PP to the right and having in regard the azimuthal angles X1 and x2 is greater than 90 degrees, give instructions in a maneuver in which, when continuously decreasing distance from the sun to PP these angles will decrease until, while with the continued decrease in the angle of the XI angle x2 will start to increase at any approaching aircraft to PP fulfil the condition X1+x2=180 degrees, providing rectilinear movement of the sun, combining it with the axial line PP until the passage of the sun over a segment of the base distance at X1=0 and x2=180 degree, and then to a full stop aircraft on the PP meets the requirement of its movement X1+x2=40 degrees moreover, in parallel with azimuth guidance for the armed forces provide appropriate guidance to reduce prometnih values Y1 and Y2 to zero at the touch of PP.

The specified technical result and purpose according to embodiment 2 is achieved in that the method of landing aircraft using ultraviolet receivers and emitters, characterized by the fact that before the arrival aircraft to the area drive it on PP use traditional navigational gyroscope to determine the position of the sun relative to the Earth and the formation of his course of flight for landing aircraft entering the zone drive it on PP, use on AC side FPE and the plane PP group ultraviolet emitters (UFI), located on the safe operation of the aircraft distance from PP, of which n - before PP on its axial line and m - in the beginning PP symmetrically on different sides on the line orthogonal to the axial line PP, with equal distance from the centerline of PP, with the on-Board PFO accept UV signals from all ground UFI, on which the sun used so that glidepath sun stayed strictly above the axial UFI, and lowering and landing of aircraft in strict conformity with the beginning of PP, which is determined by orthogonal UFI.

Fig.1 and 2 respectively presents sketches illustrating the landing of aircraft under option 1 and 2.

Fig.1 and 2 shows two options for PP 1, its axial line 2 and l�ing 3 in early PP, orthogonal to the axial line PP, sun 4.

In addition, for option 1 is shown (Fig.1) the first 5 and second 6 masts and base the distance 7 between them, the point 8 of the projection of the sun to the earth, the azimuthal angles X1 and x2 respectively for the first and second masts, angles A1 and A2 respectively for the first and second poles, and the first 9 and second 10 group PFO, the transmitter 11, the UV transmitter 12, a UV receiver 13 and the trajectory 14 of maneuver forces.

For option 2 shows, in addition, the first 15, second 16 and third 17 UFI and 18 FPE onboard aircraft.

Both options, specifying and complementing each other, can be used simultaneously. Maybe a combination in one instrument of UV receiver 13 and 18 FPE. But in Fig.1 and 2 are shown separately, to have more clarity. Also for simplicity in Fig.2 shows an example with three UFI, although the reliability of their number can be more.

Method of landing an aircraft) using ultraviolet receivers and emitters, characterized approach to sun 4 to zone drive it on the runway (PP) 1 ultraviolet detection receivers (PFO) 9 and 10 photon radiation VS 4 from the field ionization of gases near the bow and the nozzle moving sun 4, wherein detection of a / C 4 is carried out using the first 9 and second 10 groups PFO, placed respectively on the first 5 and second 6 vertical synchronous and si�phase mechanical rotating around its axis in the azimuthal plane ground-based masts, spaced from each other at a base distance of 7, and with each of the groups PFO detection of photon radiation the sun at every moment of time is carried out from all directions pomestnoy plane due to the uniform distribution of optical axes of each group PFO 9 and 10 of this plane with a narrow radiation pattern PFO in the azimuthal plane, and the rotation of the mast 5 and 6 on each 360-degree review - consistently from all directions pomestnoy plane taken by each group 9 and 10 FPE sun radiation 4 convert each FPE in digital code, and then recorded in a memory of the transmitter 11 separately for each of the mast 5 and 6 in an orderly manner for each detected radiation obtained with fixation of the azimuthal angle of X1 and x2 and the angle designated U1 and U2, and the azimuthal angle for each of the mast 5 and 6 are calculated from the middle of the sector continuously received radiation generated as a result of rotation of the mast 5 and 6 and the elevation angle U1 and U2 for each calculate the mast in the middle of the sector continuously received radiation corresponding set of adjacent PFO, simultaneously with the obtained angles X1 and x2 azimuth and places U1 and U2 for each of the radiation for each of the mast 5 and 6 in the memory of the calculator register 11 corresponding readouts of time, after which for the current review identified separately obtained�s data to each of the mast 5 and 6 according to the signs of the angles and time in a specific coordinate of location th 4, which are specified on the next and subsequent surveys on the grounds specified angles, range and altitude sun 4, and is appearing on more General grounds of speed, maneuver 14 and the direction of the aircraft motion 4, first 5 and second 6 mast set at the beginning of the runway 1 with different sides of it with an equal and safe from her removal, in which the base distance of 7, being orthogonal segment 3 to the Central longitudinal axis 2 PP 1, divide this axis into two equal parts, to ensure the landing of aircraft on 4 PP 1 use also UV-communication with ground-based UV transmitter 12 and side UV receiver 13, which on a sun 4, included in the zone of the actuator to claims 1, transmit data to correct its flight, sun 4, approaching 1 from the left and having in regard the azimuthal angles X1 and x2 directions FPE respectively on the first and second masts X1 and x2 is less than 90 degrees, give instructions to maneuver 14, wherein when continuously decreasing range Wed 4 from PP 1 these angles will increase until, until with the continued expansion of the angle x2 will decrease the angle X1, and for all 4 approaching 1 from the right and having in regard the azimuthal angles X1 and x2 is greater than 90 degrees, give instructions to maneuver 14, wherein when continuously declining range from Thu 4 to SP1 these angles will decrease until p�ka with the continued decrease in the angle X1 is an angle x2 will start to increase at any approach sun 4 to SP1 fulfill the condition X1+x2=180 degrees, providing rectilinear movement of the sun 4, conjugating it with the centerline 2 PP 1 up to the time of the passage of the sun over 4 cut the basic distance 7 when X1=0 and x2=180 degree, and then to a complete stop VS 4 on PP 1 fulfill the conditions of its movement X1+x2=540 degrees, and in parallel with azimuth guidance for all 4 give appropriate instructions to reduce prometnih values Y1 and Y2 to zero at the touch of PP.

The method of planting sun 4 using ultraviolet receivers and emitters, characterized by the fact that before the approaching sun 4 to the drive its on SP1 use traditional navigational gyroscope to determine the position of the sun 4 relative to the Earth and the formation of his course of flight for landing aircraft 4, included in the zone drive it on PP 1, used on aircraft 4 side PFO 18 and in the plane PP 1 group ultraviolet emitters (UFI) 15, 16, 17, located on safe for sun 4 distance from PP 1, of which n - before the beginning of PP 1 at its axial lines 2 and m - at the beginning of PP 1 symmetrically from different points of view on the line 3, orthogonal to the centerline 2 PP 1, with equal distance from the centerline 2 PP 1, with the on Board 18 FPE take the UV signals from all ground UFI 15, 16, 17, on sun 4 use so that glidepath MO found 4�ü strictly over axial UFI 17, and decrease and landing mon 4 strictly corresponded to the beginning of FG1, which is determined by orthogonal UFI 15 and 16.

The method of embodiment 1 is as follows.

Suppose, for example, for whatever reason (interference, clogging the radio signals from the satellites, failures, etc.) satellite navigation impossible and there is no visibility of SP1 (Fig.1).

In this case, the possible detection of a / C 4 and its landing on PP1 based on the photonic locations for which advance on line 3 at the beginning of PP 1, orthogonal to the centerline 2 PP 1 from different points of view and of the equal and safe distance from the centerline of 2 (for example, 100 m; the more, the more accurate method) set first 5 (with the first group of 9 FPE) and 6 second (with the second group of 10 FPE) mast, synchronously and in-phase rotating around their axes (e.g., clockwise) in the azimuthal plane with the reference point of the angles X1 and x2 from line 3.

Let both groups 9 and 10 of the PFO have a relatively narrow radiation pattern in the azimuthal plane, and in pomestnoy plane of the optical axis of each group PFO 9 and 10, respectively, with their directional diagrams are uniformly distributed from 0 to 90 degrees, closing in the amount taking into account the rotation of the mast 5 and 6 all the space. Thus the narrower the radiation pattern in PFO pomestnoy plane (the greater the number of PFO in �the group 9 and 10), the more accurate method. SC when flying in the nose and tail parts accordingly creates shock and thermal ionization of the gas and photon radiation, which take groups 9 and 10 of the PFO, where appropriate transform signals into digital code, which then react in the memory of the calculator 11, first separately for each of the mast 5 and 6. The azimuthal angles X1 and x2 respectively for masts 5 and 6 are calculated from the middle of the corresponding azimuthal sectors (each sun - the source of radiation has its own sector, with each mast; 5 and sometimes 6 sector on the mast may merge, but they are resolved then another mast, if appropriate sun are near indistinguishable) continuously taken. These azimuthal sector limited to a particular directional diagrams of all PFO in this group 9 (10), which may differ slightly (in the determination of the azimuthal angles X1 and x2 use the total radiation pattern within each group PFO, increasing reliability in this calculation). On each mast 5 and 6 azimuthal sectors are formed at the intersection of the photon flux of the radiation pattern of the respective group 9 and 10 FPE during the rotation of these masts.

At the same time the same groups 9 and 10 FPE masts 5 and 6 are used to determine the angles U1 and U2. But now plamisty sector op�delayt the boundaries of extreme vertical FPE in each group 9 and 10 (extreme outside PFO photon radiation is absent, and between them there). The angles U1 and U2 are calculated from the respective middle prometnih sectors.

The calculated values for each mast for each aircraft (a few possible before the arrival aircraft to the area of the actuator for PP 1 at planting should be the only sun 4, which is described in the example in Fig.1 and 2) remember in the computer 11 with the corresponding binding to a specific reference system of universal time.

Then, in the transmitter 11 for the current review (in a single revolution of the masts 5 and 6 around its axis - 360 degrees) are identified separately obtained on the mast 5 and 6 provide data on the General characteristics of angles and time in specific coordinates of the sun 4 in the given time. As is known, an unambiguous determination of the coordinates of the sun 4 is based on measurements of the object (sun 4) posted two of the known points (the mast 5 and 6 with a known distance between them) when all known direction-finding angles (X1, x2, U1, U2) or the trigonometric calculation of similar right triangles with all angles and the known distance of 7 (base length) between the masts 5 and 6.

At each regular review (every few seconds) the coordinates of the sun 4 clarify and further define the speed, direction of movement and maneuver VS 4, and using the UV connection (also works in conditions of interference from the earth in the UV TRANS�the UV sensor 12 receiver 13 in the aircraft report 4 about the correctness of his course or required maneuver 4, which is controlled as described above.

When you log VS 4 in the zone actuator to paragraphs 1 (approximately 20 km to claims 1 or about 1 min to paragraphs 1) through UV-communication mode of the autopilot or manual landing provide the conditions X1+x2=180 degrees, which corresponds to the rectilinear movement of the sun 4, conjugating it with the centerline 2 PP 1 up to the time of the passage of the sun over 4 cut the basic distance 7 when X1=0 and x2=180 degrees, then to a complete stop VS 4 on PP 1 fulfill the conditions of its movement X1+x2=540 degrees. In parallel with azimuth guidance for all 4 give appropriate instructions to reduce prometnih values Y1 and Y2 to zero at the touch of PP 1.

Here are not considered unsuccessful maneuvers Wed 4, a second landing approach, and many other possible situations, because it is beyond the scope of this proposal.

The method of planting sun 4 according to embodiment 2 is as follows.

The difference of this version from the one considered above in option 1 is that to ensure proper planting sun in zone 4 PP 1 instead of photon locations with masts 5 and 6 with groups 9 and 10 FPE using much simpler ultra-violet radiation (UV) index 15, 16 and 17 (Fig.2) located at a safe to mon 4 distance from PP 1 (e.g., 50 metres training likely touch the sun 4 PP 1). Wherein n UFI come up on�Ala PP 1 at its axial line 2, a m UFI feature on the line 3 at the beginning of PP 1, orthogonal to the centerline 2 PP 1 from different points of view and with equal destruction. For this example n=1, a m=2, although the reliability of their number can be increased. While onboard aircraft use 4 side PFO 18, which in the zone of the drive VS 4 on SP1 automatically takes from UFI 15, 16 and 17, the signals on the basis of which the autopilot guides the aircraft strictly 4 centerline 2 PP 1 over axial UFI 17 with lowering and landing of aircraft 4 respectively at the beginning of PP 1, which corresponds to the orthogonal UFI 15 and 16.

It is important to note that the method of embodiment 1, except for landing aircraft 4, it provides early detection (for example, for 100 km from PP 1) and its support is more universal and holistic, which is not provided by means of the method according to embodiment 2, working only in the vicinity of SP1. Therefore, in view of the impossibility of use of satellite navigation for early detection and long drive to SP1 in addition to remedies of method 1 is used, for example, standing on all aircraft gyroscope, determining the position of the sun relative to the Earth.

To improve the safety of landing aircraft 4 it is advisable to use jointly funds photonic locations with masts 5 and 6 and groups 9 and 10 FPE with UV connection 12 and 13 and means UFI 15, 16, 17 and 18 FPE.

1. The method of planting with air�bottom (VS) using ultraviolet receivers and emitters, characterized before the arrival aircraft to the area drive it on the runway (PP) with UV detection receivers (PFO) photon radiation of the sun, the sources of which are the field ionization of gases near the bow and the nozzle moving aircraft, wherein the detection of aircraft is carried out using first and second groups PFO, placed respectively on the first and second vertical synchronous and in-phase mechanical rotating around its axis in the azimuthal plane ground poles spaced from each other at a basic distance, moreover, with each group PFO detection of photon radiation IN at any given time is carried out from all directions pomestnoy plane due to the uniform distribution of optical axes of each group PFO this plane with a narrow radiation pattern PFO in the azimuthal plane, and the rotation of the masts on each 360-degree review - consistently from all directions pomestnoy plane taken by each group PFO sun radiation is converted to each FPE in digital code, and then register in the memory of the calculator separately for each mast in an orderly manner for each detected radiation obtained with fixation of the azimuthal angle and elevation angle, moreover, the azimuthal angle for each calculate the mast in the middle sector cont�on the received radiation, formed as a result of rotation of the masts, and elevation for each calculate the mast in the middle of the sector continuously received radiation corresponding set of adjacent PFO, simultaneously with the received azimuth angles and locations for each of the radiation for each mast in memory of the transmitter register of the relevant lap times, and then for the ongoing review identify separately the data obtained for each mast on their General traits of angles and time in specific coordinates of the location of FR, which is specified on the next and subsequent surveys on the grounds specified angles, range and height of the sun, and is appearing on more General grounds of speed, maneuver and direction of aircraft movement, characterized in that the first and second mast set at the beginning of the runway from different sides of it with an equal and safe from her removal, in which the base distance, being orthogonal cut to the Central longitudinal axis PP, divide this axis into two equal parts, to ensure the landing of aircraft and PP is also used UV-communication with ground-based UV transmitter and an on-Board UV receiver, through which the sun, included in the zone of the actuator on a PP transmit data to correct its flight, for aircraft approaching the PP on the left and having, therefore, the azimuthal angles napravlenieah respectively on the first and second masts X1 and x2 is less than 90 degrees, give instructions in a maneuver in which, when continuously decreasing range of aircraft from PP these angles will increase until, until with the continued expansion of the angle x2 will decrease the angle X1, and for aircraft approaching the PP to the right and having in regard the azimuthal angles X1 and x2 is greater than 90 degrees, give instructions in a maneuver in which, when continuously decreasing distance from the sun to PP these angles will decrease until, while with the continued decrease in the angle X1 is an angle x2 will start to increase at any approaching aircraft to PP fulfil the condition X1+x2=180 degrees, providing rectilinear movement of the sun, combining it with the axial line PP until the passage of the sun over a segment of the base distance at X1=0 and x2=180 degree, and then to a full stop aircraft on the PP meets the requirement of its movement X1+x2=540 degrees, and in parallel with azimuth guidance for the armed forces provide appropriate guidance to reduce prometnih values Y1 and Y2 to zero at the touch of PP.

2. The method of landing aircraft using ultraviolet receivers and emitters according to claim 1, characterized in that for landing aircraft entering the zone drive it on PP, use on AC side FPE and the plane PP group ultraviolet emitters (UFI), located on the safe operation of the aircraft distance from the PP, of which n - before PP on its OS�howl line and m - at the beginning of PP symmetrically on different sides on the line orthogonal to the axial line PP, with equal distance from the centerline of PP, with the on-Board PFO accept UV signals from all ground UFI, on which the sun used so that glidepath sun stayed strictly above the axial UFI, and lowering and landing of aircraft in strict conformity with the beginning of PP, which is determined by orthogonal UFI.

3. A method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that n=1, a m=2 one by one from different sides PP.

4. The method of landing aircraft using ultraviolet receivers and emitters, characterized by the fact that before the arrival aircraft to the area drive it on PP use traditional navigational gyroscope to determine the position of the sun relative to the Earth and forming its course of flight, characterized in that for landing aircraft entering the zone drive it on PP, use on AC side FPE and the plane PP group ultraviolet emitters (UFI), located on the safe operation of the aircraft distance from PP, of which n - before PP on its axial line and m - in the beginning PP symmetrically on different sides on the line orthogonal to the axial line PP, with equal distance from the centerline of PP, with the on-Board PFO accept UV signals from all ground UFI, on which the sun used so that glidepath sun stayed strictly above the axial UFI, and reduced�e and landing of aircraft in strict conformity with the early PP, which is determined by orthogonal UFI.

5. A method according to claim 4, characterized in that n=1 and m=2 one by one from different sides, PP.



 

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11 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: optical aids for aircraft landing.

SUBSTANCE: proposed lighting fixture includes lamp unit emitting light in preset directions within preset angles of radiation forming angle α relative to axis which is perpendicular to flat surface. Each lamp unit is provided with light-refracting unit of longitudinal direction which is matched with direction of light, inlet surface which is perpendicular to direction of light and outlet surface which is parallel to flat surface. Light-refracting unit is secured by means of support located along entire length of light-refracting unit and made in form of prismatic diffraction grating which consists of glass plates, preferably from borosilicate glass and metal foil laid in between adjacent plates. Angle α lies within 41-43°, preferably 42°.

EFFECT: universality of application; enhanced reliability of aircraft landing.

7 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: radar systems for landing aircraft; air traffic control systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system includes landing radar, information processing unit, coordinate calculation unit, ground and onboard video converters, landing controller and pilot displays, landing controller and pilot consoles, pilotage-navigational unit, two-way data transmission line, present heading and hydroplaning speed vectors onboard shapers, heading and hydroplaning speed vectors ground divider, optimal heading and hydroplaning speed vectors onboard shapers and ground information onboard divider. Provision is made for additional airfield observation radar, airfield map shaper, airfield data base shaper, relief shaper and scale selector switches. Specific feature of system is matching of heading lines and glide path lines with terrain relief and airfield map display in three scales depending on definite stages of landing. Method of landing determines order of change of zones of display of heading and glide path lines in accordance with varying range at matching of vectors of present heading and hydroplaning speeds with respective vectors of optimal speeds performed by pilot.

EFFECT: enhanced safety of flight at landing approach; reduced psychological stress on pilot and landing controller.

7 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: methods of landing of super-light unmanned aerodynamic flying vehicles.

SUBSTANCE: prior to flight, electronic guidance equipment is mounted on flying vehicle. Ground landing equipment and landing platform with landing appliance are placed on landing area. During landing approach of unmanned flying vehicle, it is brought to landing area according to preset trajectory, thus slowing it down and ensuring its arrival to point of mechanical contact with landing appliance, after which kinetic energy of unmanned flying vehicle is fully killed and it is freed from landing appliance. Prior to flight, contact tape is bonded to lower section of fuselage surface; front side of this tape is coated with loop-like mono-threads with side cut which perform function of hooks. Video guidance is used as electronic guidance equipment of unmanned flying vehicle. Vertical pole is used as landing platform. Landing appliance made in form of sphere is secured on upper end of pole. Surface of said landing appliance is coated with contact tape whose front surface is provided with loop-like mono-threads for fastening with mono-tape of flying vehicle contact tape. Used as ground landing equipment are optical sources located on landing area and spaced apart. Their signals are used for homing guidance of unmanned flying vehicle for mechanical contact with upper hemisphere of landing appliance.

EFFECT: enhanced probability of keeping the flying vehicle intact.

4 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: equipment of landing support systems; landing of flying vehicles on aerodrome runways, helicopter pads, or seadromes.

SUBSTANCE: landing surface is provided with passive-type markers whose plates have cat's eye coats of directive action working in visible and infrared ranges. Flying vehicle is provided with combination lights with multi-element light-emitting diode matrices working at visible and infrared illumination. Lights and markers make it possible to perform landing in the daytime, in the twilight and at night; if pilot uses night-vision goggles, landing may be performed at night under IMC; concealed landing may be also performed. Flying vehicle is also provided with autonomous satellite navigation system and low-level TV camera working in "day-night" modes; their outputs are connected with monitor for presentation of information for the pilot for performing pre-landing maneuver and showing the landing surface in the daytime and at night for visual contact of the pilot. TV camera is provided with infrared filter mounted in optical line; TV camera may be automatically changed-over from daylight mode to night mode in infrared range. Satellite navigation system automatically directs the radiation of lights to markers for approach to landing heading at required range. Markers are provided with brackets for rigid securing of plates at definite angle to vertical.

EFFECT: extended functional capabilities; enhanced efficiency of landing various flying vehicles.

7 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: aviation; optical system for landing flying vehicles on ship's deck.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system includes base lights, prohibited landing lights, indicator light unit stabilized in glide path plane, power supply monitoring and control unit, ship's motions inertial sensor, documentation unit and flying vehicle communication unit. Corner reflectors are mounted on ship's deck, aircraft arresting unit and flying vehicle. Photosensor is mounted on body of indicator light unit. System is provided with two green flashing searchlights, one of them is characterized by adjustable frequency of flashes. Proposed system possesses extended functional capabilities as compared with known optical systems. This system forms color light zones which enable the pilot to direct aircraft over glide path and to additionally transmit video information pertaining to motion of aircraft arresting unit, ship's motions relative to aircraft and its hook. During period of time between flights, unit is used as landing system monitoring unit for check of system characteristics for compliance with specifications both during flights and in the course of scheduled maintenance jobs.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of system.

6 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: orientation of transport facilities moving in space by light beam.

SUBSTANCE: light beam is transmitted in definite direction to preset zone of space and radiation from lateral sides of this beam is received on transport facility. Position of this beam in space is determined by said radiation, after which transport facility is oriented relative to position of this light beam in space. Transport facility moving in space receives radiation from lateral sides of light beam with the aid of first optical system which is also used for transmitting the radiation to first photo-sensitive screen made in form of photo detector matrix mounted on moving transport facility. Optical projection of light beam is formed on photo-sensitive screen. Electrical signals arising due to action of optical projection of light beam on photo-sensitive screen are transmitted to personal computer which forms image of light beam on video screen. Video screen shows direction of motion of transport facility whose motion is further oriented by mutual position of light beam image on this screen and direction of motion of transport facility. Device proposed for realization of this method has computer, synchronization unit and light beam recording circuit including the objective, photo detector matrix, memory matrix, differential amplifier, cell number forming unit and threshold unit. Device is additionally provided with monitor; light beam recording circuit is provided with controller of photo detector matrix. Provision is also made for inverter and electric switch.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of orientation of moving transport facility at retained high visualizing and ease of orientation; enhanced efficiency in determination of distance between observer and light beam.

7 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: apart from traditional stabilisation of indicating lights unit, in aircraft swinging of prime importance is influence of air medium parameters on the indicating lights propagation direction and geometrical parameters in the zone of formation of the above lights. With due allowance for the above fact, air medium parameter pickups and indicating light stabilisation unit are installed in the aforesaid zone and heat radiation effects brought about by the indicating light unit are ruled out. Indicating floodlight can be replaced with white-radiation laser and modulator of brightness, color and laser beam 3D position. Note here that all heat radiating elements are located outside the laser beam formation zone, while the 3D modulator is installed at landing strip start.

EFFECT: reduced influence of medium on parameters of color zone created by indicating lights in landing aircraft of ship deck.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system comprises three laser radiators mounted nearby the runway on the side of aircraft landing approach, two of them, glide-path ones, arranged on runway edges and designed to form beams that define glide path, while the third laser radiator is mounted on continuation of the runway axial line and serves to form the beam that defines landing course. Laser radiators represent semiconductor laser radiators that allow varying aforesaid beams in horizontal and vertical planes. Glide path radiators are mounted at a certain distance from runway start. Localiser radiator is mounted to form the beam at preset angle to horizontal plane. Aforesaid distances and angle are determined from relationships including preset tolerable error of aircraft vertical position determination, preset angle of glide path inclination and angle of the beam unobstructed passage above irregularities of terrain.

EFFECT: longer life, minimum power consumption, smaller sizes, higher landing safety.

8 cl, 5 dwg

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