Device to manufacture items by layer-by-layer laser agglomeration of powders
SUBSTANCE: device to manufacture items by layer-by-layer laser agglomeration of powders contains tanks for powder and powder surpluses, located between them module for item forming including table with drive of its vertical movement, device for powder supply to the table from powder tank, and powder discharge to power surpluses tank, optical laser system for agglomeration of the powder nozzles installed above the table for air or inert gas supply on the powder layer, and gas intake installed under the table with possibility of connection with vacuum system. The table is made gas permeable and is equipped with installed on its top surface of the refractory gas permeable plate intended for powder layer arrangement on its surface and agglomeration.
EFFECT: improved quality of obtained items.
The invention relates to the field of powder metallurgy and can be used for manufacture of products, including complex shapes, made of fine metal, ceramic powders and mixtures thereof layer-by-layer laser synthesis, and may find application in various engineering industries.
Known powder laser sintering, comprising a housing with a work space, isolated from the surrounding atmosphere. The case comprises a laser device with the optical system having the possibility of lateral movement in two coordinates by means of the actuator, a technological platform for placement of sintered material, is movably mounted for movement in a vertical direction drive means, a hopper with means for feeding powder into the working space above the technology platform. The installation also comprises a device control and maintain the desired thickness of the powder layer comprising a vibrator, a sensor monitoring the level of the surface of the powder layer and the compensator surface level of the powder layer mounted between the sidewalls of the technological platform and the housing is movable in the vertical direction by the actuator. The space formed by side walls of the technological platform, �of the Cabinet and the end surface of the compensator surface level of the powder layer, communicates with the hopper. The optical system, technology platform, compensator surface level of the powder layer and the sensor monitoring the level of the surface of the powder layer are connected with the control unit. The unit is equipped with a feeder neutral gas into the working space of the housing and the sensor to control the content of the neutral gas in the working space of the housing associated with the control unit, and device for creating a vacuum in the working space of the housing and the sensor control the residual pressure in the working space of the housing associated with the control unit (see patent RU No. 2299787, CL B22F 3/105, 2007).
As a result of the analysis of the implementation of the known installation it should be noted that in the course of its work the massive vibration of the table will ask the fluctuations of the entire installation, which negatively affects the stability of its work. In addition, vibratory compaction is not possible to provide the same density of compacted layer throughout its thickness, which reduces the quality of the obtained layer-by-layer sintering products. In addition, the product quality is negatively affected by the presence of vapor produced by laser sintering of a layer.
A device for producing parts from a powder consisting of a skeleton, on which is placed a hopper for raw material (powder) and cared�, having the ability to move the drive means along the guide rails of the frame. The device also includes a work Desk, equipped with a vertical movement drive and bunker collect the excess powder off the table. The carriage is equipped with a knife, equipped with a mechanism for vertical movement, intended for feeding portions of the powder to the desktop, align it on the desktop and reset the excess powder in the hopper and roller designed for compaction aligned on the desktop layer of the powder.
In operation, the device from the hopper to the desktop exercise dosage the grant of a powder, which is the movement of the knife is spread on the desktop, dumping the excess into the collection hopper of excess powder, followed by a sealing layer with a roller, working in free rolling. Next, perform the synthesis of the layer with a laser by moving the beam along a predetermined path. At the end of the synthesis process of the layer is lowered desktop on the value of the thickness of the next layer of powder, then the process is repeated as described above, forming the next layer of the product and so until then, until the formation necessary for obtaining the product of the number of layers (see patent RU No. 2423203, CL B22F 3/105, 2011 - the closest analogue).
As a result of analysis of the known solutions it is necessary to note�'it, in the process seal is aligned with the blade of a layer of powder it can be offset, and the violation of the uniform distribution of the layer on the table and his integrity. In addition, in the process of synthesis layer for the laser to high temperatures in the zone of formation of parts may change the structure of powder or melt, which reduces the quality of formed products. It should be noted that the presence in the zone of formation of the products of a large number of vapors of the product also reduces the quality of the resulting product.
The technical result of the present invention is to improve the quality of the products obtained in the process of layer-by-layer selective synthesis by providing effective removal of heat and vapour sintered material of the sintered powder mass by passing the gas flow through the powder mass, as well as compaction of the powder mass of the layer due to the difference of pressure of the gaseous medium over a Desk and under it.
It is also essential that in the process of operation of the device is ensured by the effective removal of metal vapors released during melting of the powder, due to the flow of the gaseous medium directed to the surface of the sintered layer. This allows to provide optimal conditions of laser operation, which increases the quality of the products.
The specified technical result� is provided for those device for the production of layer-by-layer laser sintering of powders containing capacity to accommodate for the excess powder and placed between the module of formation of a product comprising a table with a drive of its vertical movement, means for supplying powder from the container for placing it on the table and dump in the tank of the excess powder and optical laser sintering powder, what is new is that it contains are installed on the table of jet nozzle on the powder layer of air or inert gas and mounted under the table with the possibility of connection with the vacuum system hassebroek, the table is made gas permeable and come mounted on its upper plane of the refractory gas-permeable plate that is designed to accommodate on its surface, and sintering a layer of powder.
The invention is illustrated by drawings, which shows a diagram of an apparatus for producing articles from powders.
Apparatus for producing articles from powders comprises a container 1 for the raw material (powder or mixture of powders), the bottom 2 which has a vertical movement drive means (not shown), the container 3 for discharge of surplus materials, the bottom 4 which has the possibility of vertical movement drive means (not shown). Between the vessels deployed module forming�ing products made in the form of the body 5, in which the possibility of vertical movement by the actuator 6 with table 7, made in the form of a frame or plate with through holes that allows you to skip through it a flow of gas, i.e. the table is gas permeable. On the upper surface of the table 7 fixed refractory gas-permeable plate 8 made of, e.g., quartz sand, reinforced binder based on water glass. This plate has a sufficient gas permeability and durability, and fire resistance that allows you to produce on its surface the layer-by-layer sintering of the powder.
Above the tanks 1, 3 and, on the module of formation of the products have an element 9 for suctioning powders from the container 1 and feed them to the plate 8 of table 7, as well as for levelling powders on the surface of the table and the removal of their surplus into the container 3. Element 9 can be performed in various known ways, for example in the form of a plate, knife, scraper, etc., installed on the carriage (not shown) mounted with the possibility of horizontal and vertical movement along the traverse (not shown) located above the containers and table.
Above the containers and a table, preferably on the same traverse, located on the carriage (not shown) of the optical system 10 of a laser capable of projecting a laser beam in the desired �point on the surface of the sintered powder layer 11, in the mass of which is formed the product by 12.
The device is equipped with nozzles 13 that are designed to supply air or inert gas (nitrogen or argon) is placed on the plate 8, the powder layer 11. Nozzle connected with a supply system (not shown) of gas. Nozzles can be installed on stand-alone racks or on the traverse.
Under the table 7 is hassebroek 14 connected with a vacuum system (not shown) designed to improve the efficiency of the gas passing through the powder layer 11, the table 7 and plate 8. The most appropriate hassebroek be attached directly on the table at the bottom.
Drives bottom 2 and bottom 4 of the containers 1 and 3, the actuator 6 of table 7, the actuator element 9, the optical system 10 of the laser associated with the control system, through which the control of the process upon receipt of the product 12.
The device operates as follows.
As raw materials can be used a wide range of powders or their mixtures with an average particle size of 30-40 μm. The powder is loaded into the container 1, the bottom 2 of which is lowered in position. Table 7 is raised to its highest position, so that the gap between the plate 8 and the element 9 was not more than 10 μm. The table 7 by means of the actuator 6 is lowered by the amount of the thickness of the layer of powder is placed on the plate 8 and the element 9, taking a portion of powder from the container 2, distributes it �auromere on the plate 8, dumping the excess into the container 3. Include the flow of gas through the nozzles 13 and associated with hassaballah 14 vacuum system. The beam of a laser system 10, moving along a predetermined path, specal powder in the required areas, forming a layer of the product.
Further, the above-described process is repeated many times. The product formed by the accumulation of new layers of metal on the already sintered, forming a monolithic body parts 12 of a predetermined shape and size. The amount of gas in the process of formation of the product through the layer of powder, the plate 8 and table 7 provides cooling zone of the sintering, compaction of the powder layer, and removing the vapor of the material powder generated in the sintering process which enables the production of high quality products.
After the process, the product 12 is removed from the plate 8, and especiany powder remaining on the plate 8, are sent for regeneration.
A device for producing products layer-by-layer laser sintering of powders containing capacity to accommodate powder and the excess powder and placed between the module of formation of a product comprising a table with a drive of its vertical movement, means for supplying powder on the table from the tank to house it and reset the powder in the reservoir for the excess powder and optical laser sintering of a powder, characterized in that it contains installed over St�scrap the jet nozzle on the powder layer of air or inert gas and mounted under the table with the possibility of connection with the vacuum system hassebroek, the table is made gas permeable and come mounted on its upper plane of the refractory gas-permeable plate that is designed to accommodate on its surface, and sintering a layer of powder.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: module comprises a guide belt, a movable orbital carriage mounted on the guide belt and able of travelling along it. The carriage includes a longitudinal movement drive and a moving device consisting of a carrying roller system and a gear wheel. A joint monitoring sensor, a welding wire reeling device and a handler are installed on the carriage. The handler consists of two mutually perpendicular linear guides with motors, which can move in respect to each other. The transverse linear guide is equipped by a laser welding head, a wire feeding unit, an arc welding torch, a video camera and a controller.
EFFECT: invention allows for the increase of productivity and efficiency of welding process for fixed ring pipe joints and for the improvement of welded joint quality.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to low-inertia robot for laser cutting of flat sheets. Robot comprises support appliance (15) for laser cutting head (14) displacing in axes X and Y. Said support appliance is provided with two sliding units (5, 6) actuated by independent drives (7, 8). They serve for their displacement in axis Y to vary their mutual spacing while bars (9, 10) intended for swivelling said sliding units (5, 6) with laser cutting head (14).
EFFECT: higher quality of cutting.
4 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to protection of steam turbine blades against erosion. Proposed process comprises application of protective coating on the blade. Coating is applied by laser surfacing. Laser head is displaced at the rate of linear interpolation Vi not over 0.05 m/s at laser radiation power making 800-1200 W.
EFFECT: hardened ply of 1/3 length of the blade root at sufficient aerodynamics.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to repair of turbine blades. Proposed process comprises preparation of blade surface. Coating is applied with the help of laser radiation with simultaneous feed of additive powder to melt belt. At hard-facing, radiation power P is varied from 300 to 2500 W, and/or as radiation source feed rate V from 0.1-0.01 m/s, and/or amount of powder fed from 3 to 15 g/min.
EFFECT: accelerated process, higher hard-facing quality.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to welding of metal wires. Welding is performed with the help of laser source to make the weld, in fact, not extending beyond the wire radial cross-section. Prior to welding, at least one of wires to be welded together is subjected to annealing in hot gas flow and/or, in welding, produced weld point is subjected to annealing by hot gas flow.
EFFECT: high-quality weld without further machining.
20 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: powder composition mixture for laser build-up on the metal base includes powders of titanium and silicone carbide with particles size 20-100 mcm at the following ratio of components, parts by weight: titanium - 5-7; silicon carbide - 3-6. Titanium powder particles can be in form of spheres.
EFFECT: assurance of uniform distribution of hard inclusions over volume of coating due to synthesis of the titanium carbide, resulting in improvement of the coating quality, namely its hardness and wear resistance.
2 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of making complex holes using a laser beam, particularly a through hole for film cooling of a turbine component. At the first step, the internal part (7) of the hole (1) is made from the surface (12) to the opposite internal surface (13) of the substrate (4) using a laser (22) located in a first angular position (1) and simultaneously making a diffuser (10) part. The diffuser (10) residue (16, 18, 28) is removed at the next second and third steps. At the second step, the angular position of the laser (22) is changed to a position (II), different from angular position (I), and the laser is moved to the angular position (II) until the lateral side (17a) of the diffuser (10) is open and part of the volume (18) of the residue (16, 18, 28) remains. At the third step the angular position of the laser is changed from the angular position (II) at the second step so as to remove said residue (18). The angle in the angular positions (I, II, III) is defined as the angle between the middle line of the laser beam (25) and the surface (12) around the film cooling hole (1).
EFFECT: using a laser in three different angular positions relative to the processed substrate significantly simplifies the making of complex holes in the substrate.
13 cl, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: processed surface is prepared by cleaning, washing and abrasive flow machining. That is followed by laser clad deposit of a powder material in an inert gas medium. The powder material is presented by titanium and silicon carbide particles 20-100 mcm in size in mass ratio 6:4 or 6:5. The deposit process is performed at laser power 4÷5 kWt, laser beam travel speed 500÷700 mm/min and power consumption 9.6÷11.9 g/min.
EFFECT: invention enables the defect-free wear-resistance coating with high adhesion to the substrate and minimum effect thereon.
2 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to light industry and can be used for production of equipment intended for cutting of articles of high mechanical strength. Proposed device comprises load bearing case with drive incorporating transfer mechanism designed to revolve the disc of abrasive mechanism. Said case is connected with laser device to transmit laser beam to transmission waveguide. Transmission waveguide end output part is aligned with working waveguide ends part located at preset distance from each other. Working waveguide outer end part is located at abrasive disc lateral generatrix. Working waveguide inner end part is located at circular ledge composed at abrasive disc lateral side.
EFFECT: higher cutting rate irrespective of strength properties of metals.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to nanotechnologies and can be used in medicine, pharmaceutics and cosmetology. Platinum metal nanoparticles are produced in a water-based 7 transparent liquid at damaging platinum metal or alloy target 6 by cavitation observed by laser light 2 delivery in the form of focused laser light 2 pulses on copper vapour 1 at pulse energy 1-5 mJ and pulse length 20 ns, pulse repetition frequency 10-15 kHz and power density 5.7 GWt/cm2, through a transparent bottom of the tray 5 to the target 6 placed into the tray 5 with the water-based 7 transparent liquid.
EFFECT: invention enables producing pure uncontaminated nanoparticles in the form of flakes of no more than 200 nm in size.
1 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder metallurgy, particularly, to production of 3D powder articles by selective laser sintering. Ply of various powder materials is applied to perform sintering or melting of preset area of every ply. Selective laser sintering or melting is performed by synchronous scanning of powder ply surface by laser source with small focusing spot and several other sources of concentrated energy flow with radiation spot of larger sizes. Laser scans the surface in the boundaries of radiation spots of the other sources. Device comprises working chamber, laser optically communicated with telescope and laser scanning and focusing system composed by galvanic scanner with lens, working bin with piston displacing powder ply and article in vertical direction, feed bin, powder filling and laying carriage. Gimbal mounts support two scanning sources of electron beam or bulb heating sources, or microwave radiation sources to make laser radiation scanning area aligned with area of electron beam action on the surface.
EFFECT: higher quality of articles and process efficiency.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to making a grid for selective transmission of electromagnetic radiation, particularly X-ray radiation. The grid comprises a structural element having walls containing a plurality of particles which contain a first radiation-absorbing material. The particles are sintered together to form pores between adjacent particles. Said pores are at least partially filled with a second solid material which contains a radiation-absorbing material. The pores are filled by adding the second material in a liquid, preferably molten state.
EFFECT: improved mechanical stability of the grid and improved radiation absorption properties thereof.
10 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: layer of ceramic powder is applied to make selective sintering at layer preset sections and to remove said material from unsintered sections. Metal or alloy powder layer, of identical depth, is applied between sintered sections of ceramic layer to make selective sintering thereat. Cycle is reiterated unless a complete forming of the article. Note here that ceramics makes the shell of formed article at sintering. After every sintering of metal or alloy layer, fused is either said layer or the entire volume of said metal or alloy. Article formed and fused metal or alloy crystallised, ceramics is removed.
EFFECT: perfected method.
16 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder metallurgy, particularly, to production of nano-structured materials. It can be used for production of complex shape parts from fine powders in various machine building branches. Powder composition components are laid layer-by-layer in reaction chamber to required topology. Preheating is made to prophase temperatures of composition or less refractory component of said composition by source that ensures heating of the entire volume of said powder composition. Thereafter, laser processing is performed for 3D sandwiched article under conditions that allow phase conversions. Now, produced model is withdrawn from the chamber with removal of powder composition not involved in forming of said 3D articles.
EFFECT: lower temperature gradient in processing area.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal surface processing. Method of obtaining corrosion-stable covering on the surface of non-alloy steel includes preparation of powder in form of nanocomposite particles of Fe-Ni, which contain 3-10 wt % of nickel, and its layer-by-layer application on surface of non-alloy steel with laser sintering. Layer-by-layer application of coating on is carried out with formation of sintered coating up to 0.8 mcm thick, which consists of iron particles in nickel envelope with size 20-40 nm. Laser sintering is carried out by irradiation with wave length 1-1.1 mcm, impulse generation frequency 20-100 kHz, power 8-60 Wt and scanning rate 30-500 mm/s.
EFFECT: increase of corrosion stability of steel is ensured.
2 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder metallurgy, particularly, to materials intended for production of 3D structures from powder materials by irradiation with high-energy beam. First layer of powder material is applied on working area and hardened by irradiation with high-energy beam. Second layer of powder material is applied on partially hardened layer. Second layer temperature increase rate is defined after its application on said first layer. In case said increase is higher or lower than preset magnitude, powder layer is applied once more.
EFFECT: uniform layer of powder material.
8 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: on working surface of an item there formed is a coating by means of subsequent layer-by-layer application of fluid powder suspension onto surface of the treated part of the item and its scanning with a laser beam. To the chamber of the scanning plant there introduced through a gland is some part of the item for formation of a coating on it. Suspension is poured into the chamber till the item is submerged into it by 2/3-3/4 of the diameter. The items are turned by means of automatic control by means of an actuator so that an edge strip coated with suspension turns out to be in upper part in the laser emission zone. The first strip is scanned in the direction that is longitudinal relative to the item; then, the turn is made through width of the strip considering the overlap of the strips and the second strip is scanned in return direction and then, till the marked thickness of the coating is achieved. Suspension of the following composition, wt %, is used: %: carbon-containing liquid material (C7H14, CCLI4) - 30-50; powder-like copper with particle dispersity of 0.5-1.5 mcm - 0.8-3; graphite powder - 0.4-0.6; carbonyl iron powder of grade P-100 with dispersity of 50-800 nm is the rest. Particles with dispersity of 50-300 nm are not less than 50%.
EFFECT: increasing wear resistance of a bearing zone of an item.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder metallurgy, particularly, to materials intended for production of 3D structures from powder materials. Powder material is hardened by irradiating it by high-energy electron beam. Note here that quantity of ions present in immediate proximity to the electron beam irradiation point is controlled. Control is carried out to ensure neutralisation of powder charged particle cloud formed around said irradiation point. Said ions can be fed into vacuum chamber or formed at irradiation of extra gas fed into vacuum chamber by high-energy electron beam.
EFFECT: controlled fusion of powder and higher quality of finished product.
20 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: stereo lithographic machine comprises tank 3 for fluid with transparent bottom 3a, support plate 2 with opening to accommodate tank 3 so that transparent bottom 3a faces said opening 2a, radiation source 4 arranged under support plate 2 to feed radiation beam to transparent bottom via opening 2a, and temperature control unit 5 to support said plate 2 at preset temperature.
EFFECT: higher quality of produced articles.
11 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder metallurgy, particularly, to materials intended for production of articles from powder materials. It may be used for making complex-shape composite parts. Proposed device comprises bed 1 with location surface 2, platform 3 with working surface arranged inside said bed to reciprocate for distance equal to thickness of article functional layer 4, proportioning container 5 arranged for 2D horizontal reciprocation relative to platform 3, material compactor composed of shaft 6 arranged at base location surface, laser 7 mounted above said platform and software-hardware control complex 8. Proportioning container is composed of a set of cells 9 with outlets 10 made at their bottom. Outlet diameter makes (3-10) x d where d is powder granule diameter. Every said cell 9 is furnished with powder vibratory feeder.
EFFECT: expanded operating performances in using low-fluidity powders or with no fluid properties.
2 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: machine engineering, namely manufacture of three-dimensional cermet articles, possibly in stomatology for making dentures.
SUBSTANCE: process comprises steps of applying ceramic mass with thickness more than 50 micrometers onto surface of stainless steel or alloy; performing sintering in air in quasi-homogenous electromagnetic field at presence of electric and magnetic components of SHF electromagnetic irradiation. Frequency range 1 -30 GHz; amplitude of electric field E0 is in range 400 -1600 V/cm. Amplitude of magnetic field H0 is in range 0.8 - 3.5 A/cm. Maximum temperature of sintering is in range 800 - 1100° C.
EFFECT: enhanced adhesion of materials, possibility for joining materials in atmosphere at standard pressure.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex