Method to test zirconium alloys in steam and water medium

FIELD: testing equipment.

SUBSTANCE: in the method in process of exposure of samples of zirconium alloys in the steam and water medium in the temperature range of the light water reactor core they develop a gas discharge plasma in water vapours, afterwards they radiate samples by positively charged hydrogen ions by means of applying of negative electric potential to them relative to the plasma.

EFFECT: approximation of testing conditions of samples of zirconium alloys in steam and water medium to conditions of light water reactor core, which makes it possible to increase validity of predicted picture of behaviour of investigated zirconium alloys in light water reactor core in process of its operation made on the basis of results of these tests.

3 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of testing of materials, in particular to test the corrosion resistance and vodorodostojkih zirconium alloys developed and used as materials of the elements of the active zone light-water nuclear reactors, in the conditions close to the reactor. The invention can be used to directory testing of zirconium alloys and to study the processes of their interaction with the steam environment in the core of a light water reactor, including the study of the capture of hydrogen ions of various energies and doses in zirconium alloys in steam environments at elevated temperatures and the influence of ion irradiation on the corrosion of zirconium alloys in a given environment.

The known method of corrosion-thermal tests of long unfragmented of Fuel rods, including shells of zirconium alloys (SU 1783383 A1 G01N 17/00, G01N 3/18) in which sections of the test fuel Rod is placed in a quartz chamber, is exposed to heat, water and steam under pressure.

This method is characterized by extremely low productivity tests in connection with the need for sequential testing of each fuel Rod in isolation and impossibility of simultaneous tests of different samples of zirconium alloys. Furthermore, the method features�isoamsa unnecessarily large consumption of expensive materials of Fuel elements.

Closest to the invention is a method of determining the corrosion resistance of zirconium alloys for nuclear reactors (JPH 01250736 A, G01N 17/00, G21C 17/06). The method consists of heating and holding samples of zirconium alloys in steam environments at different temperatures: at temperatures in the range 300-400°C temperature range of the active zone light-water nuclear reactor; at a temperature in the range of 490-530°C for rapid determine the tendency of zirconium alloy to nodular corrosion.

A common drawback of both of analog techniques is that they do not adequately simulate the processes of aggressive environment on zirconium alloys in the reactor core, because it does not include the impact on zirconium alloys of hydrogen ions that occurs in the process of operation of the reactor due to the particles that are created as a result of radiolysis of water.

This disadvantage significantly reduces the use of the produced according to the method, the information for making judgments about the behavior of zirconium alloys studied in the core of a light water reactor in the process of his work.

The technical result of the invention is the approximation of the test conditions samples of zirconium alloys in steam-water environment to the conditions of the active zone light water re�Chora, that can improve the accuracy of the predicted pattern of behavior of zirconium alloys studied in the core of a light water reactor in the process of his work, compiled on the basis of the results of these tests.

The technical result is achieved in that in the proposed method, which includes the extract of samples of zirconium alloys in steam environments in the temperature range of the active zone of a light water reactor according to the invention, in the process keeping the samples in the water vapor environment is created by gas discharge plasma in water vapor, and then irradiated with educated with the positively charged hydrogen ions samples by filing a negative electric potential relative to the plasma.

In the particular case, to ensure uniform over the surface and controlled by the intensity of irradiation of the samples for hydrogen ions, the samples irradiated with positively charged ions of hydrogen plasma glow discharge in water vapor. In diffuse burning glow discharge allows to obtain a uniformly distributed current density of positive ions on the electrode surface under a negative electric potential relative to the plasma.

In the particular case of irradiation of samples positively charged ions of hydrogen plasma clauses� discharge in water vapor for stable diffuse burning glow discharge during irradiation of the samples in the water vapor environment is created by the turbulent flow of steam. Creating a turbulent flow of steam in the region of the discharge leads to an intensification of convective heat transfer, which helps prevent the development of thermal instabilities in the plasma and thus to exclude the possibility of occurrence of spark breakdowns that turns the irradiation process is out of control.

An example of a specific implementation of the method

Fig.1 is a diagram of a device for implementing the proposed method, where 1 - test chamber, 2 - boiler with water, 3 - steam superheater, 4 - capacitor pair, 5 - studied samples of zirconium alloys, 6 - anode 7 - thermocouple temperature sensor.

The method is implemented as follows. Samples 5 E110 alloy is placed in a test chamber 1. In the boiler 2 heat the water to boiling point. Steam at a temperature of 100°C enters test chamber 1. The test chamber 1 steam heated to a temperature of 400°C using steam superheater 3. The temperature of the steam in the test cell 1 is controlled using a thermocouple sensor 7. The vapor pressure in the test cell 1 is close to atmospheric. Between the 5 samples are cathodes and the anode 6 is located at a distance of 0.5 cm from each other, serves a potential difference of 15 kV. The result is a breakdown of the gas gap between them and a mass of plasma glow discharge in pairs in�dy. The 5 samples as cathodes, are under negative potential relative to the plasma and are exposed to the positively charged hydrogen ions. The discharge current of ~7-8 mA, the flux density of ions on samples of ~2×1016cm-2h-1. For the irradiation time of 15 min is dialed dose, equal to 1.7×1019cm-2that corresponds to an estimated radiation dose by rapid proton parts in the core of a light water reactor at fluence neutrons 1022cm-2. Superheated steam passing through the test cell 1 enters the steam condenser 4 - phase pipeline, cooled by water. In the condenser steam 4 steam is cooled, condensed and the resulting water flows back into the boiler, thereby closing the steam-water cycle.

Thus, it follows from the above that the proposed method allows to approximate the conditions of testing of samples of zirconium alloys in steam-water environment to the active area of a light water reactor, because it involves the irradiation of zirconium alloys for hydrogen ions that occurs in the process of operation of the reactor due to the particles that are created as a result of radiolysis of water. Thus, using this method can improve the accuracy of the predicted pattern of behavior of zirconium alloys studied in the core of a light water reactor in PR�process of his work, based on the results of out-of-pile tests.

1. Method of testing of zirconium alloys in steam environments, including exposure of samples of zirconium alloys in steam environments in the temperature range of the active zone of a light water reactor, characterized in that in the process of keeping the samples in the water vapor environment is created by gas discharge plasma in water vapor, and then irradiated with educated with the positively charged hydrogen ions samples by filing a negative electric potential relative to the plasma.

2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the samples irradiated with positively charged ions of hydrogen plasma glow discharge in water vapor.

3. A method according to claim 2, characterized in that during the irradiation of samples positively charged ions of hydrogen plasma glow discharge in the water vapor environment is created by the turbulent flow of steam.



 

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