Method to extinguish large-scale fires

FIELD: firefighting means.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to extinguishing of large-scale fires. Experience of extinguishing such fires demonstrated practical inefficiency of existing methods for a series of reasons, the main of which is insufficiency and often unavailability of the main agent for fire extinguishing - water. The original source of the main fire extinguishing agent is atmospheric air, which contains water vapours. Absolute humidity of air, i.e. mass of water vapour per unit of air volume, depends on temperature and atmospheric pressure. According to statistics, in average on the soil surface on 1 m2 there is 28.5 kg of water vapour available in air above this surface. Production of water from air, according to the proposed method, is carried out by cooling of air volume above fire zone to the temperature below the dew point temperature, i.e. when water vapour condenses and falls in the form of rain (or snow). Air above the fire zone is cooled by means of even distribution of liquefied nitrogen in its volume from reservoirs installed in aircrafts, in layers at different altitudes in the altitude range from several hundreds meters to the soil surface to approximately 1500 m. Simultaneously air is cooled in the surface layer from reservoirs with liquefied nitrogen, placed on the surface of soil along the perimeter of the fire front.

EFFECT: method to extinguish large-scale fires has a scientific basis, which makes it possible to produce the original source of this main fire extinguishing agent, not using technical means for delivery of water to seats of fire from natural or manmade water reservoirs, which may be located at significant distances from the fire zone.

3 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of firefighting. The problem of fighting large-scale fires, such as forest fires, peatland fires and potential fires settlements, including in major cities through, for example, hostilities, till the present time has not been solved. However, they cause significant damage. So, in the U.S. according to the National Committee on fire protection annual losses from fires (their number reaches 2.5 million per year) are about 3 billion dollars, and taking into account the indirect losses of 11 billion per year. In 1972, a fire killed 12 thousand people and injured about 300 thousand [4]. This problem is inherent in Russia, as evidenced by, at least virtually, annual forest fires of huge proportions. This problem is particularly evident in Russia in the summer of 2010, resulting in the loss of major tangible assets, destruction of villages, loss of life.

Various methods of fire fighting[1, 3, 4, 5], which ultimately boil down to the cooling of the fire, the localization of the source by blocking the access of air to the burning material, including a cover of the hearth by various means, for example a non-flammable foam, the inhibition of the combustion process, etc. However, these methods are applicable primarily to extinguish a relatively small fires. The main method�m extinguishing of large fires is currently the irrigation of fires with water using a variety of techniques including surface and with the help of aircraft (airplanes, helicopters, airships, etc.). In any case, to extinguish this method requires delivery to the fire zone water different vehicles over long distances, because the area of the fire are not always natural or artificial reservoirs. Ultimately, this method is time consuming, inefficient, and extremely expensive when fighting large-scale fires, which was shown at the organization and in the process of fighting forest fires in the summer of 2010. However, we believe that the lack of water, and sometimes its absence can be compensated by the proposed method of extinguishing fires according to the present invention.

Indeed, it is known [1, 2, 5] that the atmospheric air in its composition will contain a significant mass of water in gaseous (vapor) state. Saturated moist air is described by two parameters - temperature and pressure. The content of water vapor in saturated moist air is described by the equation of phase equilibrium Raul

ν2=P2/P

where ν2is the mole fraction of water vapor in saturated moist air;

P2- partial pressure of pure water vapor;

P is the atmospheric pressure.

Mass fraction of water vapor in air is relatively small magnitude

m2=v 2*µ21,

where m2- mass fraction of water vapor in the air;

µ2and µ1- molar mass of water and air, respectively.

A relatively small mass fraction of water vapor in the air is not indicative of the mass of water in the air, since the volume of air above the fire zone is of great value.

In practice, the properties of moist air are characterized by the following parameters:

absolute humidity - mass of water per unit volume of air (water vapor density ρ2=m2/ν, where ν is the specific volume of air);

relative humidity ϕ=ρ21where ρ1is the density of saturated moist air;

relative enthalpy i=i/M1- the ratio of the enthalpy of the air to its bulk;

the dewpoint temperature is the temperature at which air with a given composition at a given pressure becomes saturated.

The relationship between the main parameters of moist air is installed through 1,d-chart, where d is the moisture content, i.e. the ratio of the mass of moisture to the air mass.

Since the mass fraction of moisture in the air is small, we can assume d~m2.

Figure 1 shows scheme 1,d-diagram for moist air at atmospheric pressure 1,01325*105PA, which you can use and for others close to normal pressures. On this� the chart is easy to calculate, for example, what is the number (mass) of water contained in a 1 m3air at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of +36°C (air temperature in July - August 2010) at 60% relative humidity to dew point temperature.

We assume the pressure is 1,013*105PA. For temperature +36°C and a relative humidity of 60% according to the chart we get d=22,0*10-3the dew point temperature of 25.6°C. Next, calculate the vapor pressure according to the formula

d=µ21*P2/(R-R2), from which we find the vapor pressure

P2=dµ1P1/(µ2+dµ1).

Substituting in the last equation data: moisture content of 2.2*10-2, atmospheric pressure 1,013*105PA, the molecular weight of air is 29 g/mol, the molecular weight of water is 18 g/mol. The resulting vapor pressure 3,468*103PA.

Calculated specific volume of saturated air according to the formula

ν=RUDT/P,

where RUDis the specific gas constant of air;

T - thermodynamic temperature at the time of evaluation(273+36=309).

RUD=R02,

where R0- universal gas constant, equal to 8,314 j/mol*K;

µ2- molecular weight of air.

Get the value of the specific volume of air v=0,875 m3/kg. Hence the absolute density of the air

ρ2=d/ν=2,51*10-2kg/m3

i.e. 1 � 3air contains 25,1 g of water vapor. In the column of air with a base of 1 m2and height 1 km water contains about 25 kg (25 litres at 1 m). According to statistics, on average, over each 1 m2the earth's surface contains about 28.5 kg of water vapor. At a height of more than 1.5 km the water vapor content substantially less than in the surface layers.

Thus, atmospheric air over the fire a large scale can be considered a source of extinguishing agents fire - water.

The study of patent and scientific and technical information helped to identify numerous ways of fighting fires, which, unfortunately, are largely not large-scale. For example, the forest fires, the termination of combustion is achieved by impact on the surface of a burning material cooling fire extinguishing means, including the dilution of combustible materials non-combustible vapours. In addition to water use foam, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, powders, chemical flame retardants. The supply of fire extinguishing means is fire equipment, fire vehicles, fire trains, fire, courts, fire extinguishers, etc. the Most common method of extinguishing peat fires is a method of irrigation water [5].

Water delivery may be accomplished through drainage ditches into which water is pumped from the reservoir�V.

The proposed method differs significantly from those listed that

water for fire fighting is obtained from atmospheric air located above the fire zone, by cooling the air volume above this zone to a temperature below the dew point temperature,

the cooling air produced by a uniform distribution in the volume of air above the fire zone of evaporated liquid nitrogen from the tanks in aircraft, for example helicopters, in layers at different altitudes in the range from about 1500 up to several hundred meters from the ground surface. At the same time the cooling air in the fire zone evaporating liquefied nitrogen are also produced from containers placed on the ground surface around the perimeter of the fire front and turn on simultaneously with irrigation air evaporating liquefied nitrogen, from aircraft,

the mass of liquid nitrogen needed to cool the air above the fire zone to a temperature below the dew point temperature, calculated using thermodynamic relations on the basis of obtaining the necessary amount of condensed water from the air for a guaranteed firefighting.

The advantages of the proposed method over the known is stated above. Additionally it should be noted that the use of nitrogen to extinguish the fire it is also useful fact that h�about the volume of air where does the nitrogen, along with cooling is the shift in the balance ratio in the air of oxygen and nitrogen in favor of the latter. Nitrogen, as an inert gas, also to some extent enhances the effectiveness of fire suppression.

Actually extinguishing a fire according to the proposed method is naturally due to the intensive condensation of water vapor from the atmosphere as rain and additional technical means is almost not required.

Thus, the claimed method of fighting large-scale fires invention meets the criterion of "novelty."

A comparison of the claimed solutions with other technical solutions in this field allows to conclude that according to his criterion of "inventive step".

In General, the claimed technical solution and its implementation will contribute to the solution of public problems prevent catastrophic consequences as a result of the emergence of large-scale fires, which, unfortunately, occur in different countries, including in Russia.

Sources of information taken into account

1. Great Russian encyclopedia.

2. Khromov, S. P., M. A. Petrosyants Meteorology and climatology. 6-e Izd. - M., 2004.

3. Inventions (applications and patents). The official newsletter.

4. Great Soviet encyclopedia, Third ed, vol. 20, Moscow: Soviet encyclopedia. 1975.

5. Safety. Under the editorship of N. And.Mikhailov, St. PETERSBURG. Peter, 2009. - 461 p., ill.

6. Borodin O. E. engineering thermodynamics, heat transfer, combustion. THE USSR MINISTRY OF DEFENSE. - M., 1972.

1. Method of extinguishing large-scale fires, including irrigation foci sunbathing inert fluid such as water delivered to the fire various vehicles, including aircraft, characterized in that water for fire fighting is obtained from atmospheric air located above the fire zone, by cooling this air to a temperature below the dew point temperature.

2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the cooling air produced by a uniform distribution in the volume of air above the fire zone of evaporated liquid nitrogen from the tanks in aircraft, for example helicopters, in layers at different altitudes in the altitude range from approximately 1500 to a few hundred meters from the ground surface, at the same time produce the cooling air in the atmospheric boundary layer zone fire from the tanks of liquefied nitrogen, placed on the surface of the soil around the perimeter of the fire front.

3. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the mass of liquid nitrogen required for extinguishing different scales, calculated by thermodynamic with�otnosheniam for cooling required air volume at a known temperature to the dew point temperature above the fire zone.



 

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