Method to extinguish large-scale fires
FIELD: firefighting means.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to extinguishing of large-scale fires. Experience of extinguishing such fires demonstrated practical inefficiency of existing methods for a series of reasons, the main of which is insufficiency and often unavailability of the main agent for fire extinguishing - water. The original source of the main fire extinguishing agent is atmospheric air, which contains water vapours. Absolute humidity of air, i.e. mass of water vapour per unit of air volume, depends on temperature and atmospheric pressure. According to statistics, in average on the soil surface on 1 m2 there is 28.5 kg of water vapour available in air above this surface. Production of water from air, according to the proposed method, is carried out by cooling of air volume above fire zone to the temperature below the dew point temperature, i.e. when water vapour condenses and falls in the form of rain (or snow). Air above the fire zone is cooled by means of even distribution of liquefied nitrogen in its volume from reservoirs installed in aircrafts, in layers at different altitudes in the altitude range from several hundreds meters to the soil surface to approximately 1500 m. Simultaneously air is cooled in the surface layer from reservoirs with liquefied nitrogen, placed on the surface of soil along the perimeter of the fire front.
EFFECT: method to extinguish large-scale fires has a scientific basis, which makes it possible to produce the original source of this main fire extinguishing agent, not using technical means for delivery of water to seats of fire from natural or manmade water reservoirs, which may be located at significant distances from the fire zone.
3 cl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to the field of firefighting. The problem of fighting large-scale fires, such as forest fires, peatland fires and potential fires settlements, including in major cities through, for example, hostilities, till the present time has not been solved. However, they cause significant damage. So, in the U.S. according to the National Committee on fire protection annual losses from fires (their number reaches 2.5 million per year) are about 3 billion dollars, and taking into account the indirect losses of 11 billion per year. In 1972, a fire killed 12 thousand people and injured about 300 thousand . This problem is inherent in Russia, as evidenced by, at least virtually, annual forest fires of huge proportions. This problem is particularly evident in Russia in the summer of 2010, resulting in the loss of major tangible assets, destruction of villages, loss of life.
Various methods of fire fighting[1, 3, 4, 5], which ultimately boil down to the cooling of the fire, the localization of the source by blocking the access of air to the burning material, including a cover of the hearth by various means, for example a non-flammable foam, the inhibition of the combustion process, etc. However, these methods are applicable primarily to extinguish a relatively small fires. The main method�m extinguishing of large fires is currently the irrigation of fires with water using a variety of techniques including surface and with the help of aircraft (airplanes, helicopters, airships, etc.). In any case, to extinguish this method requires delivery to the fire zone water different vehicles over long distances, because the area of the fire are not always natural or artificial reservoirs. Ultimately, this method is time consuming, inefficient, and extremely expensive when fighting large-scale fires, which was shown at the organization and in the process of fighting forest fires in the summer of 2010. However, we believe that the lack of water, and sometimes its absence can be compensated by the proposed method of extinguishing fires according to the present invention.
Indeed, it is known [1, 2, 5] that the atmospheric air in its composition will contain a significant mass of water in gaseous (vapor) state. Saturated moist air is described by two parameters - temperature and pressure. The content of water vapor in saturated moist air is described by the equation of phase equilibrium Raul
where ν2is the mole fraction of water vapor in saturated moist air;
P2- partial pressure of pure water vapor;
P is the atmospheric pressure.
Mass fraction of water vapor in air is relatively small magnitude
where m2- mass fraction of water vapor in the air;
µ2and µ1- molar mass of water and air, respectively.
A relatively small mass fraction of water vapor in the air is not indicative of the mass of water in the air, since the volume of air above the fire zone is of great value.
In practice, the properties of moist air are characterized by the following parameters:
absolute humidity - mass of water per unit volume of air (water vapor density ρ2=m2/ν, where ν is the specific volume of air);
relative humidity ϕ=ρ2/ρ1where ρ1is the density of saturated moist air;
relative enthalpy i=i/M1- the ratio of the enthalpy of the air to its bulk;
the dewpoint temperature is the temperature at which air with a given composition at a given pressure becomes saturated.
The relationship between the main parameters of moist air is installed through 1,d-chart, where d is the moisture content, i.e. the ratio of the mass of moisture to the air mass.
Since the mass fraction of moisture in the air is small, we can assume d~m2.
Figure 1 shows scheme 1,d-diagram for moist air at atmospheric pressure 1,01325*105PA, which you can use and for others close to normal pressures. On this� the chart is easy to calculate, for example, what is the number (mass) of water contained in a 1 m3air at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of +36°C (air temperature in July - August 2010) at 60% relative humidity to dew point temperature.
We assume the pressure is 1,013*105PA. For temperature +36°C and a relative humidity of 60% according to the chart we get d=22,0*10-3the dew point temperature of 25.6°C. Next, calculate the vapor pressure according to the formula
d=µ2/µ1*P2/(R-R2), from which we find the vapor pressure
Substituting in the last equation data: moisture content of 2.2*10-2, atmospheric pressure 1,013*105PA, the molecular weight of air is 29 g/mol, the molecular weight of water is 18 g/mol. The resulting vapor pressure 3,468*103PA.
Calculated specific volume of saturated air according to the formula
where RUDis the specific gas constant of air;
T - thermodynamic temperature at the time of evaluation(273+36=309).
where R0- universal gas constant, equal to 8,314 j/mol*K;
µ2- molecular weight of air.
Get the value of the specific volume of air v=0,875 m3/kg. Hence the absolute density of the air
i.e. 1 � 3air contains 25,1 g of water vapor. In the column of air with a base of 1 m2and height 1 km water contains about 25 kg (25 litres at 1 m). According to statistics, on average, over each 1 m2the earth's surface contains about 28.5 kg of water vapor. At a height of more than 1.5 km the water vapor content substantially less than in the surface layers.
Thus, atmospheric air over the fire a large scale can be considered a source of extinguishing agents fire - water.
The study of patent and scientific and technical information helped to identify numerous ways of fighting fires, which, unfortunately, are largely not large-scale. For example, the forest fires, the termination of combustion is achieved by impact on the surface of a burning material cooling fire extinguishing means, including the dilution of combustible materials non-combustible vapours. In addition to water use foam, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, powders, chemical flame retardants. The supply of fire extinguishing means is fire equipment, fire vehicles, fire trains, fire, courts, fire extinguishers, etc. the Most common method of extinguishing peat fires is a method of irrigation water .
Water delivery may be accomplished through drainage ditches into which water is pumped from the reservoir�V.
The proposed method differs significantly from those listed that
water for fire fighting is obtained from atmospheric air located above the fire zone, by cooling the air volume above this zone to a temperature below the dew point temperature,
the cooling air produced by a uniform distribution in the volume of air above the fire zone of evaporated liquid nitrogen from the tanks in aircraft, for example helicopters, in layers at different altitudes in the range from about 1500 up to several hundred meters from the ground surface. At the same time the cooling air in the fire zone evaporating liquefied nitrogen are also produced from containers placed on the ground surface around the perimeter of the fire front and turn on simultaneously with irrigation air evaporating liquefied nitrogen, from aircraft,
the mass of liquid nitrogen needed to cool the air above the fire zone to a temperature below the dew point temperature, calculated using thermodynamic relations on the basis of obtaining the necessary amount of condensed water from the air for a guaranteed firefighting.
The advantages of the proposed method over the known is stated above. Additionally it should be noted that the use of nitrogen to extinguish the fire it is also useful fact that h�about the volume of air where does the nitrogen, along with cooling is the shift in the balance ratio in the air of oxygen and nitrogen in favor of the latter. Nitrogen, as an inert gas, also to some extent enhances the effectiveness of fire suppression.
Actually extinguishing a fire according to the proposed method is naturally due to the intensive condensation of water vapor from the atmosphere as rain and additional technical means is almost not required.
Thus, the claimed method of fighting large-scale fires invention meets the criterion of "novelty."
A comparison of the claimed solutions with other technical solutions in this field allows to conclude that according to his criterion of "inventive step".
In General, the claimed technical solution and its implementation will contribute to the solution of public problems prevent catastrophic consequences as a result of the emergence of large-scale fires, which, unfortunately, occur in different countries, including in Russia.
Sources of information taken into account
1. Great Russian encyclopedia.
2. Khromov, S. P., M. A. Petrosyants Meteorology and climatology. 6-e Izd. - M., 2004.
3. Inventions (applications and patents). The official newsletter.
4. Great Soviet encyclopedia, Third ed, vol. 20, Moscow: Soviet encyclopedia. 1975.
5. Safety. Under the editorship of N. And.Mikhailov, St. PETERSBURG. Peter, 2009. - 461 p., ill.
6. Borodin O. E. engineering thermodynamics, heat transfer, combustion. THE USSR MINISTRY OF DEFENSE. - M., 1972.
1. Method of extinguishing large-scale fires, including irrigation foci sunbathing inert fluid such as water delivered to the fire various vehicles, including aircraft, characterized in that water for fire fighting is obtained from atmospheric air located above the fire zone, by cooling this air to a temperature below the dew point temperature.
2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the cooling air produced by a uniform distribution in the volume of air above the fire zone of evaporated liquid nitrogen from the tanks in aircraft, for example helicopters, in layers at different altitudes in the altitude range from approximately 1500 to a few hundred meters from the ground surface, at the same time produce the cooling air in the atmospheric boundary layer zone fire from the tanks of liquefied nitrogen, placed on the surface of the soil around the perimeter of the fire front.
3. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the mass of liquid nitrogen required for extinguishing different scales, calculated by thermodynamic with�otnosheniam for cooling required air volume at a known temperature to the dew point temperature above the fire zone.
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises forming inside a facility of a hypoxic gas-air medium with the set initial low content of oxygen under normal pressure of hot water supply; the oxygen content is set depending on the type of the pressurised space. Monitoring is carried out by sensors of pre-alarm pre-fire state of the gas-air medium, and the pressure and oxygen content are adjusted if needed, in the specified period of time, by reducing the oxygen content and increasing the content of nitrogen or inert gas to the values of the concentration and pressure specified for this space, sufficient to detect and eliminate the causes of the pre-alarm state. After a series of measures the initial set value of oxygen content is reset at the normal pressure of hot water supply for each closed space of the pressurised facility. The device for implementing the method comprises a system control unit, a sensor assembly of controlling parameters of the gas-air medium and the assembly of cylinders with inert gas or a mixture of inert gases, it additionally comprises a sensor assembly of pre-alarm control, connected by information-control and pneumatic bonds, a regeneration unit of the gas-air medium, an assembly of cylinders with oxygen, an assembly of oxygen distributors, an assembly of high pressure air cylinders, an assembly of the gas-air medium purification with the filter of purification from mechanical impurities and the filter of purification from harmful chemicals and carbon oxide, an assembly of separation of air, an assembly of high pressure compressor, and a compartment control unit in each controlled space of the pressurised facility.
EFFECT: reduction of the risk of combustion and fire on submarines and other pressurised inhabited facilities by introducing pre-alarm monitoring and creation in them of the hypoxic gas-air media, with simultaneous creating the conditions for normal functioning of the submarine crew under conditions of an extended voyage.
18 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: fire suppression system of premises with increased gas medium pressure, containing a firm sealed tank for storage and feeding of fresh water under pressure on the pipeline into the premises on the centrifugal sprayers, a high pressure air cylinder connected by the pipelines through the air reducer to the tank, the device of limiting the rate of pressure increase, the device of maintaining the differential pressure during decompression, and the control panel with alarm sensors. The air reducer over the membrane cavity is connected by the pipeline to the volume of the protected premises and creates a predetermined differential pressure between the sprayers and the premises, the centrifugal sprayers on the swirlers have spring-loaded movable cylinders, the regulating sections of tangential windows of swirlers, maintaining the required opening angle of the jet of atomised water, the device of maintaining the differential pressure during decompression by the pipelines is connected to the tank and the volume of the protected premises.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of the fire suppression system by increasing the intensity of supply of atomised water with an increase of pressure of gas medium during a fire.
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: in the unit of gaseous fire suppression for places of storing containers with flammable and combustible liquids in temporary settlement of population affected by emergencies, comprising a control unit and series-connected insulated tank for liquid carbon dioxide with the pipeline of supplying carbon dioxide and lock and release device located outside the tank, the switching gears and the distribution pipeline with sprayers. The lock and release device is located above the level of liquid carbon dioxide in the tank, and the intake of carbon dioxide is carried out through the pipeline in the tank from the bottom part of the latter, each nozzle housing is formed with a channel for supplying liquid and comprises a housing in which the screw is pressed, and a fitting for supplying liquid, and the housing consists of two coaxial interconnected cylindrical sleeves: the sleeve of larger diameter and the sleeve of smaller diameter, and the inside the sleeve of smaller diameter, coaxially to it, a screw is mounted, rigidly connected to its inner surface, such as pressed in it, and the outer surface of the screw is a helical groove and inside the screw a hole with a screw thread is made, and in the sleeve of larger diameter coaxially to it, the fitting is located, fixedly mounted in it, such as by the threaded connection through the sealing gasket, and in the fitting a cylindrical opening is coaxially formed passing into axially located diffuser which is connected to a cylindrical chamber formed by the inner surface of the sleeve of smaller diameter and the end surface of the screw, and the end surface of the sleeve of smaller diameter is fixed to two obliquely located rods, on each of which active sprayers are secured, for example made in the form of blades resting in the lower part on stops fixed to the rods perpendicular to their axes. The rods are tilted in the direction away from the axis of the injector, i.e. along the conical surface which apex is directed towards the sleeve of the larger diameter.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of fire-extinguishing.
FIELD: fire-fighting means.
SUBSTANCE: method relates to the field of forestry and can be used to determine the location of forest fire. The method of establishing the location of forest fire comprises identification of the most fire-hazard plots of peat lands and location of vertical wells on the area of plots. The perforated pipes are placed in the wells. The pipes are filled with smoke generating pyrotechnic composition, the granulometric material is poured into the wellheads. The coordinates of the wells are recorded on the forest fire map. The patrol routes are divided, patrol observation of smoke is carried out. The boundaries of the fire are determined by the smoke location over the wells. The coordinates of the smoke location are recorded on the forest fire map. The granulometric material is mixed with encapsulated herbicide glyphosate powder in an amount of 5-15% by weight of the granulometric material, and then the mixture is poured to the wellheads.
EFFECT: proposed method in comparison with the analogue provides enhancement of accuracy of determining location of the forest fire by processing the filling of wellhead with glyphosate eliminating vegetation and retaining high intensity of smoke generation during continuous operation of wells.
FIELD: fire-fighting equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a fire-fighting system. The fire suppression system in a confined space comprises a fire alarm device, the devices of the supply actuation of refrigerant and the neutral gas from the relevant sources and the regulator of the refrigerant supply. Moreover, in the regulator of the refrigerant supply the slide-valve and the sleeve covering it is made with through channels, and when the device of the supply actuation of refrigerant is closed the slide-valve and the sleeve are spring-loaded to the opening of the annular channel in the sleeve. At that the system is made with the ability of short-term total consumption supply of refrigerant through the annular channel in the sleeve immediately after actuation of the device of refrigerant supply and the limited flow of refrigerant, after closing the device of supply actuation of neutral gas from the membrane nitrogen generator.
EFFECT: increased reliability and reduced weight of the device is provided due to creation of the regulator, which provides short-term total consumption supply of the refrigerant.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: tobacco industry.
SUBSTANCE: usage: invention relates to a cigarette extinguishment method and to a self- extinguishing cigarette for the method implementation. The specificity of the self- extinguishing cigarette (containing a tobacco core consisting of fragments with low and high tobacco stuffing density, a paper cartridge enveloping the core and a filter) is as follows: fragments with high stuffing density are placed along the tobacco core length from the open end to the filter in the form of a conic frustum, oriented with conicity towards the filter, while fragments with low stuffing density are placed along the periphery of the conic frustum between the latter and the paper cartridge.
EFFECT: self- extinguishing cigarette development.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: fire-prevention facilities.
SUBSTANCE: method for location determining of forest fire comprises identifying the most fire-hazardous sites of peatland, accommodation at area of the sites of vertical wells, installation in wells of perforated pipes, filling the pipes with smoke-generating pyrotechnic composition, pouring the wellheads with granulometric material, recording of coordinates of the wells on the forest fire map, breakdown of patrol routes, patrol observation of smoke, determining of boundary of fire according to location of smoke over the wells, recording its coordinates on the forest fire map. At that the granulometric material is mixed with the cuprous sulphate, and then the wellheads are poured with the mixture.
EFFECT: improving the accuracy of location determining of forest fire.
FIELD: fire-prevention facilities.
SUBSTANCE: method of location determining of forest fire comprises identifying the most fire-hazardous sites of peatland, accommodation at area of the sites of vertical wells, installation in wells of perforated pipes, filling the pipes with smoke-generating pyrotechnic composition, pouring the wellheads with granulometric material, recording of coordinates of the wells on the forest fire map, breakdown of patrol routes, patrol observation of smoke, determining of boundary of fire according to location of smoke over the wells, recording its coordinates on the forest fire map. At that the granulometric material is processed with the preparation of N-dichloro-para-carboxy-benzene sulphonamide, and then the wellheads are poured with it.
EFFECT: increased intensity of smoke generation during prolonged operation of the wells.
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: method of location of forest fire comprises identifying the most fire-hazard peatlands, placement at the area of sites of vertical wells, installation of perforated pipes in the wells, filling the pipes with smoke-producing pyrotechnic composition, filling the mouths of wells with granulometric material, fixation of coordinates of the wells on the forest fire map, breakdown of patrol routes, patrol observation of smoke, determining of boundary of fire according to smoke location over the wells, fixing its coordinates on the forest fire map. At that the granulometric material is processed with algaecide triazone, and then it is filled to the mouths of wells.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of location of the forest fire due to processing of filling the mouths of wells with triazone, suppressing life activity of diatomic algae.
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: in the fire extinguishing agent, which is filled in fire extinguishers-sprinklers, the substances are added which, when their dispergating with pulsed explosive exhausts of compressed air in combination with air form limited portions of volumes of explosive mixture that is exploded by influence of red-hot elements of the burning object, which promotes to more intensive beating the crests of flame of the burning object: significantly larger surfaces of the burning object are cooled, because of the greater dispersion of the fire extinguishing agent on the surface of the latter.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of fire extinguishing.
FIELD: fire-fighting equipment, particularly for volumetric fire extinguishing in closed space.
SUBSTANCE: method involves separate feeding cooled gaseous aerosol with progressively increasing temperature to upper space of room to be protected at the command of control system; additionally supplying sprays of fire-extinguishing powder mixed with products of solid fuel combustion across the whole room volume or locally in lower room part at maximum speed, wherein quantity of supplied aerosol, initial time, direction and necessity of fire-extinguishing powder supply is determined from fire spread speed and nature. Fire-extinguishing substance is supplied in accordance with the following program. Under false operation of control system or in the case of small fire apparatus is given a command to supply gaseous aerosol. If fire covers the full room volume apparatus is given a command in 5 - 10 min to supply gaseous aerosol and, when needed, if fire is not extinguished, apparatus is given a command to additionally supply fire-extinguishing powder. If fire is accompanied by explosion and in the case of room air-tightness failure apparatus is given a command to simultaneous supply gaseous aerosol and fire-extinguishing powder. Fire-extinguishing apparatus comprises at least one aerosol generator AG 1, at least one powder extinguisher PE 2 with solid-fuel displacing gas generator GG 3, control system for operating fire-extinguishing composition supply connected to aerosol generator and powder extinguisher. Control system has sensors 4 and control-and-triggering means 5. Aerosol generator and gas generator GG 3 are provided with cooling inert nozzles. Control system is programmed to actuate aerosol generator and powder extinguisher in dependence of fire nature.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reduced time of space filling with fire-extinguishing composition and, simultaneously, increased economy and safety to people, possibility to extinguish fires at early stage in large rooms with dense equipment arrangement in the case of people present and in rooms with large quantities of pressurized combustible materials which may explode with creation of high-power fire sites distributed across the whole room volume; increased consumption of fire-extinguishing composition and reduced volumetric concentration thereof, increased reliability of fire-extinguishing system in temperature range from -60° to +60°.
10 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: protective and emergency equipment for servicing ground launch structures.
SUBSTANCE: in launching the vehicle, compressed gas is fed through collector nozzles to engine zone via one of mains to main circular main where pressure more than 0.6 Mpa is maintained. Simultaneously, air is fed to engine zone through nozzles of additional collectors via two mains. As pressure drops below 0.6 Mpa, air is fed via two other mains supplying gas to main collector and via three mains of additional collector. In case of repeated drop of pressure to 0.6 Mpa, air is fed via two remaining mains of main collector. Proposed system includes compressed gas bottles and gas supply mains with controllable shut-off fittings. Mains are combined (five mains) by means of main and additional collectors. Additional collector is provided with two or more divergent nozzles. Fittings are made in form of normally closed pneumatic valves controlled by separate groups. Circular collector nozzles are conical in shape and are located at angles of 30 deg. and 45 deg. relative to vertical axis of launch vehicle.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of fire prevention.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting technique; extinguishing large-scale fires.
SUBSTANCE: proposed fire airship includes disk-shaped aerostatic body, power plants with variable thrust vector, crew cabin with control system, landing gear and mooring arrangement. Body consists of upper and lower elastic convex envelopes whose edges are secured on frame which is closed over perimeter ; this frame is connected with tubular member by means of rigid radial beams forming the central compartment; said tubular member is located along vertical axis of aerostatic body whose cavity is divided by inclined gas-tight membrane into lighter-than-air compartment containing the bottles charged with this gas and thermal ballasting compartment located under first one. Upper and lower convex envelopes are provided with upper load-bearing ring secured on end face of tubular member and lower load-bearing ring with sleeve forming the cargo compartment. Inner and outer edges of gas-tight membrane are secured respectively on closed frame and on lower load-bearing ring which is connected with closed frame and with rigid tubular member by means of longitudinally rigid members. Water tank installed in cargo compartment is connected by means of flexible hose with pipe mounted coaxially relative to rigid tubular member; pipe terminates in funnel secured on upper load-bearing ring. Water tank is provided with outlet pipe for forming water packs dropped onto burning site.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of fire-fighting.
4 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: means of explosion preventive maintenance at ammunition depots.
SUBSTANCE: the plant has a interconnected compressed air source, measuring instruments, valves, vessels with ingredients of starting foaming agent and a mixer with air or liquid channels at the inlet. The air channel has an adjusting valve and/or pressure regulator, and the mixer - at the outlet a foaming hose with a hose barrel at the free end. At the inlet the mixer is provided with an injector connected through a vessel to the ingredients of the starting solution by means of a suck-in hose and a liquid channel with a water feed pump. The ratio of the inside diameter of the foaming hose-to-the length makes up 1:(500...1000).
EFFECT: provided compactness of the plant and expanded its functional potentialities.
10 cl, 18 dwg
FIELD: fire prevention, particularly for power engineering and transport, to design rooms, compartments and so on characterized by risk of explosive gaseous mixture (air and inflammable gas, combustible liquid vapor) accumulation, namely to protect combustible material storage facilities, power plant rooms, compartments in vehicles and so on.
SUBSTANCE: the essence in the invention is in the following. When combustible gaseous mixture even having stoichiometric fuel-oxidizer ratio ignites detonation wave appears practically immediately. For detonation wave forming some space is needed in which separate compression waves generated by flame are united in common compression shock, namely in detonation wave. The detonation wave unlike the compression wave immediately heats gaseous mixture behind wave front. Because of above heating detonation wave moves with supersonic speed, pressure in wave front is substantially higher than in the case of normal gas burning. Above pressure increase takes place practically instantly at distance equal to several free paths of gas molecules. To take into consideration above processes system has adjusting partitions arranged so that straight distance between any two points in free space does not exceed length of predetonation zone in stoichiometric mixture of above gaseous mixture including oxygen, wherein the mixture is under atmospheric pressure if the volume communicates with atmosphere and is under maximal possible pressure if the volume is closed.
EFFECT: prevention of gaseous mixture detonation.
FIELD: shaped-charge action on solid media, in particular, ice masses and emergency objects with the aim of their destruction, applicable for destruction of ice jams, elimination of avalanche-like and mud flow situations, liquidation of aftereffects of natural and technogeneous cataclysms, fires, as well as at production of fire-fighting water reservoirs.
SUBSTANCE: blasting supply has a cover, frame closed by a cover and made in the form of a latticework, propelled substance, explosive placed in the cover, the cover has two layers, pulled up on the latticed frame expansible upwards made of ribs converging in the lower part, the propelled substance is placed between two layers of the cover, an antioverturning is attached to the cover from the top.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of the blasting effect on the objects to be destructed.
22 cl, 1 dwg, 6 ex
FIELD: fire-fighting, particularly to prevent or suppress fire in closed space.
SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying oxygen displacing gas in the room to provide the first inert level characterized by reduced oxygen content in comparison with natural one; additionally stepwise or rapidly supplying oxygen displacing gas into the room to provide several different inert levels with greater oxygen content reduction. Stepwise gas supply is performed if needed. Rapid oxygen supply is carried out in the case of fire outbreak. Device for above method realization is also disclosed. The device comprises oxygen sensing means used to detect oxygen content in predetermined room and oxygen displacing gas source.
EFFECT: increased simplicity and reduced cost of displacing gas storage.
17 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting, particularly to extinguish fires in decompression pressure chambers of ships and boats and in deep-ocean diving systems.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating anoxic gas medium by compression with compressed helium at maximal possible rate to obtain pressure necessary to produce oxygen-nitrogen-helium medium having oxygen concentration of not more than 10-12%; holding above medium to combat fire; decompressing divers in special mode, which provides gas equilibrium in diver's organisms, when current summary human tissues saturation with nitrogen and helium does not exceed outer pressure value, and sufficient oxygenation.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of fire extinguishment due to provision of oxygen concentration, which does not sustain combustion, increased safety of divers due to necessary partial nitrogen pressure provision and due to correct decompression mode usage.
FIELD: rescue engineering; devices for rescue operations.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the device for rescue operations, which may be used both for fire extinguishing and for evacuation of people. The technical result of the invention achievable at realization of the given invention is expansion of the functional capabilities of the device for rescue operations. The device for rescue operations includes the skeleton, the lateral fencing wall made with the capability of folding in the vertical direction, the bottom. The lateral fencing wall is made out of the fire-resistant and waterproof material, has the lobes anchored by one edge along the perimeter of the bottom and above the mesh bottom. The lobes in their hanging down position cover the whole surface of the mesh bottom. The ends of some lobes have flaps made out of the waterproof material overlapping the gaps between the lobes while they are in their down position. The top end of one of the lobes is connected to the end of the cord. The skeleton has the upper and the lower hollow rim rings. At that the internal volume of the upper rim ring ensures buoyancy of the device.
EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the functional capabilities of the device for rescue operations.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: fire fighting, particularly to extinguish fire in large volatile flammable liquid storage facilities under low ambient temperatures in northern zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves delivering fire-extinguishing powder via pipeline to fire site so that fire-extinguishing powder is fluidized and aerated along the full pipeline length. Fire-extinguishing system comprises fire-extinguishing powder supply pipeline installed in potential fire initiation zone, accumulation vessels for fire-extinguishing powder, compressed gas source and alarm means. The supply pipeline has gas-permeable longitudinal partition, which divides the pipeline into low-pressure and high-pressure cavities. The pipeline is provided with outlet valves and is connected with compressed gas source through accumulation vessels. Alarm means are made as infrared sensors and are communicated with control electronic apparatus. Each outlet valve is provided with electric drive connected with control electronic apparatus.
EFFECT: provision of fire extinguishing in the cases, in which water and fire-extinguishing foam usage is impossible, increased reliability and safety of fire suppression under low temperatures, reduced fire-extinguishing system response time and decreased maintenance costs.
7 cl, 4 dwg