System of drying biomass (versions)

FIELD: heating, drying.

SUBSTANCE: invention describes a system of super-drying biomass which comprises a plurality of tanks, comprising at least one drying tank containing molten salt as the liquid agent of heat transfer, which is in contact with the biomass and converts it into biochar; and at least one water tank containing water for washing the salt, which is in contact with the biochar and cools the biochar to remove the salt adhered to the biochar, and the transportation system that moves the biomass through a plurality of tanks in the first direction while moving the biochar in the second direction opposite the first direction, so that at least one water tank containing water for washing the salt preliminary heats the biomass and simultaneously cools the biochar.

EFFECT: invention describes a system of super-drying which comprises a drying tank with molten salt, a plurality of tanks with water to remove the salt adhered to the biochar, and a transportation system for moving the biomass and biochar through the drying tank and a plurality of water tanks in opposite directions, at that the plurality of water tanks have different temperatures.

17 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl

 

Area of technology

The present invention in General relates to the creation of devices and methods of fuel production, and more particularly relates to systems and methods of drying that allows you to convert biomass into biochar.

The level of technology

Drying is a thermochemical treatment of biomass at temperatures from 200°C to 320°C at atmospheric conditions and in the absence of oxygen, in contrast to pyrolysis, when high heat affects the biomass at a temperature of about 900°C. drying of the biomass dried biomass (also referred to as "biochar") can occur at lower temperatures if certain volatile substances compatible with the chemical rearrangement of the atoms C, H, and O in solids. Biochar, which is produced by drying, can be used in existing coal-fired power plants. Various forms of raw materials in the form of biomass can be dried to obtain biochar. During the drying process of water vapor is evaporated from the biomass, with continuous removal of water vapor from biomass helps to produce the desired decomposition of green (raw) biomass.

The standard method of drying has its drawbacks. Requires quality control to ensure the desired izmelchennost biochar as electro�plants use pulverized coal with a particle size of less than 0.2 mm. Moreover, biochar should preferably have a very low water content, despite the fact that the moisture content of the raw biomass typically starts from 50%. In addition, during the drying process some of the volatile substances produced in the drying process, must be removed so that not too much to reduce the potential of fuel.

All drying processes require significant amounts of energy, exceeding the number required for the conversion of biomass into biochar.

For example, the energy required for the wood (or bamboo) chips, briquettes of straw (or millet), for heating the biomass to remove water from it, for transportation of biomass to the system for drying and transportation of biochar from the drying system to the place of its use. Thus, it is necessary to ensure high energy efficiency of the production plant, if the objective is the production of competitive biochar. As the energy loss increases with increasing surface area, but the performance increases with increasing volume, high volume production is the key to increase the energy efficiency and economic competitiveness of the drying process.

To reduce energy consumption has already been proposed to use the fly�their organic compounds (VOCs), released from the biomass during drying, as the heat source. VOCs can be directed into the reaction system or in the oven, which in turn produce the flue (chimney) gas for heating of the biomass. This method has technical and economic disadvantages. First of all, the flue gas is not an effective means of heat transfer. Secondly, the creation of a continuous process is more difficult when applied using gas systems that do not use air. In group technology using flue gas requires many hours to raise the temperature sufficient to remove water and heating the dried biomass to the state. Thirdly, if heat drying is obtained by burning part of the biomass allocated large amount of smoke and soot, which lead to air pollution. Fourthly, when using wood materials in the form of biomass, these wood materials do not emit sufficient quantities of VOCs during the drying process. To obtain a product of higher quality, you need to VOCs mix with natural gas, which increases production costs and creates traces of carbon dioxide.

Also already been proposed to use high-temperature steam as a clean source of heat for heating of the biomass. One�to water may penetrate into the finished product which negatively affects the quality of biochar.

In U.S. patent No.7,942,942 discloses a device that uses a serpentine pipe, allowing to dry biomass using hot wax or oil. In this patent, the biomass enters the environment with the absence of oxygen through the preheating section by means of a hot paraffin or oil, dried to the middle section by means of a hot paraffin or oil, and comes out in the form of biochar through the subsequent cooling section, with getting warm oil/wax. In each section maintain constant temperature by external heating or cooling, which leads to additional energy losses, especially when the water evaporates from the biomass without capture latent heat during subsequent re-condensation. Moreover, oil/paraffin remain trapped in the pores of the biochar, and the residual content of oil/ wax can be up to 40% by weight of biochar, making biochar unsuitable for spraying, so it can be used in modern coal-fired power plants. In addition, as the cost of oil exceeds the cost of coal in the development of one thermal unit, the resulting biochar with a large amount of residual oil is economically disadvantageous. A design in which the hot biogo�ü exits the channel through the cooling oil, in which maintain the temperature of 280°F (138°C) and which is open to the surrounding air, also creates problems related to security. Residual VOCs, such as methanol and methane with a low ignition temperature, which are allocated from the still-hot biochar or which migrate from the middle section of drying in the final cooling section of the connecting serpentine tract, can ignite or even explode.

Disclosure of the invention

Method of drying in accordance with the present invention makes it possible to economically and efficiently convert biomass into biochar. In one embodiment, the drying system comprises at least one reservoir (pool) containing a liquid heat transfer. This tool provides thermal heat transfer contact with the fragments of biomass to heat the fragments of biomass into biochar. The transportation system moves the biomass through at least one reservoir in the first direction and moves biochar in a second direction opposite the first direction, the at least one storage tank.

Method of drying is designed for drying of biomass to biochar, according to the invention includes the following operations: pre-drying of biomass; moving the biomass at least one reservoir, aderrasi� liquid heat transfer in the first direction, and the liquid heat transfer provides thermal contact with the biomass to heat the biomass and turn it into biochar; moving biochar at least one reservoir in a second direction opposite the first direction; and subsequent drying of biochar.

In accordance with one feature of the method of drying includes the operation of trapping condensable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for more efficient use.

In accordance with another feature of the drying system contains many reservoirs with different temperatures, which are supported passively in thermal equilibrium between the incoming biomass and leaving the biochar and VOCs. The means of heat transfer to the drying method is selected from the group consisting of mineral oils, paraffin and organic molten salt. Advantageously, the organic molten salt for all forms of biomass is a eutectic mixture of sodium acetate and potassium acetate. If desired, the high temperature for quick drying or instant pyrolysis, can be used a mixture of fluorides or chlorides of alkali metals.

In accordance with other characteristics of many tank further comprises a tank solution�the tell to flush mineral oil or paraffin from emerging biochar. The solvent may be hexane or naphtha (a solvent from coal tar), when the means of heat transfer are oil or paraffin. When the means of heat transfer are organic molten salt, the solvent can be water at temperatures near or below the boiling point of the liquid phase.

In accordance with other characteristics, the drying device contains a system of transportation, which creates a continuous flow of biomass fragments into many reservoirs that contain different liquids. Biomass can be heated to a temperature of approximately from 250°C to 300°C during the time from approximately 10 minutes (at higher temperature) and approximately up to one hour (at lower temperatures).

These and other features and advantages of the invention will be clearer from the subsequent detailed description, given with reference to the accompanying drawings.

Brief description of the drawings

The accompanying drawings entered in the description of the invention and forming a part thereof, illustrate various aspects of the present invention and, together with the description, serve to explain the principles of the present invention. It should be borne in mind that the shown components are not necessarily provided in real.

On Fi�.1 shows a block diagram of a production unit or system which allows you to convert biomass into biochar/volatile substances in accordance with the present invention.

Fig.2 schematically shows a drying unit of the production plant shown in Fig.1, in accordance with the first variant implementation of the present invention, in which the ceiling is conventionally removed to show the interior of the unit drying.

Fig.3 shows the increase of the right end portion of the drying unit shown in Fig.2, where one can see the trajectory of the baskets in the cells.

Fig.4 shows the increase in tanks for liquids, shown in Fig.2.

Fig.5 schematically shows a drying unit with conventionally skimmed ceiling, in accordance with the second embodiment of the present invention, in which use hot and warm oil as a means of heat transfer, hexane (or naphtha) as a solvent to wash out the oil, and hot water to evaporate the hexane or naphtha.

Fig.6 schematically shows a drying unit also conditionally cleared the ceiling, in accordance with a third embodiment of the present invention, in which use molten salt as heat transfer funds, and groups of reservoirs with water from cold to boiling, rinsing molten salt.

Fig.7 schematically shows the complete installation containing �Locke drying in accordance with a third embodiment of the present invention, which use molten alkali-acetate salt as heat transfer and as a means of catalysis of the production of concentrated liquid acetone from dilute acetic acid.

Detailed description of the invention

We now turn to a consideration of Fig.1, which shows a production plant or system 10, which comprises a drying unit 12, an external source 14 of the heat filter 18 and the block 20 of the condenser and separator. Biomass 22, converted into flakes or pellets using electricity from the mains is supplied to the drying unit 12, where the drying process to turn biomass 22 in biochar 24. Biomass 22 may include (but without limitation) the biomass of sugar cane, corn straw, rice straw, wheat straw, bamboo, wood chips and switchgrass.

External source 14 of heat, such as a nuclear reactor with a small thermal capacity, or furnace in which to burn coal, natural gas or part of the resulting biochar, with additional heat exchangers or without corresponding heats the liquid 30 to the desired temperature drying. The hot fluid 30 may be oil, wax or molten salt, however, can be used and other types of liquids that are not beyond the scope of the present invention. G�rachou liquid 30 is fed into the drying unit 12 as a means of heat transfer (heat carrier), to heat the biomass 22. Depending on the moisture content of bioglue and measures taken so as not to lose heat during the drying process, the gain in heat output when converting biomass into biochar is typically from 5 to 20. In other words, the input of 1 W external heat output allows you to get from 5 to 20 watts of heat of combustion obtained in people.

The filter 18 filters the contaminated chilled fluid 32 to separate the foam from 36 chilled fluid 34 (temperature which is typically only a few °C below the temperature of drying). Clean cooling liquid 34 is returned back to the external source 14 of warmth. Foam contains pieces of organic material and minerals of plants covered by a heat transfer fluid. They are removed from the top or dragonaut bottom from various tanks in the drying unit 12 by means of the filter 18. As an example, the filter 18 may be ground biochar obtained in the drying process. Laboratory experiments showed that in dirty oil, purified by means of filtration, there are no visible solid particles. Pena has energy value and can be pressed and sold with biochar. Alternative, foam, coated with oil, if oil is used as a means of heat transfer, can be burned to facilitate pre-drying of biomass.

Bo�I drying vapor and volatiles evaporate from biomass 22. A mixture of 40 steam and volatiles are served in unit 20 of the condenser and separator for further processing. In some embodiments, the VOC pipe that goes through the tank unit 12 drying, can form the condenser and separator. In any case, a mixture of 40 steam and volatiles can be condensed in the condenser unit 20 and the separator and separated in the biofluid 42 gases and 44, which contain CO, CO2and, maybe, also H2, CH4and traces of other volatile substances. These gases 44 may be burned to facilitate pre-drying of biomass or subsequent drying of the obtained biochar 28, or gases 44 may be used or sold as raw material for further chemical synthesis.

The heat transfer fluid permeates biochar 24 which exits from the drying unit 12. This saturated liquid biochar 24 is passed through a bath 25 of the solvent, which selects the liquid from biochar, to thereby produce biochar 26 impregnated with a solvent. The extracted fluid is directed to an external source 14 of heat for heating and subsequent use as a hot tool heat transfer for drying, and biochar 26 with solvent is passed through a weak (soft) heater 27, which vaporizes the solvent, to thereby produce g�tovo biochar 28, which does not contain a heat transfer fluid or solvent. In some embodiments, the implementation of the tub 25 solvent and a weak heater 27 can be in the form of one or more reservoirs of the drying unit 12. Solvent vapours re-condense to liquid when they are fed back into the bath 25 solvent. Ready biochar 28 shipped to the end user, such as coal-fired power plant, which burn pulverized coal.

Thus, the drying unit 12 in accordance with the present invention uses a liquid heat transfer funds for the conversion of biomass with any moisture content in biochar, on an industrial scale, as described in more detail.

The first variant of carrying out the invention

We now turn to a consideration of Fig.2, which shows the drying unit 12 in accordance with the first variant implementation of the present invention, which comprises a housing 50, the system 52 of the transportation system 54 of the airlock system and 56 gas collection. The ceiling of the housing 50 is conventionally removed to show the interior of the unit 12 drying.

The housing 50, mostly rectangular in shape to facilitate the design, it contains many of the bridges 60 projecting from the bottom wall of the housing 50 to divide the housing 50 by a plurality of compartments for �of alcosta. Liquids are a means of heat, solvent or water for heating and cleaning of 22 biomass and biochar 24. In this embodiment, the implementation has six compartments for liquids, including two tanks 70 and 72 for water, containing water, two tanks 74 and 76 for solvent, solvent, and two streams ("river") 78 and 80 drying containing flowing heat transfer fluid medium. Tanks in most cases contain stagnant fluid, but may contain and slow flowing liquid, if it's better suited for continuous service.

Means of heat transfer to the drying process contain (but not limited to, mineral oil, paraffin and organic molten salt. Organic molten salt for all kinds of biomass is predominantly eutectic mixture of sodium acetate and potassium acetate. If desired, the high temperature for quick drying or instant pyrolysis, can be used a mixture of fluorides or chlorides of alkali metals. The tanks 74 and 76 contain the wash solvent liquid heat transfer funds, adhering to biochar. When using mineral oil or paraffin as a means of heat transfer, hexane or naphtha may be used as the solvent in the tanks 74 and 76 to dissolve�La. When using the organic salt as a means of heat transfer, water can be used as the solvent in the tanks 74 and 76 for solvent, in addition to the tanks 70 and 72 for the water.

The tanks 70 and 72 for water and reservoirs 74 and 76 for solvent located on the front side 66 of the housing 50 along the longitudinal direction of the housing 50. Ducts (or tanks) 78 and 80 for drying are located on the rear side 68 of the housing 50 along the longitudinal direction of the housing 50. The drying unit 12 may contain any number of tanks (including one tank) and tank types that are not beyond the scope of the present invention.

In this embodiment of the tanks 78 and 80 for drying contain mineral oil or paraffin as a means of heat transfer, and the tanks 74 and 76 to contain solvent hexane or naphtha. Hexane is widely used in industrial applications for dissolving oil. Nafta is an alternative solvent. The tanks 70 and 72 contain water for water. In the drying unit in which oil is used as a means of heat transfer, the water in the reservoir 72 may be heated to a temperature high enough to evaporate the hexane or naphtha from biochar. In the drying unit, which uses molten salt as a medium of heat transfer, waterb tanks 70 and 72 is an excellent solvent for the removal of salt from the emerging biochar. Discussed here above types of liquids are only approximate, so that can be used and other liquids that are not beyond the scope of the present invention. The number and size of tanks for solvent should be sufficient for such washing biochar that the levels of residual oils or salts acceptable for the end user. For security and eliminate the risk to health of workers and the reservoir 70, which is the first reservoir of biomass and last tank of biochar, in all cases, it may be a water tank. Although it is not shown, it should be borne in mind that instead of flushing water can be used mechanical crushing and pressing or centrifugation to remove residual medium heat and solvents from emerging biochar. These measures allow us to make biochar land.

The liquid contained in the tanks 70, 72, 74, 76, 78 and 80 have corresponding temperature T1, T2, T3, T4, T5and T6and T1<T2<T3<T4<T5<T6. Temperature T1, T2, T3, T4, T5and T6located in a desirable temperature range from 120°C to 300°C, and temperature T5and T6actively govern, so that they are respectively equal to 230°C and 300°C, et�x stages of the drying process. Temperature T1, T2, T3and T4receive passively by counter-current balance of the cold biomass biochar and hot in baskets and hot VOCs in heat-conducting tubes. Biomass is continuously lowered and raised, during the heating step by means of liquids contained in the tanks 70, 72, 74, 76, 78 and 80, with no air in the spaces above the liquids.

System 52 contains transportation belt conveyor 84 for continuous conveying of a plurality of baskets 86 in cells that contain biomass/biochar. Basket 86 in the cells moved along the belt conveyor 84 and injected chips or briquettes of biomass intended for deep drying ("doneness") in a liquid heat transfer in ducts 78 and 80 for drying. Rails or wheels (not shown) can be used to facilitate the movement of the conveyor belt 84. Conveyor belt 84 moves many baskets 86 in the cells in a continuous path moving in the drying unit 12, so that the baskets 86 in the cells will be located in at least two rows in each of the tanks. When the basket 86 in cells enter the drying unit 12 in the first direction, as shown by the arrow X, the biomass is heated stepwise manner the fluids in the compartments 70, 72, 74, 78 and 80 and end with�ete dried in the first and second drying ducts 78 and 80. In the example shown, two rows of baskets are moved in opposite directions in all the tanks except the second drying duct 80. There is an active heating of the drying ducts 78 and 80, directly from the bottom or, more safely, with the help of an external source that heats a liquid heat transfer after removing it from drying ducts 78 and 80 and pumps it back into the drying ducts 78 and 80.

After passing through the second drying tank 80 biomass will be completely dried, and the dried biomass (biochar) is transported through these tanks in reverse order in the second direction opposite the first direction, and exits the drying unit 12 from the tank 70 with water, as shown by the arrow Y. the Initial biomass and dried biomass is moved through the drying unit 12 along a continuous path, at least in two rows in each of the compartments with liquids. Additional passes can be added in the main drying duct 80, to increase production of biochar using the same amount of biomass that passes through the tanks 70, 72, 74, 76 and the duct 78. However, the movement of the baskets can be made faster, so that each basket is passed through the duct 80 for a predetermined period of time, e.g. 10 minutes. When it� may provide an increased degree of heating ducts 78 and 80, to maintain their temperature at 230°C and 300°C respectively. By increasing the volume of the drying duct 80, without increasing the volume of a tank, can be obtained a more compact configuration and, therefore, can be achieved a higher thermal efficiency at higher volume production of biochar.

As shown in Fig.3, group baskets 86 in cells containing chips or briquettes of biomass is immersed in the drying duct 80, which has the highest temperature of all compartments with liquids. By the arrow X shows the direction of introduction of the biomass, and the arrow Y indicates the direction of the production of biochar. Arrow 29 shows the direction of travel of the baskets 86 in the cells. In this embodiment, the implementation of each basket 86 in the cage is drying duct 80 ten minutes. The time spent in other compartments, such as the drying duct 78, the tanks 70, 72 with water and reservoirs 74 and 76 with the solvent is proportional to the length of each of the compartments for liquids. It should be borne in mind that the time spent in the drying duct 80 (in other tanks) can change depending on the working temperature (in particular from the temperature of the heat transfer funds), the size of the drying duct 80 and the velocity of biomass/biochar. Biomass can be heated to a temperature designed�part from 250°C to 300°C, during the time from approximately 10 minutes (at higher temperature) to one hour (at lower temperatures).

The first drying duct 78, which has the second highest temperature among the temperatures of the compartments with liquids, coming from the front side 66 to the back side 68 of the housing 50. The first and second drying ducts 78 and 80 can be provided with a pipe (not shown) for insertion in and removal of heat transfer fluid medium. Warm and hot liquid a means of heat transfer in the ducts 78 and 80 replacing the air and provide an effective thermal contact with chunks of biomass wrong sizes placed in the baskets 86 in the cells. When the biomass enters the drying unit 12 and is immersed in the liquid in the tanks 70, 72, 74, 76, 78 and 80, the water and volatile substances, out (replaced) from biomass, and basket 86 biomass (input) become the baskets 86 biochar (output) within just a few minutes.

Again, refer to Fig.2, which shows that the system 54 of the airlock contains many partitions 90 provided at the front side 66 of the housing 50 and surrounding the tanks 70, 72 with water and reservoirs 74 and 76 with a solvent that does not allow air to enter the space above the liquid level. Partitions 90, entered into reservoirs 70, 72, 74, 76 and the duct 78 to separate these adekit environment, do not allow air to enter the space above the liquids. Thus, only the volatile gases and steam released from the biomass, are located in the space above the drying ducts 78 and 80. Volatile gases arising from the drying unit 20 under the action of their own pressure through the system 56 gas collection. The air lock 54, with multiple redundancy to improve the reliability, provides devoid of oxygen environment in a relatively cold state in those parts of the system that are in the vicinity of the environment.

Fig.4 shows the increase in the tanks 70 and 72 with water, where you can see how the basket 86 in the cells moves through different reservoirs 70, 72, 74, 76, 78 and 80. Two rows of baskets 86 in cells moving in opposite directions. Basket 86 in the cells in the first row to contain shavings or pellets of biomass and moved outside to the inside, as shown by the arrows A, while the basket 86 in the cells in the second row contain biochar and moved outward, as shown by the arrows V.

After passing under the partition wall 90 of the basket 86 in the first row move to the left, as shown by arrows A, and pass on the conveyor belt 84 on top of the bridges 60 from the reservoir 70 with water in the tank 72 with water. Although this is not shown in Fig.4, it should be borne in mind that the basket 86 in cell�x continues to move in a similar way through the tanks 74, 76 with the solvent and after drying ducts 78 and 80. Basket 86 in cells containing the dried biomass (biochar), move to the right, as shown by the arrows B, while they go out of 72 tank with water, immersed in the reservoir 70 with water, pass under the walls 90 and out of the drying unit 12. Previously the entrance to the reservoir 72 with water basket 86 in cells in which biochar is, pass likewise through the drying duct 80, 78 with current in the direction transverse to the fluid and the reservoirs 76 and 74 with the solvent. Biochar, which is located in the baskets 86 is cooled in the vessel 70 with water up to the temperature close to the ambient temperature, so it can be safely transported out of the drying unit 12 and be received by the end user.

As shown in Fig.4, each of the baskets 86 in the cells contains a liner 99 along the walls of the baskets 86 in the cells. The liner 99 is porous for a means of heat, solvent or water contained in the tanks 70, 72, 74, 76, 78 and 80, but not for chips/pellets for dried biomass or biochar. Thus, the liner 99 prevents the chips/biomass pellets or dried biochar contained in the baskets 86 in the cells, to sleep out of the baskets 86, but allows a means of heat, solvent, or in�e leaking through the liner 99, to heat or clean biomass/biochar.

Again, refer to Fig.2, which shows that the system 56 gas collection contains many first pipe 92 and a lot of second pipe 94 for collecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from biomass 22, when the basket 86 in the cells moved along the drying tanks 78 and 80. Each of the plurality of the first pipe 92 includes an inlet 96, located in the first drying vessel 78 above the liquid level to collect the vented vapor from the top in the first drying vessel 78. Each of the second plurality of tubes 94 includes an inlet 98, located in the second drying tank 80 above the liquid level to collect the vented vapor from the top in the second drying vessel 80. Depending on the temperature of the tank with solvent and water tank, additional pipes (not shown) can be used for collecting vapors evolved in the tanks 70, 72 with the water in the tanks 74 and 76 with the solvent.

One partition wall 90, which is located near the bridge 60, separates the first drying tank 78 from the second drying vessel 80 to prevent mixing of VOCs present in the space above the first drying tank 78 with VOCs present in the space above the second drying tank 80 to improve� collection of various types of VOCs. Through the use of two drying tanks 78 and 80 can better control the allocation and subsequent condensation of VOCs.

In addition to water, condensable VOCs can be divided into three General classes: (a) alcohols (mainly methanol), (b) organic acids (mainly acetic acid, but also to a lesser extent formic and lactic acids), and (c) other aromatic and aliphatic compounds (furfural, hydroxyacetone, etc.). The materials in categories (a) and (c) have a value as a fuel additive, and the materials in categories (b) are important industrial and agricultural chemicals. VOCs and pairs collected with the help of the first and second tubes 92 and 94, is directed into the condenser unit 20 and the separator (Fig.1) for further processing, if necessary. Unit 20 of the condenser and separator separates a mixture of condensable and non-condensable VOCs at different bioliquids, on the basis of various condensing temperatures, and gases, such as H2, CH4, CO, and CO2. Gases due to burning can be used as fuel or can be accumulated for further chemical treatment. The fluid can be subjected to additional separation and recycling in commercial products.

In this embodiment of the VOCs captured, condensed and sold separately and not burn when used�esewani as an additional heat source in a standard drying process since VOCs are of great economic value per unit of weight than biochar. In this embodiment, the implementation part of the biochar obtained using the drying unit, can be burned to get a relatively cheaper source of heat for the drying process.

When the biomass is moved from the tanks 70, 72 with water through the tanks 74, 76 with the solvent in drying ducts 78 and 80 in the first direction X, the biomass absorbs heat from liquids contained in the tanks. When dried biomass (biochar) moves through these sections in reverse order in the second direction Y, the dried biomass, release heat in the fluid contained in these compartments. Thus, biochar is cooled in the same tanks in which biomass is heated. The absorption of heat input into the system by biomass, and heat coming out the biochar leads to the creation of an equilibrium of temperature between the ambient temperature and the temperature of drying. When dried biomass exits the drying unit 12 and comes into contact with air, then dried biomass will be cooled sufficiently to avoid spontaneous combustion. The transmission of VOCs through the tanks for a variety of first and second pipes 92 and 94 also helps to cool the vapors and helps to condense and R�sdelete desirable fluid. No external source of energy is not required for cooling of biochar, which leads to energy saving.

In an oxygen-free environment of the liquid contained in the tanks 70, 72, 74, 76, 78 and 80, are stable at temperatures of drying in the range of approximately from 250 to 300°C and can be subjected to cleaner burning power plants running on coal. Suitable heat transfer fluid medium for the drying process in accordance with the present invention include (but without limitation) oil, obtained by distillation of high temperature oil, some synthetic heat transfer fluid and heated paraffin or ORGANOMETALLIC salt. Biochar obtained using the inventive method of drying, may then be sprayed for use as a renewable and carbon neutral fuel for power plants running on coal.

The second variant of carrying out the invention

We now turn to a consideration of Fig.5, which shows the drying unit 100 according to the second variant implementation of the present invention, which is similar to the unit shown in Fig.3, with the exception of the design of the oil system, and here is a more detailed description of parts and function of reservoirs and mechanisms of pipes for co�condensation. Drying unit 100 contains two reservoirs 102, 104 with water, two tanks 106, 108 with the solvent (containing hexane or naphtha) and eight tanks 110 with the oil, the first drying duct 111 containing warm oil or melted paraffin, and the second drying duct 112, containing hot oil or molten wax. Drying ducts 111, 112 may contain oil or molten wax at temperatures of 230°C and 300°C respectively. Two tanks 106, 108 with the solvent and eight tanks 110 with the oil have a temperature T1, T2... and T10respectively. The reservoir 102 with water is divided into tanks A1 and B1 with water, while the reservoir 104 with water is divided into tanks A2 and B2 with water (also shown in Fig.2 and 3). The design of the drying unit 100 is similar to the design of the drying unit 12 of the first embodiment, and therefore its detailed description is not given.

Incoming biomass and emerging biochar and VOC in the form of vapor plus water vapor are inside having a high thermal conductivity of the pipes in ten reservoirs 106, 108 and 110 with the solvent and oil, and two tanks A1 and A2 with water (also shown in Fig.3). If biomass is immersed at 25°C in the first, second, ..., tenth reservoirs having temperatures, respectively, T1, T2... and T10and biogo�ü and a pair of VOC and water vapor out of the warm duct (i.e. from drying duct 111, having the subscript sign wr) at a temperature of 230°C and out of the two tanks B2 and B1 with water (also shown in Fig.3) at 25°C, the heat balance emerging biochar plus pairs and cooling due to the incoming biomass allows to obtain the equilibrium equations, in the approximation of small temperature difference of incoming and outgoing materials in each bath:

(T1-25°C)=α12(T2-T1),

(T2-T1)=α23(T3-T2),

...

(T9-T8)=α9,10(T10-T9)

(T10-T9)=α10,wr(230°C-T10),

where αijrepresents the following relation:

αij=Mc(hc/T)P+Mv(hv/T)PMb(hb/T)P

and where hb, hcor hvand Mb,Mc, orMvrepresent respectively the specific enthalpy of the biomass, biochar or vapours (VOC plus water vapor) and the mass expenditure of processed biomass, biochar formed or steam, respectively.

The mass balance requiresMc+Mv=Mbin the steady state. However, this is strictly valid only if we neglect the phase transitions, however, the formula can include latent heat of condensation. A set of simultaneous equations is equivalent to the equation tridiagonal matrix with 1+αijon the diagonal and -1 and αijoutside diagonals:

(1+α12α12011+α23 α230011+α10,wr)(T1T2T10)=(25C0α10,wr230C).

Control matrix equation can easily be solved numerically, if the values of αijobtained from experiments with a reliable source of biomass. As a teaching example, consider the solution of this matrix equation, when αijhas a universal value of α. In this case, you will receive a decision

Tn=ΘnΔ10n=1, 2, ..., 10,

where Δ 8represents the determinant of the coefficient matrix of 10×10,

Δ10=1+α+α1345678910,

and Θnis the determinant formed by replacing the n-th column of the coefficient matrix of the column vector on the right side:

Θ19(25C)+α10(230C),

Θ28(25C)+α9Δ1(230C),

Θ37(25C)+α8Δ2(230C),

Θ46(25C)+α7Δ3(230C),

Θ55(25C)+α6Δ4(230C),

Θ64(25C)+α5Δ5(230C),

Θ73(25C)+α4Δ6(230C),

Θ82(25C)+α3Δ7(230C),

Θ91(25C)+α2Δ8(230C),

Θ10=25C+αΔ9(230C),

where Δ1, Δ2,..., Δ9- determinants 1×1, 2×2, ... 9×9 matrices of coefficients:

Δ1=1+α, Δ2=1+α+α2, ..., Δ9=1+α+α2+...+α9.

Coefficients (after dividing by Δ10) equal to 25°C and 230°C, and they affect the transfer after a certain number of dives to the heat sink and the heat source from each end. So it's easy to make a generalization for any arbitrary number of baths.

As a concrete numerical example, assume that the ratio α=1. Then

α1=2,Δ2=3, Δ3=4, Δ4=5, Δ5=6,Δ 6=7, Δ7=8, Δ8=9, Δ9=10, Δ10=11.

The temperature is a linearly increasing sequence increment

ΔT=(230°C-25°C)/11=18.64°C:

T1=43.6 S, T2=62.3 S, T3=80.9 C, T4=99.5 S, T5=118.2,

T6=136.8 S, T7=155.5 S, T8=174.1 C, T9=192.7 S, T10=211.4 S.

Since hexane has a boiling point of 69°C, 2 tanks and 1 (i.e., the reservoirs 106 and 108 with the solvent) can be baths with hexane. After the tank 1, the trajectory of biochar and biomass differ. The biomass is fed at ambient temperature and immersed in tanks A1 and A2 with water at 25°C, and then flows into the sealed chamber of the drying unit. There is no need to biochar included in these same tanks, as it exits the block and has no effect on the system if the biomass is produced at a temperature of 25°C. Consequently, the emerging biochar can be passed through separately sealed and heated water bath B2 at a temperature of 80°C or at some other temperature is higher than 69°C necessary for the evaporation of the hexane at atmospheric pressure. Hexane and oil are not mixed in the water. Hexane in people becomes conveyed by pipes of gas, which may be further condensed. Oil, still Stausee�I people, diluted hexane in two tanks 106 and 108 and can be made a small fraction (e.g. 1%) of the total weight of biochar transported on coal-fired power plant. Terminal reservoir B1 with water at 25°C allow to cool biochar and any remaining hexane to safe conditions of ambient temperature. The water in people from this end of the tank can evaporate naturally during transportation or may be actively removed by burning neskondensirovannyh VOCs. End users can also be allowed a higher moisture content in people, with appropriate discount for the weight of water.

Depending on the number of tubes and the inner and outer diameters of the pipes through which flow the VOC in the form of vapor and water vapor, VOC flows only through maintaining a pressure equal to one atmosphere, and can go up to the equilibrium temperature of the surrounding bath or not to reach her. In the absence of phase transitions creates a subsonic mean flow, which is controlled by the following equation volumetric cooling:

ddx(mcPT)=Nu[K(T Tb)De]πDe,

wheremrepresents the mass flow rate of steam flowing in a single pipe, De- internal diameter of pipe, Nu is the Nusselt number for turbulent flow in the pipe, K is thermal conductivity of steam and Tb(x) is the average boundary temperature of the inner surface of the pipe (not necessarily the same as the average temperature Tpin the tank).

Temperature Tb(x) is given by the condition that the heat created by the gas passes through the metal thickness h:

Kmetal(TbTp)hπDe=mcPdTdx.

The substitution Tbfrom the previous equation in the earlier equation gives the ordinary differential equation:

mcPmrow> πDe[DeNuK(hKmetal)]dTdx=(TTp),

in which members in square brackets give the formula of resistance to heat flow, and when convection, and thermal conductivity are added sequentially.

If Nu is taken to be its average value in this part of the flow, shown here above ordinary differential equation can be integrated to obtain

T(x)Tp=(T0Tp)ex/x0,

where Then is the value of T when x=0 and x0is a defines a linear dimension

x0mcPπDe [DeNuK+(hKmetal)].

SpeedMvthe liberation of the mass of VOCs plus water vapor typically ranges from 40 to 60% of the speedMbprocessing of biomass. In the system using oil, which performs processing of, for example, 80 metric tons of biomass for 10 minutes,Mvcan be equal 57.11 kg s-1. When the flow through 256 round tubes, each of which has an internal diameter De=0.1 m, couples can have the mass transfer rate in each pipem=Mv/256=0.2331kgs1. If the coefficient of viscosity of the gas µ=0.000025 kg m-1s-1 the average Reynolds number for the flow in the pipe

Re=(0.2231 kgs-1)(0.1 m)/[π(0.05 m)2(0.000025 kgm-1s-1)]=113,600.

The coefficient of friction associated with this Reynolds number, f=0.004379.

If we take the coefficient of thermal conductivity K=0.04 Wm-1K-1and specific heat CP=1,000 Jkg-1K-1the Prandtl number Pr=µcP/K=0.625 to be associated with VOC in the form of vapor and water vapor. The Nusselt number associated with the turbulent flow, Re=113,600 and Pr=0.625, and then Nu=183. Metal thickness h=0.01 m and the conductivity coefficient Kmetal=20 Wm-1K-1defining the linear dimension of x0=10.04 m. If a pair of VOC duct with flow from the hot oil at a temperature T0=293°C and flow into the duct with warm oil at temperature Tp=230°C, the temperature of the gaseous VOC after moving 80 m will be equal to 230.0°C. the Temperature of the subsequent stream is shown in Table 1.

Table 1
Temperature VOC for heat transfer from tubes with an internal diameter of 0.1 m
TankLength (m)G (°C)VOC T (°C)
Oil (warm flow)230.0230.0
Oil (tank 10)10211.4218.3
Oil (tank 9)10192.7202.1
Oil (tank 8)10174.1184.4
Oil (tank 7)10155.5166.2
Oil (tank 6)10136.8147.6
Oil (tank 5)10118.2129.1
Oil (tank 4)1099.5110.4
Oil (tank 3)2080.984.9
Hexane (tank 2)4062.3 62.7
Hexane (tank 1)4043.644.0
Water (reservoir A1)2025.027.6
Water (reservoir A2)2025.025.4
Water (reservoir B1)2080.0-
Water (reservoir B2)2025.0-

Major condensates VOC, in accordance with Table 1, specify drainage furfural in the drain discharge pipe, which occurs in the reservoir 6 of oil; hydroxyacetone, in the tank 5 with oil; lactic and acetic acid in the tank 4 with oil; formic acid and water in the tank 3 with the oil; and methanol and hexane (from distillation of solvents) in the vessel 2 with hexane (having a length of 40 m in the example that proves the best rinse the oil from emerging biochar). First hexane tank 106 (tank 1) provides additional dilution of the oil that goes along with the biochar.Although temperature VOC vapors in the respective pipes is not equal to the temperature of the surrounding liquid, never occurs a temperature difference of more than 11°C shows the configuration of the pipes, so that the evaluation methodology used to calculate the temperature of the surrounding liquid, is mainly justified (if α=1). The inclusion of the effects of the latent heat to change the details but not the full picture. Similar considerations apply to couples who stand out in any of the closed volumes of the drying unit, if the tubes are open to vapour to transport them to the output through the system of reservoirs of preparation and main tanks.

The third variant of implementation

We now turn to a consideration of Fig.6, which shows the drying unit 200 in accordance with a third embodiment of implementation of the present invention, which is similar to the drying unit of the second variant of implementation except for the number of compartments for liquids and types of funds transfer fluids. More specifically, the drying unit 200 includes a housing 202, a system 204 transportation system 206 gas gathering system and 208 of the airlock. A plurality of compartments for fluids contain nine tanks 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217 and 218 of water, one duct 219 of boiling water and one drying duct 220 with molten salt. Drying duct 220 contains a corresponding molten salt, such as an eutectic mixture of acetate on�Riya and potassium acetate, as a means of heat transfer. Molten salts are very soluble in water, and therefore in this embodiment, the implementation does not require any other solvents.

Eutectic mixture of sodium acetate and potassium acetate has an optimal operating temperature of about 300°C, which lies between the melting point of about 230°C and a decomposition temperature of about 460°C. the Use of eutectic mixture of alkali-acetate salt advantageously allows to increase the heat capacity, approximately 2,000 times per unit volume compared to the flue gas at the same operating temperature. Thus, the drying process using a molten salt flows much faster than conventional drying process with the use of flue gas as a means of heat transfer. As such, the process of drying in accordance with the present invention allows to significantly increase production while reducing production costs, allowing you to substitute natural gas with biochar as a possible alternative.

The molten salt in the drying duct 220 is maintained at a temperature of 300°C, but boiling water in a warm duct 219, at close to atmospheric pressure, maintained at a temperature of only 100°C and thermostation through prevremeni� water into water vapour, when hot biochar emerging from the duct 220 of the molten salt is immersed in boiling water in a channel 219, and by the condensation of vapor into liquid, when incoming cold biomass is immersed in boiling water in a channel 219. If the ambient temperature at which the biomass enters the drying unit 200 is 25°C, then nine tanks 210-218 water to flow 219 of boiling water will have a relevant temperature 32.5°C, 40.0°C, 47.5°C 55.0°C, 62.5°C, 70°C 77.5°C, 85°C and 92.5°C.

In a variant implementation of molten salt tanks 210-218 water also perform other functions in addition to the displacement of air (and energy conservation) in a gradual stepwise increase/decrease of the temperature of the biomass/biochar (to improve security), at the entrance of biomass in the device and the yield of biochar from it. Tanks 210-218 water also serves to flush salt from biochar. To implement this function, when the recovery of all salt except for a reasonable small surplus, which goes together with outgoing biochar, tanks 210-218 performed as pools of stagnant water and get the salt concentration, which is achieved through passive balance between more salt biochar and less salty biomass, which pass through the tank in opposite directions. When you balance tanks 210-218 with water to form a sequence �of eservoirs with increasing salinity. Thus, when passing from the reservoir 218 with water up to the reservoir 210 with water biochar is becoming less and less salty; while, when passing from the reservoir 210 with water up to the reservoir 218 of water, biomass is becoming more and more salty. Acceptable level of residual salts (for example, 0.1% by weight of biochar), which goes along with the biochar, can be achieved by additives sufficient quantity of distilled water in a duct 219 of boiling water so that the salinity in it is kept at around 50% (that is, the content of the acetate salt is about 50% by weight solution). To achieve this result, between tanks 218-215 (leaching) tanks and 214-210 (flushing), you can open the cover in the baskets and compress emerging biochar to reduce the fraction of the pore volume of the appraised value of about 0.67 when biochar out of the duct with salt, to a value of about 0.28 at the entrance to the tanks 214-210 rinsing. The specific numbers given in this description of the invention for illustrative purposes only and do not limit the scope of patent claims, so can be used other possible input parameters of biomass, other aspects of the hardware or other operating procedures.

The tanks are modular, and the length of this module adjust according to desired p�poizvoditelnosti production plant. The size of the drying duct 220 is controlled so that desirable to dry the amount of biomass in each basket every 20 minutes. Although shown 14 baskets, fully immersed in the duct 220 with molten salt, any number of bins can be used in a sufficiently large duct, due to changes in the rate at which each basket is pulled (passes) through the duct, so that the drying unit 200 can be extended or shortened, depending on the application. The amount of heat that must be added to keep the current salt in a channel at a temperature of 300°C must be increased accordingly, if the volume of production of biomass increased.

Similar to the first embodiment of the system 204 transportation move many baskets 86 in the cells, which is milled biomass/biochar, along the route of transportation to immerse biomass/biochar in tanks 210-218 with water in the duct 219 of boiling water and duct 220 with molten salt, and accordingly to raise the biomass/biochar. Two rows of baskets 86 move in opposite directions in each tank, except for the drying duct 220, in which the basket 86 are arranged in four rows in the example shown, that allows you to dry more biomass. Biomass 22 on�upivaetsa in hot eutectic salt sodium acetate/potassium acetate in drying duct 220. System 208 of the airlock contains many partitions 90, provided in the tanks 210-218 to block the flow of air (especially oxygen) in the space above the tanks and channels 219 and 220.

We now turn to a consideration of Fig.7, which shows equipped production unit 300, which contains a drying unit 200, shown in Fig.6, together with the other aforementioned devices, wherein the molten alkali-acetate salt is used as a means of heat transfer and as a means of catalysis to produce a concentrated liquid acetone from dilute acetic acid. Acetate salts are a relatively weak correlate agent and can act as the electrolyte in a molten state. You should take precautions when choosing metal alloys, for example stainless steel, in the design of components, and the use of different metals for the manufacture of the various components should be avoided to minimize the likelihood of galvanic corrosion.

Fig.7 shows only a limited number of tank unit 200 drying. Production plant 300 further comprises a block 230 preheating, block 234 subsequent heating, the carbon filter 236, a saline pump 238 and reactionary and�ttings 250. To avoid freezing of the salt in the outlet production plant for maintenance, block 234 preheating should be located lower than the other system components, so that the molten salt flows into it when you turn off the pumps. Pumps (not shown) used for injection of salt up from the block pre heating duct 220 for salt. During drying in the Bayou 220 is derived from the exhaust pipe 240 of these pumps for downstream carbon filter 236, for removing small fragments of biochar from drying duct 220. Downstream of the charcoal filter is located in the salt pump 238, which delivers more salt per unit 230 preheating and bypasses a portion of salt to block 234 subsequent heating. Block 234 subsequent heating allows to obtain a gaseous acetone and liquid alkali-carbon Sol. Chemical reaction apparatus 250 produces an aqueous solution of alkali-acetate salt.

More specifically, the block 230 preheating takes acetate salt cooled by contact with the biomass in the 200 block of drying and re-heating to 300°C. the Acetate salt is then pumped through pipe 240 in the drying duct 220. Despite the fact that the block 230 preheating is shown in the form of a long lo�ka, it can also have any other configuration. Through the use of adequate insulation can eliminate up to 20% of heat losses, which are available in standard gas heaters in the form of a tray. The retention chamber 241 (only one of which is shown next to the tanks 217 and 218 of water) may be provided near the tanks 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, to collect the VOCs identified in the pipes 245 condensation. Low pressure saturated steam, molten salt can slow down the deposition of salt in the condensation pipes. Periodic maintenance should include flushing the pipes with hot water.

Calibrated the amount of salt coming from the salt pump through the pipe 238 246 in block 234 subsequent heating allows to obtain a gaseous acetone and liquid alkali-carbonate salt due to the heating of the alkali-acetate salt above its thermal decomposition temperature, to a temperature of 460°C, and most 500°C. the Molten alkali carbonate salt then flows through the pipe 248 in the reaction system 250. Diluted acetic acid from one of the cells 241 accumulation is also supplied to the reaction system 250, where the alkali-carbonate salt reacts with dilute acetic acid to form gaseous carbon dioxide and an aqueous solution of alkali-acetate salt. Dioxide �of geroda let out. The aqueous solution of alkali-acetate salt, which has a temperature below 100°C, refer to the block 230 preheating pipe 254. Water vapor is also formed in a chemical reaction due to the intense heat and can be distilled and condensed for sale or for other purposes. The amount of acetate salt, which is decomposed into carbonate salt, is calibrated so as to use the appropriate stream of acetic acid to replenish the acetate salt.

Biochar obtained through the use of this embodiment of the present invention, has properties that exceed the properties of natural bituminous coal available on the market. For this reason, the Complainant called the claimed method of using molten salts as heat transfer funds (as a coolant) as "supermassive". For example, in one trial run biochar has a coefficient of raspolozhennosti Hargrove (HGI), is $ 67, and willingly accept coal-fired power plants. The calorific value of biochar is 6,139 kcal/kg=25.7 MJ/kg, which was comparable with the corresponding characteristic of the best natural bituminous coal available on the market. Residual VOC in 36.11% and the carbon content 49.55% have a ratio (quotient), which depends on the degree of drying. Tissue grinding �of astani using salt dehydration helps to speed up the process. Generally speaking, compared to drying with the use of the flue gases, supervission in accordance with the present invention allows to obtain a lower residual VOC to carbon, which leads to obtaining a product of higher quality.

In addition, the sulfur content in people is only 0.06%, which is an order of magnitude better than the natural angle. The ash content of biochar is about 5.69%, unlike ash content 20%-40% in many energy coals. When biomass is produced from bamboo, ash is rich in potash and can be sold as a fertilizer and is not empty waste, by burning ordinary coal. The balance in the mass of biochar is moisture, the content of which depends on the drying procedure and the conditions of storage before use. Thus, no waste streams do not occur when the drying method according to the present invention.

In the condensation stages share the water and acetic acid (the bulk of the organic acids extracted from VOCs) from other bioliquids. Dilute acetic acid in this form has minimal economic value as an antiseptic to prevent rot in bales of hay, or as a disinfectant when packing meat. The use of alkali-acetate salt creates significant advantages, since it allows prewash�you dilute acetic acid in a concentrated acetone, which has economic value as an industrial solvent, or potentially as aviation fuel. In block 234 post-heating can be heated, for example, potassium acetate as one component of the molten salt above its decomposition temperature, for example above approximately 460°C, to obtain the potassium carbonate and acetone:

2CH3COOK (molten salt)+heat→(CH3)2CO (vapor)+K2CO3(molten salt).

The acetone out of the mixture in the form of steam can be condensed as pure liquid by passing gas at atmospheric pressure through pipes in tanks with water until its temperature drops below 56°C. Although in this example, potassium acetate is used, a similar result can be obtained with sodium acetate, lithium acetate or other salts in the form of alkali acetate.

Dissolved in an aqueous solution of potassium carbonate is a weak alkali. To restore the acetate salt form of potassium carbonate is introduced into the reaction apparatus 250 for the reaction with dilute acetic acid, obtained by condensation of VOCs during drying of biomass:

2CH3COOH (aqueous solution)+K2CO3(aqueous solution) →2CH3COOK (aqueous solution)+CO2(gas)+H2O (liquid)+heat.

The reaction is moderately exothermic reaction, but with norms�of patients with heat loss, moreover, the reaction with the use of dilute aqueous solutions can be carried out at room temperature, while only CO2evaporates as a gas. For the extraction of potassium acetate in the form of an anhydrous molten salt squeezed the water out of the heater, which used a pre-heated molten eutectic salt acetate at a temperature of 300°C for duct 220 with salt. Receive the water vapor that is not mixed with VOCs in the drying process and which is sufficiently pure condensation product so obtained water you could drink, and it can be further distilled, conducted preliminary filtration through osmotic processes through the membranes of live bamboo. The surplus drinking water may have some economic value for human and animal consumption, or for use in agriculture. The water can be used to reduce salinity in the tank 219 of boiling water, as already indicated here above.

Drying with the aid of ORGANOMETALLIC salts, such as eutectic mixture of sodium acetate and potassium acetate, compared to drying using mineral oil, has the following advantages: (1) increasing security, as acetate salt, even when they are contaminated fragments� biochar, do not ignite as easily as oil or paraffin, in case of leakage of air in the drying device; (2) higher resistance to thermal degradation, if the salt is at a temperature above its (eutectic) melting point of about 230°C, and at a temperature below its temperature of decomposition of about 460°C; (3) easier extraction of salt held in people inside him and then stuck to the surface, because organic alkaline salts are very easily soluble in water, especially if the water is warm or boiling; (4) can be used natural and simple two-step process to improve the quality by converting relatively common and cheap product of condensation of VOC due to the drying of biomass, namely, diluted acetic acid, in a concentrated and more economically valuable product of mass demand, namely, in liquid acetone; and (5) the possibility of extending the mechanism of drying at higher temperature and shorter time scales in the pyrolysis mode, when the effective development of biomasses and synthetic gas, together with the biochar becomes a viable high-performance process.

Units 20, 100 and 200 drying in accordance with the present invention allows considerable� to reduce energy consumption, while increasing the volume of the issue. In accordance with the present invention the temperature of various tanks, in addition to drying tanks, passively regulate due to the commissioning of the cold biomass and unloading hot biochar and VOCs, without the use of external sources of heating or cooling, in contrast to the previously known drying systems that use external sources of energy for pre-heating of biomass and biochar cooling.

Moreover, the units 20, 100 and 200 drying in accordance with the present invention help to improve the quality of biochar and reduce production costs, due to the extraction of biochar and re-use means of heat transfer. In one variant of implementation, in which molten organic salt is used as a means of heat transfer, it can be easily dissolved in water and extracted. In another variant implementation, in which the oil/wax is used as a means of heat transfer, use a variety of solvents and water tank for cleaning oils and solvents remaining in people, so oil and solvents can be recovered and reused. Drying units 20, 100 and 200 in accordance with the present invention allow to obtain a more pure biochar with higher quality and contains minimally�e the amount of residual reagents, while ensuring the safety of the production process in case of leakage of a certain amount of air in the system or drying unit.

It is very important that in blocks of 20, 100 and 200 drying in accordance with the present invention, the biomass and biochar are moved through the same tanks in opposite directions along a continuous trajectory, with several rows of biomass in primary drying tank. However, the performance can be improved by adjusting the velocity of the biomass/biochar, without changing the number of tanks for heating/cooling, which allows to obtain a more compact configuration.

The General inventive idea of the present invention can be implemented in various ways. Therefore, despite the fact that the description of the present invention contains specific examples, it should be borne in mind that the scope of patent claims of the present invention is not limited to the introduction of modifications understandable to experts in this field.

1. System supermassive biomass that contains:
many tanks, including at least one drying tank containing molten salt as heat transfer fluid medium which is in contact with the biomass and turns it into biochar; and minicamera one tank of water containing water for washing the salt, which is in contact with the biochar and cools biochar, which removes the salt stuck to biochar, and
a transportation system that moves the biomass through many tanks in the first direction when moving biochar in a second direction opposite the first direction such that at least one of a water tank containing water for leaching salts, pre-heats the biomass and simultaneously cools biochar.

2. System supermassive according to claim 1, in which the transportation system moves the biomass and biochar on a continuous trajectory.

3. System supermassive according to claim 1, wherein the plurality of reservoirs have different temperatures for heating biomass stepwise manner.

4. System supermassive according to claim 1, which further comprises a housing and a variety of bridges, protruding from the bottom of the hull, and many reservoirs separated by the specified bridges.

5. System supermassive according to claim 1, wherein the plurality of tanks comprise a first drying tank having a first temperature and a second drying tank having a second temperature, higher than the first temperature.

6. System supermassive according to claim 1, wherein the plurality of reservoirs includes a variety of tank�in water, containing water for flushing of salt, with many reservoirs with water removes the salt stuck to biochar, so that when passing through many containers of water biochar is becoming less and less salty.

7. System supermassive according to claim 1, wherein the plurality of reservoirs additionally contain at least one terminal reservoir containing water.

8. System supermassive according to claim 7, in which the biomass is moved at least from one end of the water tank through at least one tank with water and dried in at least one drying vessel.

9. System supermassive according to claim 8, in which biochar is moved from the drying tank through at least one tank of water and at least one terminal reservoir containing water.

10. System supermassive according to claim 9, in which the temperature of the at least one reservoir with water or at least one end of the tank to regulate on the basis of the temperature of the biomass and biochar, which move in opposite directions.

11. System supermassive according to claim 1, which further comprises a gas collection system designed to collect, condensation and separation of volatile organic compounds extracted from biomass.

12. System Supervisory�according to claim ing 1, which further comprises a unit post-heating, which heats the alkali-acetate salt, filtered at least one reservoir with water to produce gaseous acetone.

13. System supermassive according to claim 12, which further comprises a reaction apparatus having fluid communication with the block subsequent heating to produce an aqueous solution of alkali-acetate salt.

14. System supermassive according to claim 12, which further comprises a preheating unit, designed for reheating salts derived from at least one reservoir with water and which has been chilled by contact with the biomass, for receiving an aqueous solution of alkali-acetate salt from the reaction apparatus to distill the solution of its water content.

15. System supermassive biomass that contains:
draining a tank containing a liquid heat transfer containing molten salt that provides contact with fragments of biomass to heat and turn the fragments of biomass to biochar; and
many reservoirs with water, containing water, which remove the salt stuck to biochar, to clean biochar and simultaneous cooling of biochar; and
a transportation system that moves the biomass through drying tank and �notesto containers of water in one direction and moving biochar through the drying tank and lots of containers of water in the opposite direction, while a variety of tanks with water preheated biomass and simultaneously cooled biochar,
while many containers of water have different temperatures and are arranged so that there is a gradual increase in the temperature of the biomass when moving through many containers of water in one direction and a simultaneous gradual cooling while moving through many containers of water in the opposite direction.

16. System supermassive according to claim 15, wherein the plurality of containers of water so arranged as to simultaneously rinse residual reagents from the biomass and to remove the molten salt adhering to the biochar.

17. System supermassive according to claim 1, which additionally contains many baskets in cells containing biomass and biochar, with many baskets are moved by the transportation system, at least two rows of baskets are moved to each of the plurality of containers of water, one row of baskets contains biomass, another row of baskets contains biochar.



 

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1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to production of solid fuel, in which there described is solid-fuel granulated composition based on carbon-containing component, where as carbon-containing component, there added is disperse activated product of low-temperature pyrolysis of wastes of technical rubber products and polymer wastes (pyrocarbon with specific surface S=5000-8000 cm2/g), and wood dust is added as plant waste. At that, as the component that initiates combustion, there added are nitrogen-containing components, and binding agent is added in the form of water solution of polymer plasticising additive with total initial humidity Winitial =10÷35 wt %. Peculiar feature of granulated solid-fuel composition and method for its obtainment is increase in thermal power due to considerable acceleration of fuel combustion at reduced quantity of hazardous gaseous emission to atmosphere. Proposed ratios of components and added quantity of NH4NO3 as an oxidiser instead of hydrogen at combustion provides formation of NO3, N2 and H2O. Excess oxygen is supplied to oxidation of fuel components.

EFFECT: obtaining fuel briquettes with high reactivity ability, increased thermal power and high strength of briquettes.

2 cl, 4 cl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fuel agglomeration machines and production of moulded solid fuel to be used in utilities and power engineering. Proposed device comprises housing with screw, solid fuel feed trough, and female die with moulding holes and ducts. Device housing accommodates conditioning system while screw is furnished with processing blades and heating elements arranged inside screw hollow tube and connected to external power source by means of terminals.

EFFECT: higher quality of fuel pellets.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of obtaining high-quality coke by application of borate on red-hot coke after discharge from coke furnaces with temperature 1050±50°C, with its extinguishing being carried out with water solution of borates with content of borates 3-10 g/dm3 in form of solution or pulp in quencher car under quenching tower for 90-120 sec, with tetraborate sodium pentahydrate, borax decahydrate, disodium octaborate tetrahydrate being used as borates.

EFFECT: increased quality of blast furnace coke by parameter of hot strength after reaction with CO2 and reduction of its reaction ability.

1 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of preparation of free-burning coal with the content of volatile substances not exceeding 16% whereat the said coal is heated to 200-395°C to destruct heat-sensitive coal lumps to be cooled and classified thereafter. Anthracite and/or hard coal are used as the free-burning coal. Heated coal is cooled at an ambient temperature.

EFFECT: stabilised grain size, simplified process, higher calorific value.

5 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of producing structured organomineral binder includes at least one-time cavitational dispersion of a mixture of peat and water in ratio of 1:4-1:4.5, respectively. Dispersion is carried out until the mixture reaches temperature of 80-90°C, followed by cooling the mixture to room temperature to obtain the end product.

EFFECT: preserving binding properties of the product for a long period of time during storage.

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention includes mixing of ground solid fuel with a binder, briquetting of the mixture under pressure, where the ground solid fuel is coke dust with particle size of less than 1 mm, and the binder is coking sludge in the amount of 8.0-10% to the weight of coke dust, the mixture of coke dust and the binder is heated to 100°C, pressed in stages: first the load of 5-6 atm is set with a delay of 3-5 min and then up to 15 atm with a delay at the maximum load for 3-5 min, the finished fuel briquette is tempered at 250-300°C without access of air for 10-12 min. The produced briquettes may be used as fuel for combustion in domestic and industrial furnaces, and also for coking in chemical-recovery and metallurgical industry.

EFFECT: production of smokeless fuel briquettes of higher strength, improved environmental situation in coal processing regions, reduced prime cost of fuel briquettes.

2 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method of producing improved solid fuel. Described is solid fuel which is obtained by briquetting crushed low-grade coal, where the outer surface of the low-grade coal and the inner surface of pores of the low-grade coal is coated with a nonvolatile component contained in the low-grade coal, and content of heavy oil is less than 0.5 wt % with respect to the solid fuel.

EFFECT: low production costs and environmental load, as well as improved solid fuel.

2 cl, 3 ex, 5 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: briquette consists of a pressed lignocellulose body, containing: (a) 60-90 wt % cuttings of grass stalks and (b) 10-40 wt % scutched lignocellulose binder with degree of scutching of 38-75°RS (Shopper-Rigler degrees), preferably 45 70°RS, (said percentages being expressed in dry weight relative the dry weight of the sum of (a) and (b)) and from fuel which is liquid at room temperature, having a flash point of 30-150°C, which saturates the pressed lignocellulose body, wherein said briquette has a substantially cylindrical shape and has a central smoke conduit with a star-shaped cross-section. The method of making the briquettes comprises the following steps: (1) mixing an aqueous suspension of lignocellulose binder (b) with cuttings of grass stalks (a) in such proportions that the ratio (per dry weight) of the lignocellulose binder (b) to the cuttings of the grass stalks (a) ranges from 10/90 to 40/60; (2) moulding the mixture obtained in a suitable unit of the mould (encircling part)-anti-mould (encircled part) type at temperature of 40-120°C at pressure of 3-12 bar, applied for 5-120 s; (3) removing the obtained pressed body from the press mould; and (4) saturating the pressed body removed from the press mould with fuel which is liquid at room temperature, having flash point of 30-150°C.

EFFECT: obtaining a solid fuel briquette with low weight and a shape which provides multiple points of ignition, concealed inside the central smoke conduit.

15 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to application of BREC produced by stiff vacuum extrusion.Said process comprises coke fines, mineral binder and, if required, brown-coal char to be used as reducer in metallurgical furnace. Mineral binder in production of BREC is normally a cement and, if required, bentonite. Particle size of materials of the mix for BREC production does not exceed 5 mm, BREC weight not exceeding 0.3 kg.

EFFECT: optimum size, higher cold and hot strength.

3 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to production of fuel pellets including mixing of filler that contains wood processing waste, combustible component in the form of oil waste and binding agent where fat and oil waste from food industry are also used as combustible component and such combustible component serves simultaneously as binding agent; powdered thickener from combustible material is added to the mixture, at that at first mixing of thickener and binding agent is made in ratio of 0.2-1.0:1 during 1.5-2 minutes in order to thicken the latter, thereafter filler is introduced step-by-step into the thickened mixture and filler takes ratio of 0.5-1.0:1 to the binding agent, then mixture is stirred during 35-40 minutes till pellets of stable shape appear; then thickener is added again in quality of 10-20% of its initial weight in order to prevent sticking of pellets and the mixture is stirred for another 2-4 minutes till finished product of round pellets is received. Received fuel pellets are used for household and municipal boilers for firing up purpose.

EFFECT: claimed method is simpler, more cost effective and ecologically safe.

15 cl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of making fuel briquettes involves grinding combustible solid components, mixing with binder, pressing and drying the briquettes. The method is characterised by that the combustible solid components used are recycled ballistit-type gun powder or non-recoverable wastes from powder production, ground on a modernised disk mill to particle size of 0.5-1.0 mm, and activated charcoal screenings, ground on a double-roll crusher to particle size of less than 4.0 mm, and mixed in 8.0-10.0% aqueous solution of polyacrylamide binder or a sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose in a continuous or periodic action mixing device with horizontal mixers, followed by pressing into fuel briquettes on a shaft pelleting press; the formed briquettes are dried with air on a three-section belt drier at temperature 100…105°C for 3 hours, cooled and then dry-cured for three days.

EFFECT: wider raw material base for making fuel briquettes, environmentally safe recycling of discarded gun powder, ballistit wastes and activated charcoal screenings not suitable for use as an adsorbent, high energy output and calorific capacity of the fuel briquettes.

1 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to briquetted solid fuel, which contains activated charcoal screenings and ballistit powder wastes which do not contain heavy metal salts and other environmentally hazardous components, ground to particle size of 0.5-1.0 mm, and polyacrylamide as binder, with the following ratio of components, wt %: activated charcoal screenings - 75…86, ballistit powder wastes - 10…20, polyacrylamide - 4…5. The invention enables to comprehensively solve the problem of the environment, saving energy resources and recycling potentially hazardous high-energy substances.

EFFECT: solid fuel has higher flammability, low ash content and high calorific capacity.

1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: starting hydrocarbon motor fuel is mixed with distilled water in equal weight proportions; the water-fuel mixture obtained in a tubular flow reactor is exposed to microwaves with frequency of 10-30 GHz and then treated in a vortex tubular reactor at excess pressure of 0.5-3.5 MPa and temperature of 10-30°C in the presence of Cr, Ni, Fe metal alloys, from which swirl vanes of the vortex tubular reactor are made.

EFFECT: simple process of producing hydrocarbon motor fuel by exposing a water-fuel mixture in a vortex tubular reactor to microwaves at excess pressure, reduced usage of fossil material - oil - to produce motor fuel.

2 ex, 2 tbl

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